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Ming-Ai (London) Institute © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
A.Money B.Love C.Authority D.Peace E.Family F.Friends Can’t say it’s the MOST IMPORTANT, but we can’t live without it. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
A love story for this day is about the 7 th daughter was forced to move to the star Vega and the cowherd moved to the star Altair. They are allowed to meet only once a year on the day of 7 th day of 7 th lunar month. Because of such a romantic story behind, people tend to think that the Chinese Valentine’s day is on the 7 th of the 7 th lunar month. However, some people don’t usually celebrate the Chinese Valentine’s Day that in most area of China, as they think that the Chinese Valentine’s Day should be on the same day as the lantern festival. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
Taiyi, the God of Heaven Control the destiny of the human world Decided when to inflict drought, storms, famine or pestilence upon human beings Since Qinshihuang time All subsequent emperors ordered splendid ceremonies each year Emperors asked Taiyi of favourable weather and good health to him and his people Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty made it as one of the most important celebrations and would last throughout the night Tianguan, the Taoist god Responsible for good fortune His birthday falls on the 15 th day of the first lunar month Tianguan likes all types of entertainment The followers prepare various kinds of activities on his birthday People pray for good fortune © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
Chinese Lantern Festival is one of the most popular festivals being celebrated in China. This is also called Yuan Xiao Festival because the 15 th day is the first night to see a full moon. On the lantern festival, people eat Yuan Xiao; make their own lanterns, enjoy the amazing glowing and colourful lantern parades, have lantern festival parties, play guess the lantern riddles and matchmakers, etc. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
1.Today, the displaying of lanterns is still a big event on the 15 th day of the first lunar month throughout China. 2.In the Song Dynasty, the festival was celebrated for five days and the activities began to spread to many of the big cities in China. 3.The largest Lantern Festival celebration took place in the early part of the 15 th century. 4.By the beginning of the Tang Dynasty in the 7 th century, the lantern displays would last three days. 5.During Sui Dynasty in the 6 th century, Emperor Yangdi invited envoys from other countries to China to see the colourful lighted lanterns and enjoy the gala performances. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
1.During Sui Dynasty in the 6 th century, Emperor Yangdi invited envoys from other countries to China to see the colourful lighted lanterns and enjoy the gala performances. 2.By the beginning of the Tang Dynasty in the 7 th century, the lantern displays would last three days. 3. In the Song Dynasty, the festival was celebrated for five days and the activities began to spread to many of the big cities in China. 4. The largest Lantern Festival celebration took place in the early part of the 15th century. 5. Today, the displaying of lanterns is still a big event on the 15th day of the first lunar month throughout China. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
Prepare Yuanxiao Step 1 Step 2 Make lanterns from red construction paper and decorate them with pictures, sequence or riddles Step 3 Attend Chinese Lantern Festival activities sponsored by local Chinese Community. They often include parades, dances, acrobatics and food. Also, many larger cities hold glowing lantern parades! Step 4 Having lantern festival party. Provide space for people to make their own lanterns. Set off firecrackers and serve traditional Chinese food. Step 5 Play Guess the Lantern Riddle Step 6 Matchmaker! Lantern Festival is also considered to be Chinese Valentine’s Day! © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
1.When you cry, she cries. When you laugh, she laughs. When you ask her who she is, She says, “Who are you?” (mirror) 2. It looks green, it opens red. What you eat is red, but what you spit out is black. (fruit: watermelon) 3.Branches grow on its head; it wears spotted clothes. Not a donkey of a horse, it runs like the wind. (animal: deer) 4.People ride this horse that never eats grass. (vehicle: bicycle) © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
The history of Yuan Xiao: Besides entertainment and beautiful lanterns, another important part of this festival is eating small dumpling balls made of glutinous rice flour. It is said that the custom of eating Yuan Xiao originated during the Eastern Jin Dynasty in the fourth century, then became popular during the Tang and Song periods. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
As we know that people eat special food like Yuan Xiao in the Chinese Lantern Festival. Yuan Xiao can sometimes be called as Tang Yuan. People normally think that they are the same, but from the research, we can see that, Yuan Xiao is a different food eaten by people from northern China. They are very small and normally don’t have fillings. Compare to Yuan Xiao, Tang Yuan is a lot bigger and have varieties of fillings, and eaten by people who live in southern China in Lantern Festival. Yuan Xiao and Tang Yuan all mean being together; however, they show that there’s still a huge difference of food concept among different places in one country. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
The way to make Yuan Xiao also varies between northern and southern China. Southern China: 1. Shape the dough of rice flour into balls. 2.Make a hole of the dough and insert fillings. 3.Close the hole and smooth out the dumpling by rolling it between your hands. Northern China: 1.Sweet or non-meat stuffing is used as ingredients. 2.The fillings are pressed into hardened cores. 3.They are then dipped lightly in water. 4.They are rolled in a flat basket containing dry glutinous rice flour. 5.A layer of the flour sticks to the filling. 6.Repeat the process until the dumpling is the desired size. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
1.The traditional culture of celebrating Chinese Lantern Festival has been maintained. WHY: This is very important for a country, as people shouldn’t forget what has been passed on by ancestors. 2.Lantern productions have been developed and the celebrations also help and facilitate the economic development. HOW: More people buy lanterns from shops and due to the competition between lantern productions, they will develop many special lanterns to have more business opportunity and satisfy the majority group of people. This can also boost the economy at the same time. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
