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Book 1 Unit 1 Low-Carbon Economy Text A Creating a Low-Carbon Eonomy Quit.

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1 Book 1 Unit 1 Low-Carbon Economy Text A Creating a Low-Carbon Eonomy Quit

2 Contents Background Information & Cultural Notes Lead-in Text Structures Sentence Study Text A Quit Words & Phrases Key to Exercises 6

3 Low-Carbon Economy Renewable Energy IPCC Background Information & Cultural Notes Home

4 A Low-Carbon Economy (LCE), Low-Fossil-Fuel Economy (LFFE) or Decarbonized Economy is an economy that has a minimal output of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the environment biosphere, but specifically refers to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. GHG emissions due to anthropogenic activity are increasingly either causing climate change (global warming) or making climate change worse. Scientists are concerned about the negative impacts of climate change on humanity in the foreseeable future. Globally implemented LCEs, therefore, are proposed, by those having drawn this conclusion, as a means to avoid catastrophic climate change, and as a precursor to the more advanced, zero-carbon society and renewable energy economy. Background Information & Cultural Notes Back Home biosphere [‘baiəsfiə] n. 生物圈 anthropogenic [,ænθrəupəu'd ʒ enik] adj. 人为的; [ 人类 ] 人类起源的 precursor [pri:‘kə:sə, pri-] n. 先驱,前导

5 IPCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is a scientific intergovernmental body first established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly through Resolution 43/53. Its mission is to provide comprehensive scientific assessments of current scientific, technical and socio-economic information worldwide about the risk of climate change caused by human activity, its potential environmental and socio-economic consequences, and possible options for adapting to these consequences or mitigating the effects Background Information & Cultural Notes Back Home endorse [in‘d ɔ :s] vt. 背书;认可;签署;赞同;在背面签名 United Nations General Assembly 联合国大会

6 Background Information & Cultural Notes Back Home Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 19%, with 16% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables. To Be Continued

7 Background Information & Cultural Notes Back Home Wind power Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand. This could require wind turbines to be installed over large areas, particularly in areas of higher wind resources. Offshore resources experience average wind speeds of ~90% greater than that of land, so offshore resources could contribute substantially more energy. To Be Continued A wind farm located in Manjil, Iran.

8 Background Information & Cultural Notes Back Home Hydropower Energy in water can be harnessed and used. Since water is about 800 times denser than air, even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy. There are many forms of water energy. To Be Continued Grand Coulee Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington. The dam supplies four power stations with an installed capacity of 6,809 MW and is the largest electric power-producing facility in the United States.

9 Background Information & Cultural Notes Back Home Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Solar powered electrical generation relies on photovoltaics and heat engines. A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, daylighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. To Be Continued Nellis Solar Power Plant in the United States, one of the largest photovoltaic power plants in North America. photovoltaics [,fəutəuv ɔ l‘teiiks] n. [ 电子 ] 光生伏打;太阳光电;太阳能光电板

10 Background Information & Cultural Notes Back Home Biofuels include a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. The term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Liquid biofuels include bioalcohols, such as bioethanol, and oils, such as biodiesel. Gaseous biofuels include biogas, landfill gas and synthetic gas. To Be Continued Brazil has bioethanol made from sugarcane available throughout the country. Shown a typical Petrobras gas station at São Paulo with dual fuel service, marked A for alcohol (ethanol) and G for gasoline. biomass [‘baiəumæs] n. 生物质能 bioethanol [baiә‘eθə,n ɔ l] n. 生物乙醇 biodiesel [bai ɔ :di:zl] n. 生物柴油 gaseous [‘ ɡ æsiəs] adj. 气态的,气体的 landfill gas 填埋区沼气 synthetic gas 人工合成气体

11 Background Information & Cultural Notes Back Home Geothermal Energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth, and thermos, meaning heat. Steam rising from the Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station in Iceland. geothermal gradient [,d ʒ i:əu'θə:məl] [' ɡ reidiənt] [ 地物 ] 地温梯度; [ 地物 ] 地热增温率

12 Lead-in What are the most serious threat to future well-being of the world? Home Question 1

13 Lead-in Home Question 1 Question 1 What Are the Most Serious Threat to Future Well-being of the World? Global warming Terrorism Population growth HIV/AIDS 45% 32% 14% 7%

