2European BackgroundHistorically, institutional confinement has been used since ancient times, but not until the 1600s and 1700s as a major punishment for criminals. Prior to that it was used to:Detain people before trialHold prisoners awaiting other sanctionsCoerce payment of debts and finescontinued…
3European Background Hold and punish slaves Achieve religious indoctrination (the Inquisition)Quarantine disease
4Forerunners of Modern Incarceration Modern incarceration strives to change the offender’s character and is carried out away from public view.Early punishments for crime were directed more at the offender’s body and property. Goals were to inflict pain, humiliate the offender, and deter onlookers from crime.
5Forerunners of Modern Incarceration Two additional forerunners of modern incarceration were:BanishmentTransportation
6banishment transportation A punishment, originating in ancient times, that required offenders to leave the community and live elsewhere, commonly in the wilderness.transportationA punishment in which offenders were transported from their home nation to one of that nation’s colonies to work.
7Forerunners of Modern Incarceration The closest European forerunners of modern U.S. prisons were known as workhouses.workhousesEuropean forerunners of the modern U.S. prison, where offenders were sent to learn discipline and regular work habits.
8Developments in the United States In colonial America, penal practice was loose, decentralized, and unsystematic, combining private retaliation with fines, banishment, harsh corporal punishments, and capital punishment.
9The Penitentiary Movement The Walnut Street Jail opened in 1790 in Philadelphia and is considered the first state prison.Inmates labored in solitary cells and received large doses of religious training.
10The Penitentiary Movement Pennsylvania and New York pioneered the penitentiary movement by developing two competing systems of confinement:The Pennsylvania systemThe Auburn system
11Pennsylvania systemAn early system of U.S. penology in which inmates were kept in solitary cells so that they could study religious writings, reflect on their misdeeds, and perform handicraft work.continued…
12Auburn systemAn early system of penology, originating at Auburn Penitentiary in New York, under which inmates worked and ate together in silence during the day and were placed in solitary cells for the evening.
13The Penitentiary Movement By the end of the Civil War, many were questioning the value of the penitentiary movement, as prisons failed to deter crime, and became increasingly expensive to maintain.A new movement sought to improve the method of incarceration.
14The Reformatory Movement The reformatory movement was based on principles adopted at the 1870 meeting of the National Prison Association. The reformatory was designed:for younger, less hardened offenders.based on a military model of regimentation.with indeterminate terms.with parole or early release for favorable progress in reformation.
15Institutions for Women Until the reformatory era, there was little effort to establish separate facilities for women.The first women’s prison based on the reformatory model opened in Indiana in 1873.Women’s prisons concentrated on molding inmates to fulfill stereotypical domestic roles.
16Recent Trends - The Incarceration Boom Between 1980 and 2000, the adult prison population in the U.S. (state and federal) more than quadrupled.There are more than 1.4 million state and federal prisoners in U.S.
17Recent TrendsLocal jail populations saw a similar (less dramatic) trend.
18Cost EstimatesThe average yearly cost of incarceration per inmate is about $22,000.
19The Crowding IssueCrowding has become especially troublesome over the past two decades. The staggering increase in prison construction has frequently failed to keep pace with the increase in prison populations.
20The Crowding IssueThe prison population has exploded even as crime rates are stable, and in some cases even declining.
21Prison Inmate Characteristics 90% of prisoners in the U.S. are in state prisons; 10% are in federal prisons.
22Prison Inmate Characteristics The largest proportion of state prisoners are:MaleMinorityHave not completed high schoolUnder age 35Have never married
23Prison Inmate Characteristics The prison population is characterized as follows:About 50% are serving sentences for violent offensesAbout 20% for property offensesAbout 20% for drug offensesThe remainder for public order offenses
24Organization and Administration by Government Each state has a department of corrections or a similar administrative body to coordinate the various adult prisons in the state.Most adult prisons employ a quasi-military model of administration and management.
