2Animal BitesDogs are responsible for about 80% of animal bite injuries.Most are minor.Bacteria can enter through bite wound.Cat bites have higher rate of infection.Ferrets are especially likely to bite.Children and older people are at greater risk.
3Rabies Spread through saliva by bite or lick Consider rabies if: Animal attacked without provocationAnimal was behaving strangelyHigh-risk speciesReport animal bites to police or animal control.Animal control should capture or confine for observation
4Recognizing an Animal Bite Puncture woundTissue/skin crushedOpen wound on fingers, knuckles, or handAnimal present
5Care for Animal Bites Flush with soap and water under pressure. Avoid scrubbing.Control bleeding and cover wound with sterile dressing.Seek medical care for cleaning, tetanus shot, or rabies care.
6Human Bites After dogs and cats, most likely bit is from human. Infection can occur.Most occur during acts of violence.Most common location is hand.
7Recognizing Human Bites Two types:True bitesClenched-in fist injury
8Care for Human Bites Wash with soap and water. Avoid scrubbing. Flush with running water under pressure.Control bleeding with direct pressure.Cover with sterile dressing.Do not close wound.Seek medical care for cleaning, tetanus shot, sutures.
9Snakebites (1 of 2) Death from snakebites rarely occurs. If death does occur, occurs in first 48 hours.Poisonous species in United States:RattlesnakeWater moccasinCoral snakeCopperhead
10Snakebites (2 of 2)Rattlesnake, water moccasin, coral snake are pit vipers.Triangular, flat heads wider than necksElliptical pupilsHeat-sensitive pit between eye and nostril on each sideAdult snakebites are more serious.
11Pit Vipers Found in all states but Alaska, Maine, Hawaii Most bites are on extremities.Alcohol intoxication is a factor.Diamondback rattlesnake bites especially deadly.Antivenin must be given.
12Recognizing Pit Viper Bites Severe burning painFang marksSwellingDiscoloration and blood-filled blistersNausea, vomiting, sweating, weakness
13Care for Pit Viper Bites Get victim away from snake.Keep victim calm; limit movement.Wash area with soap and water.Stabilize extremity.Seek medical care.
14Coral Snake Bites America’s most venomous snake Tends to hang on or chewSymptoms begin 1 to 5 hours after bite.
15Recognizing Coral Snake Bites Minimal painSagging or drooping upper eyelidsWeaknessPricking, tingling skinDouble visionDifficulty swallowingSweatingAbnormal flow of saliva
16Care for Coral Snake Bites Keep victim calm.Gently clean with soap and water.Apply mild pressure and bandage.Seek medical care for antivenin.
17Nonpoisonous Snake Bites Nonvenomous snakes inflict the most bites.Some so-called nonpoisonous snakes have venom.Can cause painful local reactions.
19Care for Nonpoisonous Snake Bites Gently clean with soap and water.Care same as for minor wound.Seek medical care.
20Insect Stings (1 of 2) Some people are allergic. Honeybees and some yellow jackets have barbed stingers that embed in skin.Stingers leave venom, continue to release after bee leavesWasp, yellow jacket, hornet, and fire ant stingers not barbed.Can sting multiple times
21Insect Stings (2 of 2) Mostly self-limited, local reactions Swelling/redness might peak 2-3 days after sting.Life-threatening symptoms: nausea, vomiting, wheezing, fever, drippy noseAnaphylactic symptoms: difficulty speaking, tightness in throat/chest, shortness of breath, chest painSting can be fatal in minutes if severely allergic.
22Recognizing Insect Stings Pain, redness, itching, swellingWorrisome symptomsHives, swelling of lips or tongue, tickle in throat, wheezingLife-threatening symptomsBlue/gray skin color, seizures, unresponsiveness, inability to breatheRange of symptoms can varyStings to mouth or eye are more dangerous.
23Care for Insect Stings Remove stinger and venom sac. Wash with soap and water.Apply ice.Give aspirin (adults), acetaminophen, or ibuprofen.Consider topical steroid or antihistamine.Observe victim for 30 minutes.Assist with prescribed epinephrine kit if reaction is severe.Call for signs of severe allergic reaction.
24Spider and Insect Bites Only a few spiders produce significant poisoning.Most bites are from female spiders.Little immediate pain, difficult to diagnose
25Black Widow Spiders Can also be brown or gray Females are large; up to 2-inch leg spanVenom contains neurotoxinCauses severe muscle pain, cramping
26Recognizing Black Widow Spider Bites Sharp pinprick, then dull painTwo fang marksVery severe painBite on lower body: muscle stiffness, abdominal crampsBite on upper body: muscle stiffness/pain in shoulders, back, chestHeadache, chills, fever, sweating, dizziness, nausea, vomiting
27Care for Black Widow Spider Bites Catch spider if possible.Clean with soap and water or rubbing alcohol.Apply ice.Give aspirin (adults), ibuprofen, or acetaminophen.Monitor breathing.Seek medical care.
28Brown Recluse Spiders Violin-shaped figure on back Males and females are venomous.
29Recognizing Brown Recluse Spider Bites Local reaction, mild to severe pain at bite siteRedness, swelling, itchingBlister forms, becomes red, burstsBull’s-eye patternScab forms, falls off and leaves craterProcess recurs, leaving larger craterFever, weakness, vomiting, joint pain, rashStomach cramps, nausea, vomiting
30Care for Brown Recluse Spider Bites Catch spider if possible.Clean with soap and water or rubbing alcohol.Apply ice.Give aspirin (adults), ibuprofen, or acetaminophen.Seek medical care.