14 Lead-in How many types of natural disasters do you know? Question 2 Home

15 Lead-in Home Question 2 Question 2 How Many Types of Natural Disasters Do You Know? 海啸 酸雨 暴雨 洪水 暴风雪 干旱 热浪 飓风(台风) 龙卷风 泥石流 饥荒 tsunami acid rain rainstorm flood blizzard drought heat wave hurricanes/typhoons tornado/cyclone mudflow/landslide famine

16 Lead-in What can we do to prevent those disasters from happening? Question 3 Home

17 Lead-in Home Question 3 Question 3 What can we do to prevent those disasters from happening? Popular Advice 1. Tips in daily life:  Refrigerator: It’s good for refrigerator to store the food for its 80%.If you put too much or too little food in it, it uses more power.  Microwave: Each food in microwave should not weight more than 0.5 kg, in addition, its saved more energy by cutting the food into small pieces. 2. Low-carbon transport: If you go to a place which is 8 km far from where you are, you should choose taking public transportations in order to save 1700 grams of carbon dioxide emissions.

18 Lead-in Home Question 3 Question 3 What can we do to prevent those disasters from happening? tectonic plate [tek‘t ɔ nik] 地壳构造板块 levee [‘levi] n. 堤坝 magma [‘mæ ɡ mə] n. [ 地质 ] 岩浆 Negative/Realistic Views The atmosphere is a huge whirlwind of conditions out of our control, just as the shifting of tectonic plates can’t be stopped. Humans cannot prevent a tornado, or make it rain in a drought, or stop an earthquake from destroying a city. Some of what we do may seem like we try to control disasters, like building levees or seawalls to prevent flooding, but if conditions are right, even those manmade objects can easily be broken down by nature. It is impossible to hold back something like a giant thunderstorm or prevent magma from erupting starting hundreds of miles under the Earth’s surface. The only thing we can do is to learn from previous weather patterns and realize that building a city next to a volcano is probably not economically right.

19 Text Structure Part I: A general introduction to the serious problem of global warming (Paragraph 1-5) 1. Global warming is dangerous. (Paragraph 1) 2. Our earth is getting warmer. (Paragraph 2) 3. Young people are alerted by scientists’ warning. (Paragraph 3-5) Home

20 Text Structure Part II: The disastrous costs global warming may lead to (Paragraph 6-11) 1. Environmental costs: authoritative warnings in details (Paragraph 6-7) 2. Economic costs: costs of damage from extreme weather and sudden climate change (Paragraph 8-11) Home

21 Text Structure Part III: To build a low-carbon economy in order to solve the problem (Paragraph 12-19) 1. We cannot afford to get any warmer. (Paragraph 12-14) 2. Or the planet will face serious risks. (Paragraph 15-16) 3. So we have to build a low carbon economy. (Paragraph 17-19) Home

22 Sentence Study We are on a trajectory for global warming to become much more intense unless we begin a concerted rapid shift toward a low-carbon economy. (Para.1, Line 2) 1 Home To Be Continued trajectory ['træd ʒ iktəri, trə'd ʒ ek-] 轨迹,轨道,弹道 on a trajectory: on the way toward e.g. 导弹偏离了轨道。 The missile deflected from its trajectory. concerted 协定的,协调的 intense ~ heat / ~emotion /~pain intensive ~ training / ~ care / labor-~ / ~economy intense 和 intensive 的意思在相当 程度上是交叉的,但是它们经常 有细微的差别。当用来描述人的 感情或活动时, intense 通常指由 内在倾向而来的力量或专心;而 intensive 更常用于指行为的强度和 程度是由外部强加的。

23 Sentence Study 1 我们正走在一条加剧全球变暖的道路上,若想扭转局面, 我们必须采取迅速一致的行动建立一个低碳经济系统。 Home Paraphrase: Human beings are making the earth warmer and warmer to an intolerable degree. Now the only way to stop it is that all countries to take actions together to build a low-carbon economy.

24 Sentence Study Fears of an environmental crisis are defining their generation in ways that the Depression, World War II, Vietnam and the Cold War’s lingering ‘War Games’ etched souls in the 20th century. (Para. 4, Line 2) 2 Home To Be Continued in ways that: 以..... 的方式 e.g. 人类塑造环境的方式是其他生物无法做到的。 Human shape their environment in ways that other organisms cannot.