25Types of Facilities Some of the more common facility types are: Classification and other special facilitiesMen’s prisonsWomen’s prisonsJails and lockups
26Classification and Other Special Facilities Classification facility Most prisoners are initially sent to a classification facility.Classification facilityA facility to which newly sentenced offenders are taken so that their security risks and needs can be assessed and they can be assigned to a permanent institution.
27Classification and Other Special Facilities The decision of where to place an offender rests on a variety of factors:The offender’s security riskProgram services the offender needs, such as counselingAny problems such as alcohol dependencyThe nature of the offensecontinued…
28Classification and Other Special Facilities The offender’s prior record, propensity toward violence and escape, and vulnerability to victimization by other inmatesPrograms offered at the state’s institutions, and the related crowding levels
29Men’s PrisonsMen’s prisons, the most common general type of prison, are often distinguished by security level.security levelA designation applied to a facility to describe the measures taken, both inside and outside, to preserve security and custody.
30Men’s Prisons The simplest security level categorization is: maximum mediumminimum
31Men’s PrisonsMaximum-security facilities are characterized by very tight internal and external security.
32Men’s Prisons Common security measures include: A high wall or razor-wire fencingArmed-guard towersElectronic detectorsExternal armed patrolA wide, open buffer zone between the outer wall or fence and the communitycontinued…
33Men’s Prisons Restrictions on inmate movement The capability of closing off areas to contain riots or disruptions
34Men’s PrisonsA recent development is the “ultramaximum” or “supermaximum-security” prison to house notorious offenders and problem inmates from other institutions.These institutions utilize:Total isolation of inmatesConstant lockdowns
35Men’s PrisonsMedium-security institutions place fewer restrictions on inmate movement inside the facility.Characteristics often include:Dormitory or barracks-type living quartersNo external security wallBarbed wire rather than razor wireFences and towers that look less forbidding
36Men’s PrisonsMinimum-security prisons are smaller and more open.
37Men’s Prisons They often house inmates who: Have established records of good behaviorAre nearing releaseCharacteristics often include:Dormitory or barracks living quartersNo fencesSome inmates may be permitted to leave during the day to work or studySome inmates may be granted furloughs
38Men’s Prisons Individual inmates are classified by custody level. Although custody levels are sometimes designated by the same terms as security levels, they are independent of each other.
39Women’s PrisonsWomen make up about 7% of the prison population, but the incarceration rate for women has grown faster than the incarceration rate for men.A greater proportion of women than men are serving sentences for property offenses.Women are more likely to have dependent children and to be serving their first prison term.
40Women’s PrisonsPrisons exclusively for women tend to be smaller and house fewer inmates than institutions exclusively for men.Dorm and cottage plans are much more common than cell-block plans for women’s prisons.
41Jails and LockupsSuspects usually stay in a lockup for only 24 to 48 hours.A suspect may later be transferred from the lockup to the jail.
42Jails and LockupsIn practice, a jail serves a catchall function in criminal justice and corrections. A jail may hold:Convicted offenders serving short sentencesConvicted offenders awaiting transfer to prisonOffenders who have violated their probation or paroleDefendants who are awaiting trial
43Prison ServicesMany of the human services and programs found in the free society are duplicated within prisons:Food servicesBuilding maintenance and repair (often performed by inmates)Medical and dental servicesMail and phone servicescontinued…
44Prison Services Visitations Commissaries where prisoners can purchase food, tobacco, radios, and reading materialsRecreational facilitiesLegal resourcesReligious services
45Prison ServicesAll institutions have special-needs populations, in particular:Elderly inmates who require more medical attentionInmates with mental disordersInmates with HIV and AIDS
46Prison ServicesIt has long been assumed that rehabilitation can be facilitated by improving inmates’ academic skills and providing them with job skills.Much prison education amounts to remedial schooling designed to prepare inmates to obtain their GEDs.
47Prison ServicesSome prison vocational programs operate as part of job assignments, others are separate.Either way, the goal is to provide inmates with job skills that will improve their marketability upon release.
48Prison ServicesCounseling and therapy offered in prisons varies widely.Sometimes individual counseling (one-on-one with a counselor) and group counseling are both offered.