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Experiencing English 2. Unit 8 Computers and Security.

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1 Experiencing English 2

2 Unit 8 Computers and Security

3 In this unit, you will first listen, and then talk about computers and security ; read about computer viruses and the damage they may inflict ; learn new words and expressions; write about what should be done to protect against computer viruses ; practice the use of omission and emphasis ; write an Internet notice check goals; visit Culture Salon for an introduction to milestones in computer history

4 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Lead in Dialogue Samples Passage A Teaching procedures I. Listen and Talk II. Read and Explore III. Culture Salon Related Information Notes to the Text Summary of the Text Words and Expressions Understanding the Text Think About It hom e

5 Listen Unit 8 Computers and Security Talkand Part I

6 Unit 8 Computers and Security Directions: Listen to the following passage and try to fill the missing words. Click here to listen. Have you ever listed everything the computer does to enhance modern life? From finding research to doing research, from 1. __________ use to home use, from 2. ___________ with friends and family to searching for a job, computers simplify our lives and allow us to learn and 3. _________ things with the click of a mouse. The Internet is like a highway system, moving bits of information across telephone lines and cables with such speed that when we 4. __________ the web address or search for websites, within seconds the information appears on the computer screen. The 5. __________ of the computer and the Internet has revolutionized how we live and work. How did we ever 6. __________ __________without computers? There is 7. ___________ in all things and the computer is not an exception. While it provides us with many good things at our fingertips, there are those who 8. __________ programs that infect the computer with “viruses” which destroy its 9. __________ and frustrate the computer owner. Anti- virus programs, however, are 10. ___________ to combat the problem. Cybercrime is also rising as Internet privacy is violated in a variety of ways, creating the need for better Internet security systems to be developed.

7 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Keys 1.Business 2. communicating 3. discover 4. type in 5. invention 6. get along 7. opposition 8. create 9. memory 10. available

8 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Dialogue Samples Dialogue 1 Talking About Computer Security Key words and patterns: ◆ Xiaozhou, I can ’ t believe what ’ s happened. My computer won ’ t start. ◆ I did just download what I thought was a really great game. ◆ unauthorized software ◆ I just don ’ t see why it ’ s such a big deal. ◆ sure, no problem.

9 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Dialogue 2 Talking About Computer Viruses key words and patterns: ◆ Was there any message in the ? ◆ an with an attachment ◆ How did the virus get my name and address? The was addressed to me. ◆ pick up the virus ◆ Just be on the safe side. ◆ I ’ ll do that right away.

10 Unit 8 Computers and Security Directions: Listen to the following paragraphs and decide which picture is described in detail. Click here to listen.

11 The photos are all related to Computers and Security. Describe them to your classmates with the help of the following question. 1.What are the basic skills you need to be effective in using computers ? 2.How do you think the Internet can help in our modern life? Explain. 3.How can you avoid being a victim of cybercrime? Unit 8 Computers and Security

12 Read Exploreand Part II

13 You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye Passage A

14 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security New words and phrases: 1. adequate a. enough or satisfactory 足够的 eg: The city ’ s water supply is no longer adequate for its needs. 2. agenda n. a list of the subjects to be dealt with or talked about at a meeting 议程 eg: What ’ s on the agenda for this afternoon ’ s meeting? 3. Continual a. repeated often and over a long time 多次重复的;频繁的 eg: He ignores the continual warnings of his nurse.

15 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security 4. Document n. a paper or set of papers with written or printed information; or the same thing transmitted electronics by fax or eg: The document has been saved to your computer. 5. Guarantee n. a formal declaration or promise that something will be done 保证 eg: Wealth is no guarantee of happiness. 6. Harbor v. give protection 庇护 eg: Harboring criminals is an offence in law. 7. Infect v. cause illness by the movement of an organism into a living thing 传染

16 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security eg: Don ’ t come near me if you ’ ve got a cold-- -I don ’ t want to be infected. 8. Inflict v. force (something or someone unpleasant or unwanted) on someone 使遭受, 强加给 eg: Don ’ t inflict your ridiculous ideas on me. 9. Innocent a. knowing nothing of evil or wrong 纯真的 eg: Don ’ t be so innocent as to believe everything you hear. 10. Malicious a. 恶毒的 eg: a malicious attack on his reputation.