25 Sentence Study 2 Home Paraphrase: Young people nowadays are frightened and impacted by environmental pollution and climate change. The fright is just like that of people in 20th century who have experienced and suffered from Depression, World War II, Cold War and Vietnam War. These all have left intense painful scars on people’s mind and body. 对环境危机的恐惧正在影响着年轻一代,其影响的方式如 同上世纪的大萧条、二战、越战、冷战的 “ 战争阴影 ” 对当 时人们心灵的侵蚀一样。

26 Sentence Study According to this analysis, keeping average temperature to an increase in the range of oC would require a CO2 equivalent concentration—or CO2e, which is a measurement that expresses the global warming potential of all greenhouse gases compared to CO2—in the range of 445 parts per million to 490 parts per million, a highly ambitious target. (Para. 17, Line 3) 3 Home To Be Continued 破折号引入的部分可看作是对 “CO2 equivalent concentration ” 的补 充解释,不影响主句的语法结构。 concentration [,k ɔ nsən‘trei ʃ ən] n. 浓度

27 Sentence Study 3 Home Paraphrase: If we want to keep average temperature increasing no more than oC, we have to keep CO2 equivalent concentration within 445 parts per million to 490 parts per million. This is a mission we must endeavor to fulfill. CO2 equivalent, or CO2e, is a way to measure the global warming degree of all greenhouse gases as compared to CO2. 根据这一分析,温度的上升控制在 摄氏度就要求二氧化 碳当量气体浓度保持在 ppm 的范围内,要做到这一 点相当不容易。二氧化碳当量是度量所有温室效应气体对大 气温度的影响能力的基本单位。

28 1.uncharted 2.disrupt 3.inflict 4.scarcity 5.aggravate 6.extermination 7.mitigation 8.infrastructure 9.improvidently 10.incur New Words Expressions New Words & Expressions Home light of 2.under the auspices of 3.lose out

29 uncharted [ ʌ n't ʃɑ :tid] adj. 1. ( 地 ) 图上未标明的 2. 未经探测的;未知的 unknown, sealed 1. 事实上,我们正进入一个未知的地域。 In fact we are entering an uncharted territory. 2. 我拥有一张地图,上面有一个以前从未曾标注的岛屿 — 一个被认为只 有在神话传说当中存在的地方。 I’ve come into possession of a map, an uncharted island, a place that was thought to exist only in myth. New Words 1. uncharted Back Para 3, Line 2

30 New Words 2. disrupt Back Para. 6, Line 6 disrupt [dis'r ʌ pt] vt. 破坏;使瓦解;使分裂;使中断;使陷于混乱 destroy, tear, undermine adj. 分裂的,中断的;分散的 divided, scattered 1. 过量的维生素 D 会扰乱人体的钙平衡。 Too much vitamin D is thought to disrupt the body’s calcium levels. 2. 龙卷风使整个沿海的广播都中断了。 The tornado disrupted broadcasting along the entire coast.

31 inflict [in'flikt] vt. 造成;使遭受(损伤、痛苦等);给予(打击等 ) inflict on ;inflict to 1. 市场的一个可怕的趋势就是给最多数的投资者带来最多的痛苦。 Markets have a terrible tendency to inflict maximum pain on the maximum number of investors. 2. 和其他运动不同,拳击的目的就是向对手施以身体上的打击。 Unlike other sports the aim of boxing is to inflict bodily harm on an opponent. New Words 3. inflict Back Para. 7, Line 7

32 New Words 4. scarcity scarcity ['skεəsəti] n. 1. 缺乏,不足 ; 2. 稀少,罕见,难得 shortage, deficiency 1. 我们看到了许多对资源的竞争。在资源匮乏时期,这种竞争是不可 避免的。 We’re seeing a lot of competition for resources, which is inevitable in periods of scarcity. 2. 我们大脑的自然倾向就是进食和储存能量来防备食物短缺和饥荒。 Our brains have a natural tendency to desire eating beyond need, to store in case of scarcity and famine. Back Para. 7, Line 14

33 New Words 5. aggravate Back aggravate [‘æ ɡ rəveit] v. 加重;使恶化 ; 激怒 complicate, irritate 1. 恶劣的环境例如干燥的空气,烟雾,烟和风等会加重症状。 Adverse environmental conditions such as dry air, smog, smoke and wind can aggravate the condition. 2. 他的跋扈态度惹恼了我。 His bossy attitude aggravated me. Para. 9, Line 7

