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Chapter 14 Part 2 Coral Reefs Other Reef Builders Conditions for Reef Growth Coral Reproduction Kinds of Reefs.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Part 2 Coral Reefs Other Reef Builders Conditions for Reef Growth Coral Reproduction Kinds of Reefs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Part 2 Coral Reefs Other Reef Builders Conditions for Reef Growth Coral Reproduction Kinds of Reefs

2 Reef Builders Hermatypic corals Coralline algae (Porolithon sp., Lithothamnion sp.) Halimeda sp. Sponges Foraminifera Stromatolites

3 Coralline Algae Porolithon sp., Lithothamnion sp. Red algae that deposit CaCO 3 Hold reef together – keep it from washing away Algal ridge on outer edge of many reefs – protects reef from wave action Grow over and cement sediment that settle on corals

4 Halimeda sp. Calcareous green alga Deposits CaCO 3 in tissues for support and to deter predators Remnants of Halimeda accumulate on reefs and can be bound by encrusting organisms Microcosm of diversity

5 More Halimeda


7 Sponges Bind sediments into place

8 Foraminifera Eukaryotic protists CaCO 3 shells Benthic, but a few are planktonic Some have endosymbiotic algae Bioindicator

9 Stromatolites Cycling of microbial communities (cyanobacteria) and sediment 3.5 billion years old (Earth is 4.5 billion yrs old!) Not common today – Exuma, BahamasExuma, Bahamas Rich source of fossil information

10 Highbourne Cay Exumas, Bahamas

11 Conditions for Reef Growth Hard bottom Shallow water (< 50 m) with bright sunlight Clear water Warm water (> 20°C)

12 Coral Reproduction Sexually – Egg + Sperm = Planula – Mostly hermaphroditic – Self fertilization (egg fertilized before released) – Broadcast spawners – What are advantages to mass spawning? Coral Planula

13 Coral Spawning NOAA video BBC video

14 Coral Reproduction Asexually – Fragmentation – Budding – Fission (esp. Fungiidae) Budding

15 The distribution of coral reef communities p. 304

16 Bioerosion Erosion caused by living organisms Who causes bioerosion?

17 Bioerosion

18 Epilithic organisms – Remain at surface of the calcareous substrate, where they rasp, scrape, and/or etch the surface. – The majority of damage occurs during algal grazing. – Browsers consume plant material above the substrate – Grazers consume plant material down to, and sometimes below, the surface of the substrate. Grazers often consume quantities of coral skeleton as well as the invertebrates associated with it and inflict much more damage than browsers. Neither grazers nor browsers usually have a great influence on strength of the greater coral structure (Kleemann 2001) Bioerosion

19 Endolithic organisms – Beneath the surface of the coral skeleton. – Bore for food or shelter. – Majority are suspension feeders Large borers, in particular polychaetes, are important in oxygenating the interior of coral structures to support smaller organisms. Internal bioeroding species degrade calcareous materials to fine textures External bioeroders generally erode to much coarser textures (Kleemann 2001)

20 Reef Grazers Grey angelfish and Blue tangs

21 Coral Reefs and Zonation 3 main categories of reefs 1. Fringing – close to shore, high nutrients, high turbidity 2. Barrier – farther from shore, usually a lagoon between the reef and the shore 3. Atoll - Circular reef with central lagoon and possibly small islands formed on the reef.

22 Types of Coral Reefs: Fringing Reefs Simplest and most common Rocky shorelines provide the best conditions for fringing reefs

23 Upward growth of reef flats is limited by the tides. Figure 14.16

24 Barrier Reefs Distinction between barrier and fringing reefs sometimes unclear Occur farther offshore Presence of lagoons

25 Lady Musgrave Island Great Barrier Reef

26 Spur and Groove formations Debate about what causes it Wind, waves, or both involved Develop primarily on reef slopes that are exposed to strong winds

27 Atolls Occur mostly in the Indo-West Pacific region Practically no land around (no silt, little FW runoff) Spectacular coral growth and great water clarity Atoll in Fiji

28 Atoll Formation

29 Typical Atoll Structure

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