1. Detectives versus Suspects Directions: a man was killed last night and the police have two suspects. But the two suspects insist that they didn’t commit the crime, and they were doing something else together when the murder took place. Role-play this interrogation by working in groups of four. Two students act as the detectives while the other two act as the suspects.
Step One: The suspects tell the detectives what they were doing briefly, for example: “We were seeing a movie when the murder took place.” Step Two: The suspects are allowed several minutes to fabricate details so that what they say to the police will be the same to prove that they are telling the truth. In the meantime, the two detectives can work out a list of tricky questions to ask, trying to make the suspects tell different stories. Note that both parties should not let the other party hear what they are saying.
Questions prepared by the detectives: 1. Which cinema did you go? What time did the movie start? 2. What was the movie? 3. What were your seat number? 4. Did you have any snacks while you were watching the movie? 5. Was either of you wearing glasses? 6. What were you wearing? Story prepared by the suspects: B went to pick up A by car at 6 o’clock. Then they went to the New World Cinema. A paid for the tickets. They sat in row 15. the movie started at 7:30. it was last summer’s hit: Titanic. They both enjoyed it. After the movie they went directly back home.
Step Three: The suspects should be questioned separately. When one suspect is being questioned, the other one should stay outside the classroom so that he will not hear what they are talking about. While questioning, one detective should make some notes of what the suspects say to keep a record of the differences (the audience can also help count the difference). If there are three differences between what the suspects say, the suspects are guilty. Otherwise, they are not.
Example: D: Which cinema did you go last night? A: We went to the New World Cinema. B: We went to the Great World Cinema. D: What time did the move start? What was the movie? A: It started at 7:30. it was Titanic. B: It started at 7:30. it was Titanic. D: What were your seat number? A: I can’t remember. (She forgets the agreed answer, and therefore avoid giving an unsure answer.) B: We were in the 15 th row, but I can’t remember the exact numbers. D: Who was sitting on the left? A: Eh, me perhaps. (It is an unexpected question, but there is no way of refusing to answer it. A has to run a risk.) B: I was sitting on the left. (one difference) D: What snacks did you have? A: Popcorn and coke. B: Nothing. (two difference) D: What were you wearing: A: A skirt. B: Blue jacket. (three difference)
2. What would you like? Directions: Look at the following pictures. Choose one or two pictures to describe and tell your partner what you would do if you were the victim. Picture One: it is on a crowded bus. A man is seizing a woman by the throat. Probably he wants to rob her. The woman is raising both of her hands and crying for help. There are many people around, some of whom are strong young men. But all of them seem to be very indifferent and scared. No one offers a helping hand. If I were the woman, I would scatter all my money on the bus. Therefore, all the people would be busy collecting the money and the robber would have no reason to threaten me.
Picture Two: It is a dark night. The householder is sound asleep. A masked burglar is climbing through the window. If I were the householder and were waken up, I would pretend to be talking in my sleep, saying, “maybe it is not a good idea to hide the money under the bed.” when the burglar went into the kitchen to look for it, I would lick the kitchen door suddenly.
Picture Three: It is a desolate street. A guy is following an elderly lady. He doesn’t seem to be a good gut because he has his cap pulled down very low, covering his eyes and he also has his collar up to cover most of his face. The old lady looks very worried and scared. She is putting her hand on her purse. It’s very likely that he is going to rob her very soon. If I were the lady, I would speed up and walk toward a busy street and shout: “George, I’m back.”
Picture Four: A robber is pointing a knife at the throat of a man. The robber’s other hand is gripping the man’s tie so that if the man struggles, the robber can easily choke him to death. if I were the man, I would first tell the robber that I didn’t have any money on me, and that if he killed or hurt me, he would go to prison. There was obviously no point in attacking me. If the robber didn’t stop, I would fight him. Anyway, why should an upright man be afraid of a guilty man?
