Presentation on theme: "34 Terrorism Awareness. 34 Objectives (1 of 2) Describe the threat posed by terrorism. Identify potential terrorist targets in your jurisdiction. Describe."— Presentation transcript:
34 Terrorism Awareness
34 Objectives (1 of 2) Describe the threat posed by terrorism. Identify potential terrorist targets in your jurisdiction. Describe the dangers posed by explosive devices.
34 Objectives (2 of 2) Describe the difference between chemical and biologic agents. Describe the dangers posed by radiological incidents. Describe the need for decontamination of exposed victims and response personnel.
34 What Is Terrorism? (1 of 2) The unlawful use of violence or threats of violence to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, to further political or social objectives.
34 What Is Terrorism? (2 of 2) Wide range of acts committed by different groups for different purposes FBI classifications: –Domestic –International
34 Domestic Terrorism 24 incidents between 1994 and 1999 in the United States September 11, 2001 –Largest terrorist event in the history of the United States –World Trade Center and the Pentagon
34 Fire Service Response to Terrorist Incidents The role of the fire service in handling terrorist events consists of the same functions performed on a day-to-day basis. Response includes EMS, hazardous materials mitigation, technical rescue, and fire suppression.
34 Working with Multiple Agencies Fire fighters must work with: –Local, state, and federal law enforcement –Emergency management –Allied health agencies –Military Interagency coordination and cooperation is essential.
34 Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Devices designed to cause maximum damage to property or people Can overwhelm response agencies and healthcare system. Need to understand the new technologies Be able to identify and mitigate releases of chemical, biological, and radiological agents
34 Potential Targets and Tactics Motivated by a cause Instill fear and panic Symbolic targets likely Sabotage Cause economic turmoil
34 Sabotage Is Likely Attempts to destroy or disable facility significant to terrorist cause Ultimate goal is to cause economic turmoil. Interference with transportation, trade, or commerce
34 Choice of Attack Method Method chosen to make statement or achieve maximum results Methods may vary over time. Explosives most commonly used Recent increase in suicide bombings
34 Attacks in the 1980s Hijackings with hostages Aircraft and cruise ships From few to hundreds of hostages Diplomats, journalists, athletes targeted
34 Terrorism Can Occur in Any Community Rural ski lodge targeted by environmental groups Fur retailer targeted by animal rights groups Community health clinic targeted for bombing by antiabortion groups
34 Anticipating Targets and Attacks (1 of 2) Routine intelligence is gathered by law enforcement. Fire service is increasing its capacity to engage in intelligence sharing
34 Anticipating Targets and Attacks (2 of 2) News accounts of international incidents Internet resources Familiarity with potential targets and current tactics
34 Infrastructure Targets (1 of 2) Disruption of transportation venues to inflict many casualties –Bridges –Tunnels –Subways
34 Infrastructure Targets (2 of 2) Disruption of public utilities and services –Public water supply –Electrical power distribution systems Disruption of community’s 9-1-1 system or public safety radio network
34 Symbolic Targets (1 of 2) Monuments targeted by groups seeking attack on national pride Foreign embassies targeted by groups promoting revolution or protesting a nation’s internal policies
34 Symbolic Targets (2 of 2) Religious institutions and icons targeted by hate groups Intent of targeting symbols: –Increase awareness of demands –Create public sense of fear
34 Civilian Targets Locations of mass assembly targeted to kill maximum number of potential victims Produce a high degree of fear in the general population
34 Ecoterrorism Illegal acts committed by groups supportive of environmental causes –Spiking trees to sabotage logging operations –Vandalizing research labs –Fire bombing stores that sell fur coats
34 Agroterrorism Use of chemical or biologic agents to attack agricultural industry or food supply Introduction of disease to livestock
34 Cyberterrorism Electronic attack on government or private computer systems Attempts made to disrupt Internet Attempts to attack government and other critical networks
34 Agents and Devices Terrorists can use multiple weapons. Fire fighters need to be aware of other weapons. –Automatic weapons –Microscopic biologic agents –Computer virus attacks Planning should consider full range of possibilities.
34 Explosives and Incendiary Devices (1 of 2) Domestic bombings increasing Groups or individuals use bombs: –To further causes –To intimidate coworkers or former spouses –To take revenge –To experiment with bomb recipes found in books or online
34 Explosives and Incendiary Devices (2 of 2) Explosives are stolen from construction sites, mines, and military facilities Use commonly available materials to create explosives Improvised explosive device (IED)
34 Pipe Bomb Most common IED Pipe filled with explosives, rigged with detonator May be packed with nails, objects, chemical or radiological agent
34 Secondary Devices Intended to explode after the initial event Designed to kill emergency responders, law enforcement, spectators, and news reporters Common tactic abroad Becoming more common in North America
34 Potentially Explosive Devices Follow department SOPs. Evacuate civilians and establish perimeter. Trained explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) personnel assess the device and render it inoperative Command post and staging area
34 Actions Following an Explosion Scene safety is first priority. Consider possibility of a secondary device. Check the area for potential contaminants. Determine structural stability.