34 extermination [ik,stə:mi'nei ʃ ən] n. 消灭,扑灭,灭绝,铲除,根除, extinction, eradication 1. 气候科学家称, 因生态系统的崩溃彼此相连, 物种绝种会是最大的威胁。 Extermination of species would be the most threatening change, the climate scientist said, as one ecological collapse led to another. 2. 虽然冷战结束了,但核武器的蔓延或者核材料的失窃都可能导致这座星球上 任何一座城市的覆灭。 Even with the cold war now over, the spread of nuclear or the theft of unclear materials could lead to extermination on any city of the planet. New Words 6. extermination Back Para. 16, Line 5

35 mitigation [miti‘ ɡ ei ʃ ən] n. 缓解,减轻,平静 peace, relaxation 1. 减少排放将是要要讨论的中心议题。 Mitigation, or emissions reduction, will be at the heart of the deal. 2. 研究的目标是要增强香港作为国际金融中心的竞争力,以求减少风险、 提升效率、减低成本。 The objective of the study is to enhance the competitiveness of Hong Kong as an international financial centre in terms of risk mitigation, increased efficiency and cost reduction. New Words 7. mitigation Back Para. 17, Line 1

36 infrastructure [‘infrə,str ʌ kt ʃ ə] n. 基础设施;公共建设;下部构造 1. 为刺激增长,政府可以增加基础设施投资。 To stimulate growth, the government could increase investment in infrastructure. 2. 我们将与合作伙伴共同开发、制造电池、兴建基础设施,以及利用政 府政策来促进电动汽车被大众接受。 We’re going to work with partners to develop and produce batteries, infrastructure, as well as government policy to speed the acceptance of electric vehicles. New Words 8. infrastructure Back Para. 18, Line 6

37 improvidently [im‘pr ɔ vidəntli] adv. 无远见地,奢侈地 improvident [im‘pr ɔ vidənt] adj. 目光短浅的,无远见的 ; 不谨慎的 short-sighted 1. 他说: “ 此次释放犯人的指令即无先例,又无远见,也是与联邦法律相违背 的。 ” “The prisoner release ordered in this case is unprecedented, improvident, and contrary to federal law “, he said. 2. 目前,人们变得越来越短视了,他们想要的只是眼前的快乐。 Nowadays, people are getting increasingly improvident and all they want is just immediate pleasure. New Words 9. improvidently Back Para. 18, Line 7

38 New Words 10. incur incur [in'kə:] v. 招致,引发;蒙受 e.g. incur loss/ damages 遭受损失 ; incur costs 承担费用 ; incur obligation 承担债务 1. 吸烟的人给身心带来了很大的危险。 People who smoke incur a great danger to their health. 2. 不用说,我们将会偿还你所担负的任何费用。 Needless to say, we shall refund any expenses you may incur. Back Para. 19, Line 1

39 New Words 11. in light of in light of 根据;鉴于;从 … 观点 on the basis of, upon 1. 英格兰说,鉴于所发生的几起建筑事故,它希望确保自己的运动员 安全。 England said it wants assurances that its players will be safe in light of the construction accidents. 2. 有鉴于此,我们必须先结束目前的局势,然后从零开始学习。 In light of that, we must first end this situation and then study from a zero base. Back Para. 5, Line 1

40 New Words 12. under the auspices of under the auspices of 由 … 赞助或主办,在 … 保护下;在 … 的主持下 1. 对于重组体 DNA 问题,我们需要有一个全面的估价,而且最好由联邦政府主办。 We need a comprehensive assessment of the recombinant DNA issue, preferably under the auspices of the federal government. 2. 很多次,我们的文学和音乐聚谈,在夜空星星的闪耀护卫之下,聚拢开始,又 在清晨的星空下,如同清晨微风里的灯光一样,消散离去。 On many an occasion did our literary and musical gatherings assemble under the auspices of the evening star to disperse, as did the lamplights at the breezes of dawn, under the morning star. Back Para. 7, Line 2

41 New Words 13. lose out lose out 输掉,失败 lose out on 1. 我们公司没能做成这笔大买卖。 Our firm lost out on this big deal. 2. 当我们面对一位强大的敌人或是一项严峻的挑战时,我们可能会预 见到失败。 When faced with a big opponent or a big challenge, we might assume that we will lose out. 3. 你和那个伤害你的人同时都输了,因为你们都失去了对方。 You and the person that hurt you both lose out because you lose each other. Back Para. 19, Line 1