1.Lantern Festival has become more commercialised. HOW: People used to make their lanterns, but now, more people tend to buy them from shops. 2.It has led to an increase of deforestation and use of crude oil. WHY: People don’t usually recycle the lanterns that have been used and most of them are made of paper and plastics now. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
1.Recycle as much lanterns as possible. WHY: Recycling can reduce the deforestations and the crude oil used to make them. Also, less non-biodegradable materials are dumped in to the environment. This helps to preserve the environment and prevent permanent damages. 2.Start the ceremony earlier and make best use of sunlight. HOW: Less electricity will be wasted during the performances. We can also use lower watts bulbs during the celebration, more energy can be saved. 3.Use some phosphorescent paints to save energy. HOW: They absorb energy from the sun during the day and can release it in form of light energy at night. Fewer lanterns are required and more resource can be saved. It also much safer than some radioactive paints which are designed to glow in the dark. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
In ancient Rome, February 14 th was the day for worshipping the Goddess Juno, the consort of Jupiter and Queen of the Roman pantheon and associated with the Greek Goddess Hera, wife of Zeus. The sacred marriage was held in the month of Gamelion- mid January to mid February. February 15 th is the beginning of the Roman festival of Lupercalia. Two youths used to run a course round the Palatine with strips of goat-hide in their hands. A blow from one of these thongs was believed to produce fertility in women. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
Under the rule of Emperor Claudius II, Rome was involved in many bloody and unpopular military campaigns. The emperor believed the reason was roman men did not want to leave their loves or families. So he cancelled all marriages and engagements in Rome. Valentine, Christian priest came to defend love in the empire and began to secretly marry couples despite the emperor’s orders. When Emperor Claudius was informed of these ceremonies, Valentine was sent to prison where he remained until his death on February 14 th in the year 270. When Emperor Claudius was informed of these ceremonies, Valentine was sent to prison where he remained until his death on February 14 th in the year 270. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
1.Looking for dates One of the most popular customs of Valentine’s Day observed worldwide is to go on a date with sweetheart. It’s originated from the popular English belief that birds chose their partners on Feb. 14 th, for this reason, Valentine’s Day was called “the birds’ ‘wedding day’” in parts of Sussex. 2.Exchanging notes One of the most commonly observed Valentine’s Day customs is the exchange of love notes. People used to exchange handwritten notes until the 19 th century, the hand written notes was replaced by greeting card and eventually become the Valentine’s cards now. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
3.Wishing ‘Happy Valentine’s Day’ to all we love In the beginning, Valentine’s Day was associated with romantic couples only; but now the festival is seen in much larger perspective. The idea behind this tradition is to celebrate love, get love and give love to everyone around us. 4.Exchanging gifts There exists a strong tradition of indulging one’s beloved with gifts of love. Most popular gifts are roses, chocolates and teddy bears. Valentine’s Day is increasingly being regarded as the festival that celebrates love between two individuals and not just lovers. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
5.An occasion to dine and wine The other most traditional way to celebrate Valentine’s Day is to go for romantic candlelight dinners with one’s Valentine. Also, the other most emerging tradition is to participate in Valentine’s Day balls and dance parties. 6.Valentine’s Day celebrations in schools In some countries, there is a tradition to organize Valentine’s Day classroom parties in schools. In such parties, children exchange gifts and cards with friends. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
Valentine’s Day shouldn’t be limited to lovers only. WHY: From the origin, Valentine sacrificed himself for other people. His scarification is a way he showed the world his love. It also tells us that love is unlimited and shouldn’t be narrowed by people’s thought. Love can be broader than what people think of. Love can be shown in varied ways: we love our earth and we protect it, parents love their children and do what ever it takes to make sure their children’s safeties. They are all ways to show that we care and we love; therefore, Valentine’s Day shouldn’t only for couples, as it can be a special day for everyone to express emotions to the one they care and they love. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
1.Valentine’s Day give out lots of business opportunities. HOW: People usually celebrate the festival by sending each other presents, cards, chocolates and teddy bears. These develop the productions. 2.It can boost the world economy. HOW: All kinds of events and celebrations on Valentine’s Day associate with money. More people celebrate the festivals, more money shops and restaurants make. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
1. There will be an increase of deforestation. HOW: If there’s not enough paper for the card selling, more trees will be cut down. 2.Extinction of some specific species. HOW: As the amount of trees decreases, less photosynthesis will take place, this will eventually lead to the extinction of some species. 3.Money, energy and resources wasting. WHY: Buying different presents every year is a waste of money and resources. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
1.Sustainable development should be carried out. HOW: Plant more trees in order to keep up with the supply of paper. 2.Use E-cards to express love to others. WHY: Less paper is needed to make cards therefore less deforestation. More convenient and eco-friendly and they don’t produce any atmospheric pollution. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
Similarities 1. Both these festivals have become commercialised due to world development. 2. Nowadays, most people celebrate these festivals without any understanding of the origins. 3. Both festivals can be celebrated by lovers to exchange their feelings to each other. 4. Both of the festivals lead to some environmental problems in some aspects. Differences 1. The transformation of lantern festival is relatively slow compare to that of the Valentine’s Day. 2. There’s a huge difference between the origins of these two festivals. Lantern festival is originated from legends whereas Valentine’s Day is from real historical event happened in ancient Rome. 3. These two festivals have completely different celebrations. © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
Chines e Ghost Festiva l (About BC) Halloween (About BC) Valentine’s Day (About AD) Chines e Lanter n Festiva l (About AD) © 2010 Ming-Ai (London) Institute
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