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Life Span Development School Years: Psychosocial Dev. – Ch. 13 Adolescence: Psychosocial Dev. – Ch. 16 Early Adulthood: Cognitive Dev.– Ch. 18 July 20,

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Presentation on theme: "Life Span Development School Years: Psychosocial Dev. – Ch. 13 Adolescence: Psychosocial Dev. – Ch. 16 Early Adulthood: Cognitive Dev.– Ch. 18 July 20,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Life Span Development School Years: Psychosocial Dev. – Ch. 13 Adolescence: Psychosocial Dev. – Ch. 16 Early Adulthood: Cognitive Dev.– Ch. 18 July 20, 2004 Class #12

2 Peers become increasingly important Developmentalists believe that getting along with peers is crucial during middle childhood Being rejected is a precursor for other problems Children depend on each other for companionship, advice, self-validation Peer partners must learn to negotiate, share, compromise, and defend each other and themselves Certain amount of aggression, counter-aggression, and reconciliation expected The Peer Group

3 Developmentalists are troubled if children have no free time to spend with each other Child may have to come straight home from school Child may be in after-school programs due to parents work Children prefer to choose their own activities with their own friends The Peer Group

4 Ingroup vs. Outgroup Us vs. Them Peer Group Subculture Special vocabulary, rules of behavior, dress codes Such group identifications can promote an ingroup bias (a favoring of one’s own group over another)

5 Friendships become more important Forum for self disclosure  Mutual dependency Become more choosy in picking friends Best friends likely to be same in sex, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status More intense, intimate, and demanding Friendship

6 Unpopular Children neglected children receive little attention, but not necessarily disliked by peers aggressive-rejected—rejected by peers because of confrontational behavior withdrawn-rejected—rejected by peers because they are timid and anxious for rejected, situation can worsen over time Friendship

7 Bullying is universal Bullies are not necessarily rejected, and victims are not always odd in appearance or background, although they are always rejected Bullies and Their Victims

8 Bullying—repeated, systematic effort to inflict harm physical attack, taunting, teasing, name calling Bullying once thought to be a normal part of children’s play with few long-term consequences Types of Bullying

9 Bully-victims—bullies who are or have been victims of bullying; also called provocative victims, they are minority of victims can be aggressive-rejected children Bullies and victims usually of same gender Types of Bullying

10 EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM Various reports and studies have established that approximately 15% of students are either bullied regularly or are initiators of bullying behavior (Olweus, 1993) Direct bullying seems to increase through the elementary years, peak in the middle school/junior high school years, and decline during the high school years However, while direct physical assault seems to decrease with age, verbal abuse appears to remain constant School size, racial composition, and school setting (rural, suburban, or urban) do not seem to be distinguishing factors in predicting the occurrence of bullying Boys engage in bullying behavior and are victims of bullies more frequently than girls (Batsche & Knoff, 1994; Nolin, Davies, & Chandler, 1995; Olweus, 1993; Whitney & Smith, 1993)

11 Boys vs. Girls male bullies above average in size female bullies above average in assertiveness victims tend to be less assertive and physically weaker (boys) or shyer (girls) Types of Bullying

12 CHARACTERISTICS OF BULLIES Students who engage in bullying behaviors seem to have a need to feel powerful and in control They appear to derive satisfaction from inflicting injury and suffering on others, seem to have little empathy for their victims, and often defend their actions by saying that their victims provoked them in some way Studies indicate that bullies often come from homes where physical punishment is used, where the children are taught to strike back physically as a way to handle problems, and where parental involvement and warmth are frequently lacking Students who regularly display bullying behaviors are generally defiant or oppositional toward adults, antisocial, and apt to break school rules In contrast to prevailing myths, bullies appear to have little anxiety and to possess strong self-esteem

13 CHARACTERISTICS OF VICTIMS Students who are victims of bullying are typically anxious, insecure, cautious, and suffer from low self- esteem, rarely defending themselves or retaliating when confronted by students who bully them They may lack social skills and friends, and they are often socially isolated Victims tend to be close to their parents and may have parents who can be described as overprotective The major defining physical characteristic of victims is that they tend to be physically weaker than their peers--other physical characteristics such as weight, dress, or wearing eyeglasses do not appear to be significant factors that can be correlated with victimization (Batsche & Knoff, 1994; Olweus, 1993).