3. What are the causes of Crime? There are various causes of crimes. Work in groups to list the possible causes and give examples if possible. There are various reasons why people commit crimes ： money can be the root of crime. Some people commit crimes because they are short of money, they want to get money, so they steal, burglarize, or rob. If men are poor, they might also have trouble finding a wife. So they might commit sexual harassment, or even rape. Some others are not poor, but they are greedy, and they want to get more money. They will cheat out of their money, or they will bribe, or take bribes.
love can be the cause of crime. These offenders may have both money and education, but they may not have a happy marriage. They may look down upon their spouse. When they fall in love with others, they might, on the spur of the moment, kill their spouse. the desire to revenge is also a common cause of crime. Some people, because they were mistreated, cheated, or bullied, might take their revenge by doing something much worse and cruel.
Another cause is boredom. These people are not financially poor. On the contrary, some of them may be very rich. But they feel that their life is empty. They do not have a goal of life. They think they can do anything because they have money. They are not law-abiding citizens and they assault people without any reason, or just to let out their pent-up energy. Lastly, some people don’t commit crimes intentionally. People hurt or kill others accidentally.
Exercise 1. Directions: Listen to the story and rearrange the following pictures in chronological order. Put the number in the corresponding blank. order: 3 － 2 － 1 － 4. order: 3 － 2 － 1 － 4. Listening I
Directions: Listen to the story again to decide whether the following statements are true or false. Write T for true and F for false in the space provided. 1. The robbery took place at midnight. F 2. The bank was usually quite busy. T 3. Nobody except me put up their hands. F 4. The robbers themselves filled the sakes with cash. F 5. The robbers did not leave until somebody pressed a button for help. F 6. The police did not arrive until 34 minutes later. F 7. The narrator was very nervous during the whole process of the robbery. F 8. Finally, the robbers were caught by the police. F
Exercise 3. Directions: Discuss in groups the following questions. 1. What keeps puzzling the man? How the robbers could escape so easily. 2. What do you think made the robbery so easy? People’s cowardice. 3. Could anyone in the story have done better to stop the robbery? Yes. If everybody had fought against the robbers, they wouldn’t have been able to rob the bank. The bank guard was also very cowardly, e didn’t struggle with the acted very quickly and arrived in no time. 4. What lessons can we learn from the story? In the presence of cowardice, the guilty always grow bolder and social order becomes worse. Therefore, everybody should unite together and take action to stop crimes.
Listening II Exercise I. Listen to the following story and then choose the appropriate answer for each item. 1. a. he lent the car to his friends. b. he dismantled it and sold it for money. c. he sold it in exchange for seven luxurious days. d. He did it somewhere so that it would not be found out. 2. a. because he always stole things from her. b. because she knew her son well. c. because Christopher had talked about it before. d. because she had told Christopher to do so to claim the insurance. 3. a. because she could not face the fact that she accused her own son. b. because she was afraid that her son might take revenge. c. because she was worried about the compensation from the insurance company. d. because she did not think it would help prevent her son from stealing.
4. a. going back to the boarding school. b. three months’ imprisonment. c. never living with his mother again. d. 120 hours of community service. 5. a. Christopher was detained for 120 hours. b. Dorcas got divorced twice. c. because of his mental problems, Christopher could never find decent jobs. d. Christopher always forced Dorcas to give him money by threatening to use violence. 6. a. because other wise Christopher would scream at her. b. because she did not want her husband to know about it. c. because she could not get rid of her sense of guilt. d. because Christopher is her only son and she wanted to give him as much love as possible. 7. a. because she married a man who disliked children. b. because she was a mean person.
c. because she forced him to stay with her. d. because she was incapable of giving him more. 8. a. the son felt regretful for what he had done. b. the son both loved and hated his mother. c. the mother could not forgive the son for what he had done. d. they would live happily together after the incident. Exercise II. Listen again and rearrange the following sentences in chronological order. Put the correct number in the space provided. 1. Christopher came home from the boarding school. 2. Dorcas remarried another man. 3. Christopher stole his mother’s car. 4. Christopher was punished for stealing his mother’s car. 5. Dorcas split up with Christopher’s father. 6. Dorcas sent Christopher to a boarding school. 7. Dorcas divorced again. 8. Christopher threatened to steal his mother’s car. 9. Dorcas told the olice that her son stole her car. The order 5, 2, 6, 7, 1, 8, 3, 9, 4.