42 Key to Exercises 1. Reading Comprehension a. Choose the sentences that best express the meaning of the statement from the text. 1. B 2. B. 3. A 4. C 5.B Home

43 Key to Exercises b. Fill in the blanks with the information you have learned in the text. Home (1) the result of the rapid build-up of greenhouse gases primarily caused by human activities; we begin a concerted, rapid shift toward a low carbon economy (2) Climate represents the envelope within which all our natural systems operate (3) the increased costs of damage from extreme weather events such as floods, droughts, hurricanes, heat waves and major storms; the risk that such events affect global financial markets through higher or more volatile insurance costs; and the risk of abrupt and large-scale climate change (4) Scientific analysis of historic climate data and projections of future conditions, and state-of-the-art computer models paint a stark picture of what is to come (5) Keeping average temperature to an increase in the range of 2.0 ℃ to 2.4 ℃.

44 Key to Exercises 2.Vocabulary a.Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the words or phrases you have learned in the text. Home (1) adverse (2) stark (3) inflict (4) Systematically (5) triggered (6) improvident (7) incurred (8) alternative (9) lost out on (10) settled on

45 Key to Exercises 2.Vocabulary b. Choose the word or phrase that is closest in meaning to the underlined one. Home (1)B (2) C (3) A (4) D (5) B (6) C(7) A (8) D (9) C (10) D

46 Key to Exercises 3. Cloze choose an appropriate word from the following list to fill in each of the following blanks. Each word can be used only once. Change the form where necessary. Home (1)embraced (2) sped up (3) running out (4) urgency (5) Initiative(6) specific(7) designated (8) contribute (9) incorporate(10) hampering (11) reward (12) involved (13) adverse (14) adaptive(15) vulnerability (16) alternative (17) context (18) due to (19) compensation (20) scheduled

47 Key to Exercises 4. Translation a. Chinese to English: Translate the following sentences into English. (2) Concentrating on time passing, as we do when bored, will trigger brain activity which make it seem as though the clock is ticking more slowly. (1) Bending under the weight of the packs, sweating, they climbed steadily in the pine forest that covered the mountainside. Home To Be Continued

48 Key to Exercises 4. Translation a. Chinese to English: Translate the following sentences into English. (3) Unemployment shot up in France during the second quarter, and the country’s top financial official said the situation will continue to aggravate even if a global economic recovery gathers pace. It was the worst quarterly unemployment in France since Home (4) As social practice continues to develop, we should keep renewing our ideas and make innovations courageously in light of practical needs. To Be Continued

49 Key to Exercises 4. Translation a. Chinese to English Translate the following sentences into English. (6) The U.S. government has called on people to save water because the scarcity of water has become a source of global tension ecologically, economically and politically. (5) Bicycles are regarded as an economical alternative to buses whose fares have increased 3 times in the past few years. Home To Be Continued

50 Key to Exercises 4. Translation a. Chinese to English Translate the following sentences into English. (7) In order to be a recognized leader in the industry, it’s essential for a company to improve production quality and tap the overseas market through the help of state-of-the-art technologies and equipment. Home (8) If you are thinking about coming to Britain for Christmas, it might be a good idea to think again. That’s because thousands of Christmas travelers have been stranded in the U.K. as adverse whether conditions caused massive disruption to the transport infrastructure.

51 Key to Exercises 4. Translation a. Chinese to English Translate the following paragraph into English. Scientists say the warming of planet will be gradual, but that extreme weather events will increase in frequency and intensity. They say the effects of more storms, floods, droughts and heat waves will be abrupt and profound. The World Health Organization says the effect of so-called climate sensitive diseases already are killing millions of people. Home To Be Continued

52 Key to Exercises 4. Translation a. Chinese to English Translate the following paragraph into English. Climate change is a global phenomenon. While no country will be exempt, she says its consequence will not be evenly distributed. The WHO chief says poor countries that are already struggling with huge problems will be most affected. Fragile health systems in the developing world will come under increased stress. They will have great difficulty coping with the increased burden of disease and other health problems. Home