14 CONSEQUENCES OF BULLYING Olweus (1993) Found a strong correlation appearing to exist between bullying other students during the school years and experiencing legal or criminal troubles as adults 60% of those characterized as bullies in grades 6-9 had at least one criminal conviction by age 24 Being bullied leads to depression and low self-esteem, problems that can carry into adulthood Oliver, Hoover, & Hazler (1994) Chronic bullies seem to maintain their behaviors into adulthood, negatively influencing their ability to develop and maintain positive relationships Victims often fear school and consider school to be an unsafe and unhappy place As many as 7% of America's eighth-graders stay home at least once a month because of bullies The act of being bullied tends to increase some students' isolation because their peers do not want to lose status by associating with them or because they do not want to increase the risks of being bullied themselves

15 PERCEPTIONS OF BULLYING Oliver, Hoover, and Hazler (1994) surveyed students in the Midwest and found that a clear majority felt that victims were at least partially responsible for bringing the bullying on themselves Students surveyed tended to agree that bullying toughened a weak person, and some felt that bullying "taught" victims appropriate behavior Charach, Pepler, and Ziegler (1995) found that students considered victims to be "weak," "nerds," and "afraid to fight back." However, 43% of the students in this study said that they try to help the victims, 33% said that they should help but do not, and only 24% said that bullying was none of their business Parents are often unaware of the bullying problem and talk about it with their children only to a limited extent (Olweus, 1993) Student surveys reveal that a low percentage of students seem to believe that adults will help Students feel that adult intervention is infrequent and ineffective, and that telling adults will only bring more harassment from bullies Students report that teachers seldom or never talk to their classes about bullying (Charach, Pepler, & Ziegler, 1995). School personnel may view bullying as a harmless right of passage that is best ignored unless verbal and psychological intimidation crosses the line into physical assault or theft

16 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS Effective interventions must involve the entire school community rather than focus on the perpetrators and victims alone There appears the need to develop whole- school bullying policies, implement curricular measures, improve the schoolground environment, and empower students through conflict resolution, peer counseling, and assertiveness training See handout East Providence, RI school policy

17 CONCLUSION Bullying is a serious problem that can dramatically affect the ability of students to progress academically and socially A comprehensive intervention plan that involves all students, parents, and school staff is required to ensure that all students can learn in a safe and fear-free environment

18 Adolescence: Chapter 16 The Self and Identity Consistent definition of one’s self as a unique individual in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs. and aspirations Who am I?

19 Possible selves—various ideas of who one might be or become, each of which is typically acted out and considered as a possible identity False self—set of behaviors that is adopted by a person to combat rejection, please others, or try out as a possible self Multiple Selves

20 Acceptable false self Adopted to be accepted; arises from feelings of worthlessness, depression; low self-understanding Pleasing false self Arises from wish to impress or please others; medium self-understanding Experimental false self Adolescent tries out a self to see how it feels; high self-understanding Three Types of False Selves

21 Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescents come to see themselves as unique and integrated persons with an ideology Or they become confused about what they want out of life

22 Identity Status Identity Foreclosure adopts values and goals of parents and culture without questioning closes out process before it begins Identity Diffusion has few commitments to goals or values, and apathetic about taking on any role Identity Moratorium experiments with alternative identities in order to try them out; not ready to make commitment to particular future goal

23 Developmentalists asked a series of questions to measure identity status can a person achieve identity in one domain but still be searching in another domain? answer: yes is identity formed from within or from without? answer: both Status Versus Process

24 Identification of self as either male or female with acceptance of all roles and behaviors that society assigns to that sex adolescents make a multitude of decisions about sexual behavior and select from many gender roles Gender Identity

25 Ethnic Identity Gender identity is often connected to ethnic identity Ethnic Identity often questioning of ethnic identity and dominant American identity As teens grow older, the need to be proud of general heritage grows greater

26 Sadness and Anger Adolescents can feel despondent and depressed, overwhelmed by the world and their own inadequacies, as well as on top of the world, destined for great accomplishment