convict…of Convict sb of : sentence sb to the punishment of Convict sb of : sentence sb to the punishment of e.g. He was convicted of spying. e.g. He was convicted of spying. Compare: accuse of/ charge with. Compare: accuse of/ charge with. e.g. He is accused of killing 19 young women. e.g. He is accused of killing 19 young women. e.g. He was arrested and charged with a variety of offences. e.g. He was arrested and charged with a variety of offences. accuse of can also be used to scold sb for wrong behaviors. accuse of can also be used to scold sb for wrong behaviors. e.g. He was accused of incompetence. e.g. He was accused of incompetence.
execute v. 1. Sentence to death. e.g. The murderer was executed in the electric chair. 2. To carry out. e.g. It is a good time to execute the plan. 3. To run a computer program. e.g. The program is executed by typing RUN at the prompt.
issue 1. v. publish, or make public e.g. They issued a serious warning. 2. n. 1) important matter e.g. I raised the issue with him that very day. 2) one edition of a magazine or newspaper. 2) one edition of a magazine or newspaper. e.g. The article had appeared in the previous day’s issue.
admitted killer Compare: condemned, admitted, convicted. condemned criminal: a criminal who is going to be punished by death. condemned criminal: a criminal who is going to be punished by death. Admitted criminal: a criminal who has admitted that he has committed a crime. Admitted criminal: a criminal who has admitted that he has committed a crime. Convicted criminal: a criminal who has been proven to be guilty. Convicted criminal: a criminal who has been proven to be guilty.
appeal 1. n. charge or accuse. e.g. The Supreme Court turned down our appeal. compare : mercy. Impose a slighter sentence on sb. e.g. The jury brought in a verdict of guilty, with a recommendation to mercy. 2. v. 1) charge or accuse. e.g. He appealed against the judge’s decision. 2) ask for or request. e.g. He appealed to me for help. 3) meet or carter to. e.g. The books are designed to appeal to children.
speak out against e.g. He spoke out against racial discrimination many times.
stem from: result from e.g. His recklessness stems from vanity. Compare: originate from. e.g. I believe that remark originated from what you said yesterday.
affirm v. : to state publicly in speech or writing that something is true, did happen, etc. e.g. In his later work, he affirms his belief in God and the power of goodness over evil. Compare: confirm, conform. Confirm v. : to say publicly that something is definitely true, when people have not been completely sure whether is was true or not. Confirm v. : to say publicly that something is definitely true, when people have not been completely sure whether is was true or not. e.g. He is refusing to confirm or deny these rumors. Conform v. : to behave in the way that most other people in your group or society behave. Common phrases include: conform to a law/ rule/ the pattern/ model/ ideal, etc. Conform v. : to behave in the way that most other people in your group or society behave. Common phrases include: conform to a law/ rule/ the pattern/ model/ ideal, etc.
pros and cons e.g. The pros and cons are approximately the same.
capital punishment (syn. Death penalty.) Related words and phrases. Probation n. alternative punishment for criminals not in jail or prison. Parole n. early release for criminals in prison. Death row the place where criminals wait for execution. Plea bargaining alternative to trial for criminals likely to go to prison. Capital crimes crimes punishable by death. Juvenile crime: crimes committed by people under age 18. Rehabilitation n. trying to help criminals change their behavior. Defendant/ the accused. Plaintiff/ prosecutor / accuser.
switch 1. v. to change. e.g. He switched his attention back to the magazine. 2. n. e.g. He made a switch from an unfriendly to a friendly manner.
condemn v. 1. sentence. e.g. The thief was condemned to a year of hard labor. 2. force sb/sthg into the condition of …… 2. force sb/sthg into the condition of …… e.g. His bad leg condemned him to a wheelchair.
attach v. 1. assault. e.g. The senator attacked the press for misleading the public. 2. solve, or work with spirit. e.g. He attacked his task with determination. e.g. Attack each new task with enthusiasm.
humane adj. Not cruel (ant. Inhumane) e.g. Isn’t there a more humane way of killing cows? e.g. Imprisonment is not a humane form of punishment.
crude adj. 1. Not civilized, underdeveloped. e.g. Crude sense of humor/ behavior/ people 2. Unrefined, raw. e.g. Crude oil/ salt/ sugar/ materials. 3. Plain or shabby. e.g. A crude shelter/ theory/ drawing.
