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World War I: 1914-1918 The Great War. 4 factors that lead to war!! Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Entangling Alliances.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I: 1914-1918 The Great War. 4 factors that lead to war!! Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Entangling Alliances."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I: 1914-1918 The Great War

2 4 factors that lead to war!! Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Entangling Alliances

3 Nationalism A deep devotion to one’s nation Caused rivalry among nations Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, and France ▫Competition for materials and markets ▫Territorial disputes (Alsace Lorraine) ▫Balkans – Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians, and other ethnic groups

4 Imperialism European countries were pushed to the brink of war over Africa and Asian areas In 1905 and 1911, Germany and France ALMOST fought over Morocco

5 Militarism European arms race By 1914, all great powers except GB had a standing army Militarism – policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war

6 Tangled Alliances Germany’s enemy was France Bismarck set out to form alliances to isolate France 1879 – Dual Alliance – Germany and Austria Hungary 1882 – Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy Also, Germany made a separate peace with Russia

7 Problems… Wilhelm II forced Bismarck to resign in 1890 He let the treaty with Russia lapse Russia then made a treaty with France This was dangerous because it set up a situation for a possible two front war for Germany

8 Wilhelm II


10 Alliances continued… Germany began shipbuilding and competing with Great Britain 1904 – Great Britain made a treaty with France 1907 – Great Britain, France, Russia – Triple Entente Friendship – didn’t mean they would fight for each other, but they wouldn’t fight against each other

11 Triple Alliance Germany, AH, Italy Triple Entente Great Britain, France, Russia

12 Balkan Peninsula

13 “Powder Keg of Europe” Ottoman Empire was disintegrating Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia Serbia wanted Slavic nationalism and to unite all Slavs Russia (with a large Slavic population) supported Serbia and Slavic Nationalism Austria Hungary did not

14 1908 – Austria Hungary annexed Bosnia Herzegovina These two areas had large Slavic populations Russia offered support to Serbia Serbia had to back down because Austria- Hungary and Germany were too strong

15 June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie visited Sarajevo, Bosnia Shot by Gavrilo Princip (member of the Serbian Black Hand) Serbia was given an ultimatum by AH ▫End all anti-Austrian activity ▫AH into Serbia to conduct an investigation ▫Agreed to some of it, but not all

16 Motives For Assassination It took place under the knowledge of the Serbian Government They had hoped that it would start a war ▫Hoped to bring down AH empire

17  Gavrilo Princip THE CULPRIT

18 Archduke Francis Ferdinand The Archduke and Sophie

19 July 28, 1914 – AH rejected Serbia’s offer and declared war Russia began mobilizing troops on Austria and Germany’s border

20 TIMELINE 8/1/1914 Germany declares war on Russia 8/3/1914 Germany declares war on France 8/4/1914 Britain declares war on Germany 8/6/13 AH declares war on Russia 8/12/1914 AH declares war on GB and France

21 Schlieffen Plan Germany’s ultimate idea Through a series of invasions they would blitz through France and Capture Paris in a matter of days Germany decided to go through Belgium to get to France Belgium was neutral August 4, 1914 – Great Britain declared war on Germany


23 After the war began… Central Powers – Germany, Austria Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria (Triple Alliance) Allied Powers – Great Britain, France, Russia joined by Japan and Italy (9 months later) (Triple Entente)


25 Western Front Deadlocked region along northern France Stretched 500 miles from North Sea to Switzerland


27 1 st Battle of the Marne September, 1914 – pushed Germans back Proved that the Schlieffen Plan failed By then, Russia had invaded on the East TWO FRONT WAR

28 Trench Warfare By early 1915 – parallel trenches Small land gains Stalemate No Man’s Land – area between trenches

29 New technology caused the stalemate Machine guns Poison Gas Armored Tanks Larger Artillery February 1916 – Battle of Verdun – each side lost 300,000 men (Germans gained 4 miles) July 1916 – Battle of Somme – each side suffered over half million casualties (British gained 5 miles)

30 Eastern Front Battlefield between Germany and Russia By 1916 – Russia’s war effort was near collapse Russia wasn’t industrialized

31 Allied strategy (Gallipoli Campaign) Attempt to create a supply line through the Dardanelles to Russia The Dardanelles was a strait owned by the Ottoman Empire February 1915 Soon became a stalemate and by the end of the year the Allies gave up there


33 Allied powers decided to attack German colonies in Africa and stir up trouble in the Ottoman areas Japan took over German areas in China and took German Pacific island colonies

34 United States German attempted to inflict a naval blockade around Great Britain The British had already put a blockade in place around Germany Germans controlled the Atlantic and any trade with Great Britain Unrestricted submarine warfare – January 1917 – Germany announced that any ship around Britain would be sunk without warning

35 The Germans had attempted this before May 1915 – Lusitania (British passenger liner) sunk 1,198 people died (128 AMERICANS) Claimed the ship was carrying munitions Woodrow Wilson protested and Germany relented

36 1917 – three American ships were sunk February 1917 – telegram from German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman to the German ambassador in Mexico (intercepted by the British) Asking Mexico to side with the Central Powers in exchange for helping Mexico get back lands it lost

37 April 2, 1917 Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war By 1917 – Europe had lost more men than all the wars in the previous three centuries Total war – all resources ▫Factories were told what to produce ▫Rationing – small amounts of certain goods could be purchased ▫Censored news ▫Propaganda – one sided info to keep morale up

38 Women replaced men in factories, offices, and shops

39 Russia March 1917 – Civil unrest in Russia due to war shortages of food and fuel Czar Nicholas II abdicated on March 15 Provisional Government established – pledged to keep fighting By 1917 – 5.5 million soldiers wounded, killed, or prisoner

40 November 1917 – Vladimir Lenin – Bolshevik Revolution March 1918 – Treaty of Brest Litovsk – ended the war with Germany gave Germany large portions of land

41 Second Battle of the Marne July 1918 Allied forces began advancing steadily toward Germany November 9 – Kaiser William II – forced to step down (Germany declared a republic) November 11 – the war ended Armistice – agreement to stop fighting

42 January 18, 1919 Paris Peace Conference – at the palace of Versailles Big Four – England, France, US, Italy England – David Lloyd George France – Georges Clemenceau US – Woodrow Wilson Italy – Vittorio Orlando

43 Germany and Russia were not represented!! Wilson’s plan for peace - FOURTEEN POINTS ▫Outlined a plan for achieving and keeping peace ▫1. end to secret treaties ▫2. freedom of the seas ▫3. free trade ▫4. reduced armies and navies ▫5. self determination ▫6. League of Nations

44 Self determination – allowing people to decide for themselves under what government they wish to live League of Nations – peace organization

45 France and England want to punish Germany Treaty of Versailles – June 28, 1919 Between Germany and Allies Dictat of Versailles – Dictated treaty

46 Germany punished Lost land and was limited to a military of only 100,000 men for security purposes Article 231 – War Guilt Clause Germany had to pay a huge reparations bill to the Allies The League of Nations took over German colonies as mandates

47 New Countries Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia Turkey, Palestine, Iraq, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania POLAND reappears on the map

48 US rejected the treaty… Never sign it 8.5 million soldiers died 21 million wounded $338 billion cost

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