53 Key to Exercises 4. Translation b. English to Chinese Translate the following paragraph into Chinese. 很多权威的气候学家都曾发出过这样的警告:如果我们现在 的温度超过工业化前 2 摄氏度( 3.6 华氏度)的话,我们将迈 进一个危险的未知国度。何时全球变暖的影响会变得让人难 以忍受,没有人知道一个确切的度数。也没人知道这种影响 是渐变的诸如干旱,洪水,飓风,热浪等的气候恶化,还是 一种突然的灾难性气候变化,如格林兰岛或西南极洲冰盖的 坍塌和海平面的上涨。不过我们还是在我们唯一的家园里不 断做着危险和不受控制的尝试。这也是为什么越来越多的年 轻人开始将气候变化视为他们这一代的挑战。 Home

54 Key to Exercises 4. Translation b. English to Chinese Read the passage carefully and translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. (1) 双方相信,应对气候变化应该尊重发展中国家把经济和社 会发展作为优先事项,并相信向低碳经济转型是促进国家经 济持续增长和可持续发展的机会。 (2) 中美双方决心根据各自国情采取重要减缓活动,并认识到 两国在促成加强应对世界气候变化能力的可持续成果方面具 有重要作用。双方决心支持这些承诺。 Home To Be Continued

55 Key to Exercises 4. Translation b. English to Chinese Read the passage carefully and translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. (3) 在此背景下,双方致力于在哥本哈根会议达成最终的法律协议,同 时相信,在共同但有区别的责任原则和各自能力的基础上,大成的成果 应包括发达国家的减排目标和发展中国家的国内适当减缓行动。 (4) 基于中美两国在电动汽车领域的巨大投资,两国宣布在十几个城市开 展联合示范项目,并努力开发共同的技术标准以推动该产业规模快速增 长。 (5) 通过该伙伴关系,两国将就大规模利用风能,太阳能,先进生物燃 料和现代电网等方面制定路线,并在设计和执行这一远景所需的政策和 技术手段方面进行合作。 Home

56 Key to Exercises 5. Writing Direction: For this part, you are supposed to write a composition on the topic Should Universities lower Admission Requirements for Celebrities?. You should base your composition on the outline below. 1 )近年来很多名牌大学都会降低标准招收名人学生,一些人强烈反对这 样做 2 )但也有不少人认为这很正常 3 )你对此的看法是 …… ,为什么? Write an essay in English with 150 word at least under the title below. SAMPLE Home

57 Key to Exercises In recent years, many famous universities have lowered admission requirements for celebrities. More and more celebrities, especially sports stars, have been admitted to famous universities, sometimes even without an entry examination. This phenomenon has become a subject of widespread controversy. Some people strongly oppose this practice in that they regard this admission pattern much devastating to the basic rule of fairness in education. In addition, they say that those persons with less academic ability being easily admitted to college would be a hurt on the whole educational system, since they present a set of distorted values to young people. However, still other people think it acceptable. They claim that these celebrities deserve this privilege because they have proved their abilities in their field. Besides, in their opinions, these celebrities to some extent set a good model for other young people. Weighing these two arguments, I prefer the latter one. For one thing, these celebrities have sacrificed much learning time for their work, so they should be provided a better chance for learning. For another, if they accept advanced education, they could serve the society better. Therefore, I suggest that people should pay more attention to these celebrities’ efforts and contributions rather than the special treatment they enjoy. SAMPLE Home

58 Text B Living a Low-Carbon Lifestyle Key to the Exercises a. Fill in the blanks with the words or phrases given below. Change the form where necessary. (1) perilously (2) in harmony with (3) tricky (4) nurture (5) make a difference (6) insulated (7) depleted (8) step back (9) sustain (10) by way of

59 Text B Living a Low-Carbon Lifestyle Key to the Exercises b. Complete the sentences with the information given in the text. 1. more efficient; kinder; fair; above all sustainable 2. keep you comfortable; make life easier; do the things you want to do 3. simplify the meter reading process; easy and enlightening; fun 4. are lined; covering radiation 5. coming on; warm enough; you’re not heating rooms 6. find a balance between he actions we can do; having to compromise on our quality of life 7. for the strictly necessary amount of time; hot/warm food 8. the curtains; the doors between rooms 9. reducing our energy consumption; traveling more efficiently 10. easily reused and recyled; with the lowest packaging

60 (1) T (2) F (3) T (4) F (5) F (6) F (7) T (8) F (9) T (10) F Text B Living a Low-Carbon Lifestyle Key to the Exercises c. Decide whether the statement is True or False according to the text.

61 THANK YOU! Quit

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