31Tarantulas Bite only when provoked or roughly handled Will scratch its abdomen with its legs when upset.Hairs flick onto person’s skinBite pain ranges from almost painless to deep throbbing pain lasting up to 1 hour.
32Recognizing Tarantula Bites and Embedded Hairs Pain — aching or stingingHairs cause itching, inflammation that can last several weeks
33Care for Tarantula Bites and Embedded Hairs (1 of 2) Catch spider if possible.Clean with soap and water or rubbing alcohol.Apply ice.Give aspirin (adults), ibuprofen, or acetaminophen.Seek medical care.
34Care for Tarantula Bites and Embedded Hairs (2 of 2) Embedded tarantula hairs:Remove hairs with sticky tape.Wash with soap and water.Apply hydrocortisone cream.Give aspirin (adults), ibuprofen, or acetaminophen.Give antihistamine.
35Common Aggressive House Spider Also called the hobo spiderMost common large spider in Pacific Northwest
36Recognizing Common Aggressive House Spider Bites Redness, blistersLater: gangrene (dead tissue)Headache, visual problems, weakness
37Care for Common Aggressive House Spider Bites Catch spider if possible.Clean with soap and water or rubbing alcohol.Apply ice.Give aspirin (adults), ibuprofen, or acetaminophen.Seek medical care.
38Scorpion Stings Look like miniature lobsters Bark scorpion is only threat to humans.Primarily in ArizonaSevere cases usually only in childrenDeath is rare.Ensure airway and breathing.
39Recognizing Scorpion Stings Local immediate pain and burningLater, numbness and tinglingNo swelling or blanchingTapping finger over site causes pain.Can cause paralysis, spasms in legs/arms, facial twitchingSevere reactions: fast heart rate, salivation, breathing distress
40Care for Scorpion Stings Monitor breathing.Gently clean with soap and water or rubbing alcohol.Apply ice.Give aspirin (adults), ibuprofen, or acetaminophen.Seek medical care.
41Centipede BitesGiant desert centipede is only US centipede dangerous to human.Can inject venom through fangs (not legs)Venom is relatively weak.
42Recognizing Centipede Bites Burning painLocal inflammationMild swelling of lymph nodesGiant desert centipede bite: inflammation, swelling, redness lasting 4-12 hoursSwelling and tenderness can last 3 weeks, or disappear and recur
43Care for Centipede Bites Millipedes do not have venom, but can irritate skin.Wash with soap and water.Apply cortisone cream or ointment.CentipedesClean with soap and water.Apply ice.Give aspirin (adults), acetaminophen, or ibuprofen.Seek medical care for severe reactions.
44Mosquito BitesMosquitoes can carry malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, encephalitis.No evidence of transmitting HIV or AIDSNeed blood to lay eggsBreed in waterMost bite at twilight
45Care for Mosquito Bites Wash with soap and water.Apply ice.Apply calamine lotion or hydrocortisone ointment.Victims with many bites or allergic reaction may take antihistamine or physician-prescribed cortisone.
46Embedded Ticks Hard ticks familiar from domestic animals Soft ticks mainly in western statesCan carry diseasesNeed blood meal to grow to next stageBites are nearly painlessBurrows head in skinAs they feed, their body size increases.
47Care for Embedded Ticks (1 of 2) Remove with tweezers as soon as possible.Grasp as close to skin as possible.Lift with enough force to tent skin.Hold until tick lets go (1 minute).Pull tick away from skin.
48Care for Embedded Ticks (2 of 2) Wash with soap and water.Apply rubbing alcohol.Apply ice.Apply calamine lotion.Watch bite site for rash for one month.Seek medical care for rash.Watch for fever, muscle aches, sensitivity to bright light, leg weakness, paralysis
49Fire Ants Aggressive, can sting repeatedly Immediate pain Red, swollen area which disappears in 45 minutesBlister forms, ruptures in hours, can become infectedAnaphylaxis can occur.Apply ice.Use topical corticosteroid cream.
50Marine Animal Injuries Most sting in defense, not attackCan cause anaphylaxisIf serious reaction, keep airway open.
51Sharks Very minimal chance of attack Leg is most frequently bitten partInjuries are similar to boat propeller injuries or chainsaw injuries.Immediate bleeding control and shock treatment are essential.
52Recognizing a Shark Bite Severe bleedingLarge, open wounds, most often on legsAbrasions from contact with sharkskin
53Care for a Shark Bite or Puncture Control bleeding.Treat for shock.Seek medical care.
54Barracudas and Moray Eels Barracuda bites are rare.Moray eels can give multiple puncture wounds.Have high infection riskFirst aid for both is identical as for shark bite.
55Recognizing Barracuda and Moray Eel Bites Barracuda lacerationsSimilar to shark lacerationsEel bitesSevere puncture woundsHold on to victimLeave multiple, small puncture wounds
56Care for Barracuda and Moray Eel Bites Barracuda biteSame care as shark biteEel biteFlush wound with water under pressure.Control bleeding.
57Marine Animals That Sting Important to identify specific animalReactions include mild dermatitis to severe reactions.Portuguese man-of-war sting = well-defined linear weltsJellyfish sting = severe muscle cramping, thin lines of welts in zigzag patternAnemones also sting.