Review The Civil war was between the Northern United States and the Southern Confederate States. North wanted slavery stopped. South felt it was required for economy. South succeeded from the union and war began. Lincoln fought from 1861-1865, and was assassinated prior to the official end of the war. But, he did past the Emancipation Proclamation.
13 th Amendment Ratified in December, 1865. Meant to stop slavery. “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Many former northern abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen. Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrats.
Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do.
Now… Now… Just because the Civil war was over, that doesn’t mean that slavery, or the mistreatment of Africans, was over. The 13 th amendment was passed to free people.
Some Cities Louisiana: ◦ They could vote. ◦ Hold office. ◦ Attend school. ◦ It desegregated its streetcars in 1867. ◦ Began experimenting with integrated public schools in 1869. ◦ legalized interracial marriage between 1868 and 1896,
Black Codes Black Codes was a name given to laws passed by southern governments. imposed severe restrictions on freed slaves. ◦ such as prohibiting their right to vote ◦ forbidding them to sit on juries ◦ Limiting their right to testify against white men. ◦ And working in certain occupations.
Railroads All railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, are hereby required to provide separate cars or coaches for the travel and transportation of the white and colored passengers. Maryland
Education Separate schools shall be maintained for the children of the white and colored races. Mississippi
Hospital Entrances There shall be maintained by the governing authorities of every hospital maintained by the state for treatment of white and colored patients separate entrances for white and colored patients and visitors, and such entrances shall be used by the race only for which they are prepared. Mississippi
Theaters Every person...operating...any public hall, theatre, opera house, motion picture show or any place of public entertainment or public assemblage which is attended by both white and colored persons, shall separate the white race and the colored race and shall set apart and designate...certain seats therein to be occupied by white persons and a portion thereof, or certain seats therein, to be occupied by colored persons. Virginia
Lunch Counters No persons, firms, or corporations, who or which furnish meals to passengers at station restaurants or station eating houses, in times limited by common carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, or at the same table, or at the same counter. South Carolina
Ku Klux Klan (KKK) As a response to the freedman's bureau, some southern whites created another organization. the name of secret militant organizations in the United States. best known for advocating white supremacy and acting as terrorists.
Dress and Uniform There are a number of explanations given as to what the white robe of the second Klan represents: ◦ The ghosts of the Confederate troops in the American Civil War. ◦ The white represents the white race, reflecting the racist ideals of the organization. ◦ The pointed hood also resembles that of an executioner.
Dress The KKK is an illegal organization. They commonly cover faces to hide identity as to avoid arrest. However, in the south, the organization often included high government and police officials.
Beliefs The KKK did not like the development of the government. believed in the innate inferiority of blacks. Klansmen terrorized public officials in efforts to drive them from office. Tried to prevent them from voting, holding office and exercising their political rights. victims might be flogged, mutilated, or murdered.
Cross Burning The KKK would often burn crosses on the lawns or fields near victims. This was to put fear into victims and symbolize the suffering they would inflict.
Lynching Lynching is the illegal execution of an accused person by a mob. Lynching was originally a system of punishment used by whites against African American slaves. the Ku Klux Klan increased the number of lynching of African American dramatically. It has been estimated that between 1880 and 1920, an average of two African Americans a week were lynched.
Other Supremacist Skin Heads. Neo-Nazi. Arian Union. Among Others.
Rosa Parks Biographical Information Rosa Louise McCauley was born on February 4, 1913, in Tuskegee, Alabama to James and Leona McCauley When she was born, she had a mother and a father. At age two her family, including a younger brother, moved in with her maternal grandparents. Her father was a carpenter, her mother was a seamstress.
Brief History of Racism in American Society Racism was a huge part of American society when Rosa Parks became famous. Black people were treated no better than animals. In an interview, she said, "Back then, we didn't have any civil rights. It was just a matter of survival, of existing from one day to the next. I remember going to sleep as a girl hearing the Klan ride at night and hearing a lynching and being afraid the house would burn down."
Rosa’s Inspiration Events in Rosa’s life that encouraged her to stand her ground began when she was small. She said,” Back in Montgomery during my growing up there, it was completely legally enforced racial segregation, and of course, I struggled against it for a long time. I felt that it was not right to be deprived of freedom when we were living in the Home of the Brave and Land of the Free.”
December 1, 1955: Refusal to give up her seat Two policemen came on the bus and one asked me if the driver had told me to stand and I said, yes. And he wanted to know why I didn't stand, and I told him I didn't think I should have to stand up. And then I asked him, why did they push us around? And he said and I quote him, "I don't know, but the law is the law and you are under arrest." And with that, I got off the bus, under arrest. The Major Event that Started It All
Rosa’s Feelings about her Actions I don't remember feeling that anger, but I did feel determined to take this as an opportunity to let it be known that I did not want to be treated in that manner and that people have endured it far too long. However, I did not have at the moment of my arrest any idea of how the people would react.
Civil Rights Movement The NAACP attacked racism through the courts. Montgomery bus boycott led to a Supreme Court ruling that segregation on buses was unconstitutional. Civil rights workers used several direct, nonviolent methods to confront discrimination and racism in the late 1950s and early 1960s. ◦ Boycotts ◦ Sit-ins ◦ Freedom Rides
Violent Movements Black Panthers The Black Panther Party was formed in Oakland, California, in 1966. Called for violent revolution as a means of African American liberation. Members carried guns and monitored African American neighborhoods to guard against police brutality.
Desegregating Southern Universities In 1962, James Meredith—an African American— applied for admission to the University of Mississippi. The university attempted to block Meredith’s admission, and he filed suit. After working through the state courts, Meredith was successful when a federal court ordered the university to desegregate and accept Meredith as a student.
Desegregating Southern Universities The Governor of Mississippi, Ross Barnett, defied the court order and tried to prevent Meredith from enrolling. In response, the administration of President Kennedy intervened to uphold the court order. Kennedy sent federal troops to protect Meredith when he went to enroll. During his first night on campus, a riot broke out when whites began to harass the federal marshals. In the end, two people were killed and several hundred were wounded.
Desegregating Southern Universities In 1963, the governor of Alabama, George C. Wallace, threatened a similar stand, trying to block the desegregation of the University of Alabama. The Kennedy administration responded with the full power of the federal government, including the U.S. Army. The confrontations with Barnett and Wallace pushed President Kennedy into a full commitment to end segregation. In June 1963, Kennedy proposed civil rights legislation.