27 Sadness and Anger Emotional problems are categorized in two ways internalizing problems: problems are manifested inward to inflict harm on self externalizing problems: problems are “acted out” by injuring others, destroying property, or defying authority

28 General trend in mood is more downward than upward In U.S., both boys and girls feel less and less confident in math, language arts, and sports self-esteem drops at around age 12 adolescents without support from family, friends, or school more vulnerable to self-esteem dip loss of self-esteem may push toward depression The Usual Dip

29 Depression Rate of clinical depression more than doubles in puberty (15%) Gender difference: teenage girls (20%) teenage boys (10%) hormonal changes may explain this, coupled with psychic stress of school, friends, sexual drives, and identity crises

30 Adolescent Suicide Suicidal Ideation thinking about suicide is common among adolescents

31 Adolescent Suicide Five reasons for erroneous belief that suicide is an adolescent problem rate is triple the rate of 40 years ago adolescents lumped together with young adults as one statistical category adolescent suicide is shocking and grabs attention social prejudice considers teenagers as problems suicide attempts are more common in adolescence

32 The deliberate act of self-destruction that does not end in death Parasuicide and suicide depend on five factors availability of lethal means, especially guns lack of parental supervision alcohol and other drugs gender cultural attitudes Parasuicide

33 Adolescent Rebellion Many psychologists believe that rebellion for adolescent boys may be normal

34 Breaking the law is the most dramatic example of rebellion Worldwide, arrests rise rapidly at about age 12 and peak at about age 16 44% of all U.S. arrests for serious crimes involve persons aged 10 to 20 Breaking the Law

35 Adolescent males are 3 times more likely to be arrested than females African-Americans are 3 times more likely to be arrested than are European-Americans, who are 3 times more likely as Asian-Americans to be arrested

36 Sequence of Heterosexual Attraction friendships of one sex or the other loose association of girls’ group and boys’ group smaller mixed-sex group formed from larger group true intimacy; peeling off from group into couples, with private intimacies Romantic Attraction

37 Complications of this life style usually slow down romantic attachments many reluctant to admit homosexuality may mask feelings depression and suicide higher for these youth Homosexual Youth

38 No other period is full of such multifactoral and compelling biological changes Fascinating and confusing social and intellectual transitions Most adolescents and their families survive fairly well Conclusion

39 Ch. 18: Early Adulthood Postformal Thought Adult thinking and adolescent thinking differ in 3 ways, with adult thinking more: practical flexible dialectical

40 A Fifth Stage of Cognitive Development? Postformal thought often viewed as fifth stage of Piaget’s theory In it, adults consider every aspect of a situation use intellectual skills for real life—work and relationships understand that conclusions and consequences matter

41 During adulthood focus on skill application, not skill acquisition The Practical and the Personal

42 Arise from individual’s personal experiences and perceptions Traditional models devalued subjective thought Objective thought—abstract impersonal logic For adults combination of the two works best Subjectivity and Objectivity

43 Trying to combine both logic and emotions in dealing with an emotional issue is challenging but at each stage of adulthood, adults can achieve this balance in contrast to adolescents who believe in subjective or objective reasoning Emotions and Logic

44 Cognitive Flexibility Awareness that your perspective is not the only one Awareness that each problem has many potential solutions and knowledge is dynamic

45 Adult thought requires flexible adaptation, which allows adults to cope with unanticipated events come up with more than one solution to problem Flexible Problem Solving

46 The possibility that one’s appearance or behavior will be misused to confirm another person’s oversimplified, prejudiced attitude. For example, 3 ways young minority people cope with prejudice identification, or identifying with their own group disidentification, or deliberately refusing to identify with their own group counteridentification, or identifying with majority and believing stereotype to be accurate Stereotype Threat

47 Stereotypes and Prejudices Stereotypes The generalized perceptions, beliefs, and expectations a person has about members in some group Schemas about entire groups of people Effects of stereotypes on behavior can be automatic and unconscious Prejudice A negative attitude toward an individual based solely on the person’s membership is some group In one word…prejudgment

48 Its getting better, but… Attitudes towards both women and people of color have improved since the 1940’s Most people agree that women and men doing the same job should get equal pay Most agree that white and black children should attend the same school Will we have a women President in the near future???