demonstrate v. demonstrative adj. demonstration n. 1. To show or prove. 1. demonstrate + n. e.g. He demonstrated the proper method of fastening the parachute. 2. demonstrate + object clause. e.g. This demonstrated that time had to be the fourth dimension. 2. To be in parade to protest. e.g. Large crowds demonstrated outside the British Embassy.
soften the resolve: to shake one’s determination. Resolve n. e.g. She carried on the job with much resolve.
seek to: try to deal with e.g. Every candidate seeks to win. e.g. She had understood nothing, nor had she sought to understand.
diminish v. 1. reduce. (syn. Decrease, decline, reduce) e.g. Suddenly the wind diminished and the seas grew calm again. 2. Soften, weaken, or lower. e.g. Several unpopular decisions diminished the governor’s popularity. e.g. Don’t let him diminish your achievement.
illusion n. wrong image or imagination. e.g. People had bought these houses under the illusion that their value would just keep on rising. Compare: delusion: complete wrong imagination. e.g. I was still under the delusion that everyone was trying to cheat me.
do away with 1. abolish, or eradicate. e.g. Modern medicines have not done away with the disease. 2. Finish or end. e.g. The robbers did away with their victims.
in one’s name e.g. I arrest you in the name of the law. e.g. The group claims to speak in the name of “the simple people of the country”.
shrink back from: withdraw or reluctant to do e.g. She shrank back from the scene, quivering. e.g. He shrank back from giving us a direct answer.
Sometimes opponents of capital punishment shock us with tales of painful death by hanging, of faulty electric chairs, or of agony in the gas chamber. (pa.5) 1. With in the sentence here means the reason. e.g. He was singing and jumping with joy. e.g. He was singing and jumping with joy. e.g. With John away, we have got more room. e.g. With John away, we have got more room. 2. 有时死刑反对者向我们讲述被绞丝者如何 痛苦的咽气、有毛病的电椅不能使受刑者 干脆了断或者毒气室里痛苦挣扎之类的传 闻使我们毛骨悚然。
Rights and responsibilities given by the individual are what give the state its power to govern. (pa. 8) 正是个人赋予国家的权利和职责使国家 有了统治权。
base 1. v. e.g. The film is based on a novel by Sinclair Lewis. 2. n. compare: base, basis, foundation. base 通常指用来支撑的结构基础。 e.g. The base of a statue. basis 常指精神上的和其他抽象意义上的基础。 e.g. the basis of a report. foundation 含有强大、坚固、安全的意思。 e.g. the foundation of a skyscraper/ theory.
In the first place. e.g. Tom couldn’t have committed the crime. In the first place, he isn’t a violent sort of man. Compare: firstly/ first, first of all, to start/ begin with Firstly/ first 列举。 Firstly/ first 列举。 e.g. The building is unsuitable, firstly because it is too small, and secondly because it is in the wrong place. First of all ( 给出的第一个理由是最重要的） First of all ( 给出的第一个理由是最重要的） e.g. There were several reasons why they divorced. There was the violence first of all, and also the drinking. To start with/ begin with. ( 给出的理由是最简单或最易 懂的） To start with/ begin with. ( 给出的理由是最简单或最易 懂的） e.g. I don’t think he is capable of doing the job. To start with, he’s much too old for this sort of work.
Criminologists have not successfully explained why some people become criminals while others do not, not have they explained why some people benefit from rehabilitation programs while in detention or in prison and while some others do not. (pa. 1 ） 为什么一些人变成罪犯而另外一些人却没有， 犯罪学家们还未能对此作出成功的解释。他 们也还未能解释为什么一些人在拘留和监禁 期间能从改造计划中接受教育，改过自新， 而另外一些人却不能。
Most motorcycle thefts were committed by “joyriders” who took the motorcycle on the spur of the moments. (pa. 5) 多数摩托车盗窃者都是 “ 开车兜风的人 ” ， 他们是一时兴起才去偷摩托车的。
The Criminal Go Unpunished
guarantee 1. Guarantee that. e.g. I can’t guarantee that the plan will work, but I will give it a try. 2. Guarantee something. e.g. The king had guaranteed out safety. 3. Guarantee sb. sth. e.g. The first emigrants to Canada were guaranteed 200 acres of land each. Compare: assure v. assure sb./ assure sb. that/ assure sb. of sthg.