34 Working with Other Agencies Regular joint training –FBI –Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms and Explosives –Military EOD units
34 Chemical Agents Potential to kill/injure the greatest number Readily available. Phosgene, chlorine, and mustard agents Can be disseminated in several ways
34 Protection from Chemical Agents Air flow is most common dispersal method. Wear full PPE and SCBA. Use detection devices, not your senses.
34 Nerve Agents (1 of 2) Toxic substances that attack the central nervous system Common nerve agents are liquids. Sarin is volatile, but evaporates quickly. VX is stable and slow to evaporate.
34 Nerve Agents (2 of 2)
34 Nerve Agent Exposure Symptoms Pinpoint pupils Runny nose Drooling Difficulty breathing Tearing Diarrhea Convulsions (seizures) Loss of consciousness
34 Blister Agents (1 of 2) Causes the skin to blister Sulfur mustard –Clear, yellow, or amber, oily liquid with faint sweet mustard or garlic odor that vaporizes slowly and can be aerosolized –Pain on contact
34 Blister Agents (2 of 2) Lewisite –Oily, colorless-to-dark- brown liquid with odor of geraniums –Symptoms may not appear for several hours.
34 Pulmonary Agents (1 of 2) Typically phosgene or chlorine Heavier than air and settle in low areas High concentrations immediately irritate eyes, nose, and upper airway, and exposure causes pulmonary edema within hours.
34 Pulmonary Agents (2 of 2) Can cause burns on contact with the skin Remove exposed individuals from area and flush skin with water.
34 Metabolic Agents Highly toxic causing death within minutes Most common agents are cyanide compounds used in industry. Can be inhaled or ingested Usually associated with the gas chamber Evacuate the area immediately.
34 Biological Agents Organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins Greatest potential is from inhalation Effects depend on toxin, dose, and route of entry. Some biological agents are contagious.
34 Anthrax Infectious disease When cultured, can be used as a weapon Inhaled or ingested 2001, 4 letters containing anthrax were mailed
34 Plague Commonly found in rodents Three forms: bubonic, septicemic, pneumonic Cultured and used in an aerosol form
34 Smallpox Highly infectious disease caused by the Variola virus Nearly eradicated by 1980 Can be dispersed in aerosol form
34 Dealing with Biologic Agents Responders will not likely recognize a release. Incubation period Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
34 Radiological Agents Radioactive materials release energy as waves or particles. Radiation cannot be detected by senses. Become familiar with your equipment.
34 Types of Radiation (1 of 2) Alpha particles –Lose energy quickly and travel only 1" to 2" –Can be stopped by clothing or a sheet of paper Beta particles –Can travel 10–15 feet –Can be stopped by metal, glass, or plastic
34 Types of Radiation (2 of 2) Gamma rays –Penetrate most materials –Most destructive to the body
34 Effects of Radiation Extreme exposures may cause rapid death. Contaminated skin and clothing Exposure can occur without direct contact.
34 The Dirty Bomb Causes purposeful dissemination of radioactive material across an area without a nuclear detonation Obtained from several sources –Medical clinics –Nuclear power plant –Research labs
34 Operations Objective of terrorists is to cause as much harm as possible. –Responders are just as likely to be targets as civilians. –Evidence of terrorism may not be immediately known. Take all precautions and stay alert.
34 Initial Actions at a Terrorism Incident (1 of 2) Approach as if it is a hazardous materials scene. Establish a perimeter. Establish a command post. Determine the nature of the situation, types of potential hazards, and the magnitude.
34 Initial Actions at a Terrorism Incident (2 of 2) Deploy a recon team to determine number affected, nature and severity of injuries, and structural damage. Recon must wear full PPE and SCBA. Use process of elimination to determine the nature of the incident. Consider possibility of secondary device.
34 Interagency Coordination (1 of 3) Immediately contact local law enforcement. If a mass casualty, contact the area hospitals. Request the local technical rescue teams. Notify the state emergency management.
34 Interagency Coordination (2 of 3) Emergency operations center (EOC) can coordinate actions of all involved agencies in a large- scale incident.
34 Interagency Coordination (3 of 3) Remember this is a crime scene. –Do not disturb evidence. –Terrorists may be among the injured.
34 Decontamination (1 of 3) Everyone exposed must be decontaminated. Should occur as soon as possible Decontaminate equipment on scene. Designate perimeter around contamination area.
34 Decontamination (2 of 3) Standard decontamination is a series of stations where clothes are removed and the individual is cleaned.
34 Decontamination (3 of 3) Incident resulting in a large number of casualties may require mass decontamination. –Master stream devices –Aerial apparatus
34 Mass Casualties Often a result of terrorism or WMD Special plans are essential. Initially may be difficult to determine the agents used so the appropriate treatment and decontamination can be instituted
34 Additional Resources Local, state, and federal agencies FBI FEMA Homeland Security Advisory System
34 Summary (1 of 2) Fire service is responsible for response to the consequences of terrorism acts. Fire fighters must take special safety precautions at these incidents. Remember that the intent is to cause as much harm as possible.
34 Summary (2 of 2) Incidents involving chemical, biological, or radiological agents require decontamination. Terrorist incidents have the potential for a massive number of casualties.