49 Can race can influence how a given behavior is interpreted? Bottom-up processing Perceptions influenced by the visual field itself Can be referred to as “true object” perceptions – making sense from our sensations Top-down processing These perceptions are influenced by what the person expects or has experienced before Our experiences memories, and expectations are what's important here Can lead to biases and misperceptions… Duncan (1976) See next slide

50 “The ambiguous shove” Duncan (1976) White undergraduates viewed two nearly identical videos Participants were divided and placed randomly in on of two groups… Group 1: A black person is seen shoving a white person Group 2: A white person is seen shoving a black person

51 Duncan (1976) What do you predict as the results ? Why?

52 Other examples (flaws) of top-down processing… Allport (1954) Found evidence for the stereotype that “fat people are jolly” Dion et al. (1972) Attractive people are perceived as being more honest than unattractive people Karr (1978) Found that participants felt that homosexuals were shallow, yielding, tense

53 Scapegoat Theory Scapegoating begins with frustration which, in turn, causes aggression This aggression is then displaced and rationalized by blaming a minority group Obviously, not all people who become frustrated are prejudice, but research has shown that those who are high in prejudice are more likely to become frustrated than those low in prejudice Apparently, since prejudice people cannot deal with their inner frustrations, they stereotype, blame, and attack less powerful groups

54 “If there were no Jews, we would have to invent them” A Nazi leader was quoted as saying the above… Cialdini & Richardson (1980) Despised outgroups can boost an ingroup’s self-esteem Students experiencing failure or made to feel insecure will often restore their self- esteem by disparaging a rival school or another person

55 Motivational Theories of Prejudice and Stereotyping Prejudice serves to meet certain needs and increases one’s sense of security Prejudice especially more likely among those high in authoritarianism who have: An acceptance of very conventional or traditional values A willingness to unquestioningly follow orders of authority figures An inclination to act aggressively towards those identified by authority figure as a threat to one’s values or well-being

56 Cognitive Theories of Prejudice and Stereotyping People use schemas and other cognitive shortcuts to organize and make sense of their social world Sometimes these processes lead to inaccurate stereotypes For example: We tend to simplify our perceptions by seeing group members as similar to one another We also see illusory correlations between an individual’s behavior and group membership

57 Learning Theories of Prejudice and Stereotyping Like attitudes, prejudices can be learned… Explains how one can develop negative attitudes towards never encountered groups Prejudice can be the result of observational learning One can be directly reinforced for expressing prejudice

58 Categorization The classification of persons into groups on the basis of common attributes Can bias our perceptions Stone (1997) Radio broadcast Shown a photograph of the player to be analyzed Participants rated the player better if they thought he was black

59 “The biggest thing I don't like about New York are the foreigners”

60 Realistic group conflict theory Competition for valuable but limited resources breeds hostility… Loser: becomes frustrated Winner: becomes threatened Result: Much conflict Example: Women and immigrants joining the workforce When conflict arises there is a higher tendency to rely on stereotypes…“they’re all the same”

61 Perceived Outgroup Homogeneity Phenomenon of overestimating the extent to which members within other groups are similar to each other Example: “They all look the same to me” Example: “All men are sports fans”

62 Need For Structure Some people like their lives to be simple and organized… Can this attitude lead to stereotyping?

63 Reducing Prejudice Contact Hypothesis Stereotypes and prejudice toward a group will diminish as contact with the group increases Getting to know and hopefully to understand a group Get two groups to work towards a common goal Cooperation helps; competition hurts

64 Go to college… The relationship between college education and adult development healthier, wealthier, as well as deeper, more flexible thinkers Education powerfully influences cognitive development improves verbal and quantitative skills, and specific subject knowledge while enhancing reasoning, reflection, and flexibility of thought

65 The sheer numbers have increased greatly, worldwide In all nations, increased student diversity more women students more older students more culturally diverse students in United States more low-income students more working students Change in the Students

66 Changes in the Institutions Structure of higher education changing with student population changes Almost twice as many U.S. institutions of higher learning today than in 1970 community college enrollment up 144 percent more career programs more part-time faculty more women and minority instructors

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