flaw n. 1. A fault in a set of ideas, or in a plan, argument, explanation, etc. e.g. There was one fatal flaw in the defendant’s cause. e.g. It only takes a little logic to reveal the flaws in John’s argument. 2. A fault in sb.’s character. e.g. The flaw that leads to his failure is his jealousy. Syn: fault, defect and weakness. e.g. For all his faults, he was a good father. e.g. Whatever his defects as a human being, his genius was clearly apparent. e.g. I thought his weakness, if he had one, was his vanity.
wrong 1. v. 冤屈。 e.g. An innocent man was wronged by being sent to prison. 2. n. 委屈，损坏 e.g. Mrs. Brown is doing her child a wrong by spoiling him so.
hold up 1. 劫持， 抢劫。 e.g. Masked men held up the cashier and robbed the bank. 2. 举起。 e.g. Hold up your right hand! 3. 使停顿， 使不能前进。 e.g. The train was held up for an hour by the accident. 4. 持续， 保持较好的状况。 e.g. Sales held up well.
explosive 1. n. e.g. Dynamite and other explosives must be handled with care. 2. adj. e.g. That’s an explosive issue. e.g. The old man has an explosive temper.
pull ……over e.g. The police told me to pull over. e.g. The policeman told me to pull the car over. e.g. The policeman pulled me over.
Why do we tolerate abuses of justice that let the innocent suffer and wrongdoers go unpunished? (pa. 1) 我们为什么要容忍 “ 让无辜者受刑，让作 恶者逃罪 ” 这样的滥用司法公正那？
He signed his own $5,000 bail and was released without paying a cent, common practice in Philadelphia for what is considered as a relatively minor crime. (pa. 2) 他只是在自己的 5,000 美元的支票上签了字而未 真正付一分钱便被放了出来，这是在费城对 被视为犯罪清洁较轻的人的通常处理方法。
The Death Penalty
maintain v. 1. Persist on the idea that. (it is generally used in the phrase of “maintain +that clause) e.g. He maintained that he was not to blame. e.g. He maintained that he was not to blame. 2. keep. e.g. I wanted to maintain my friendship with her. e.g. I wanted to maintain my friendship with her. 3. support. e.g. I need the money to maintain myself until I start a job. e.g. I need the money to maintain myself until I start a job.
outrage n. cruel behaviors. e.g. The use of H-bombs would be an outrage against humanity. v. make sb angry. e.g. The speaker’s remarks outraged the audience. compare: outrageous adj. an outrageous distortion of truth.
lecture v. Make a speech. e.g. The detective lectured in the city schools on drug abuse. e.g. The detective lectured in the city schools on drug abuse. scold, blame. e.g. My father lectured me for smoking. e.g. My father lectured me for smoking.
restore v. maintain e.g. These historic buildings have been carefully restored after suffering the damage of three wars. Return (formal) e.g. Macao was restored to China in 1999. Recover e.g. He restored to health after a period of intensive care. Restoration n. e.g. The restoration of justice/ a temple/ to one’s job.
swear v. 发誓 e.g. He swore that he would tell the truth = He swore to tell the truth. Swear at. e.g. He leant out of the car window and swore at the other drivers. Swear in: swear to take the position. e.g. The jury was swore in on May 4.
inflict… on: impose ……on e.g. Don’t inflict nay of your problems on me. e.g. I won’t inflict myself on you today. I can see you’re too busy to listen to my complaints. Compare: impose on e.g. She was a harsh mother and imposed severe discipline on her children.
close one’s eyes to: to shut one’s eyes to e.g. I closed my eyes to the fact that she wasn’t supposed to be there, and bought her a drink. Other phrase related with eye: 1. an eye for an eye. e.g. An eye for an eye is no ay to run a civilized justice system. 2. keep an eye on. e.g. You’d better keep an eye on that fellow, I don’t trust him. 3. apple of one’s eye. e.g. That child is the apple of his father’s eye.