17 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security 11. Odd a. occasional eg: We got the odd complaints but most of our customers seem satisfied with our service. 12. Recede v. move back or away 逐渐消退 eg: His hair is beginning to recede from forehead. 13. Threat n. an expression of an intention to hurt, punish, cause pain 威胁,恐吓 an expression of an intention to hurt, punish, cause pain 威胁,恐吓 eg: The threat of an economic depression hangs over the world.

18 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security 14. Update v. make more modern or suitable for use now by adding new information or changing its design 更新 eg: The date will need updating from time to time. 15. Urban a. of or in a city or town 城市的 eg: the urban population 16 at risk: in danger 处于危险 eg: The disease is spreading rapidly, and all children under ten are at risk. 17. pick up: notice 注意到

19 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security eg: We picked up signals for help from the burning plane. 18. in pursuit of: with the aim of obtaining 追 求 eg: We immediately set out in pursuit of the enemy. 19. let...down: make unsuccessful by failing to achieve a good enough standard 使 ··· 失灵,使 ··· 不能发挥水平 eg: We had thought that we could rely on them, but they let us down.

20 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security 20. set in (something unhappy) begins and seems likely to continue 开始 eg: Before the boat could reach shore, a storm had set in. 21. or so about 大约 eg: Mr. Smith will be back in a day or so.

21 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Lead-in Pictures Before reading Passage A, describe the following pictures.

22 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Lead-in Questions 1. Do you often download free software from the Internet? Explain. 2. Have you installed anti-virus software on your computer? What is it? 3. Is it possible for us to find a way to get rid of computer viruses permanently? (Click the button below to go to each part.)

23 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Notes to the Text Click the following words to listen to the text. Listen to the whole text. Listen to paragraph 1. Listen to paragraph 2. Listen to paragraph 3. Listen to paragraph 4. Listen to paragraph 5. Listen to paragraph 6. Listen to paragraph 7. Listen to paragraph 8. Listen to paragraph 9. Listen to paragraph 10. Listen to paragraph 11. Listen to paragraph 12.

24 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Summary of the Text The weakest link in the protection of a company's computers against viruses is the individual computer user. There is a strong tendency that the employees assume it is the company's computer security experts' job to worry about the viruses and they can bring the problem under control. But everyone must do their share to prevent viruses. Any unsolicited attachment or any untested type of software may contain a virus.

25 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Summary of the Text Even the best anti-virus software is not always effective and must be frequently updated. Constant education of all employees about viruses is the key to virus prevention. No one should ever be allowed to relax their defenses, even if this means the company must have some rules set that employees might not like.

26 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Understanding the Text 1. Who do employees turn to for help when their computers are affected by a virus? They turned to the IT staff in their company for help.

27 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Understanding the Text 2. What are the several malicious computer viruses mentioned in the passage? Viruses such as Melissa, the Love Bug, etc. have caused great damage to the world.

28 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Understanding the Text 3. Are employees always alert to computer viruses? Explain. No, they aren't. They forget about the harm a computer virus may bring when that virus is off news headlines.

29 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Understanding the Text 4. What are the cases when employees might put their company at risk? They are putting their company at risk when they are opening unsolicited attachments and downloading unauthorized software.

30 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Understanding the Text 5. Do you agree with the author that the human factor is the most important to protect a company against virus attack? Explain. Open.

31 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye Do you remember the good old days? Innocent times spent sharing documents and executable files without a care in the world. Okay, every month or so you might encounter a boot sector virus — but they were easy to deal with even if the anti-virus software didn't pick them up. Innocentor so encounter But those long lazy summers disappeared too fast. Macro viruses made Information Technology (IT) administrators grow up fast as they realized there was a type of virus which could spread very quickly throughout an organization. It wasn't unusual to findBut those long lazy summers disappeared too fast. Macro viruses

32 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security hundreds of computers within personal company infected by viruses transmitted via attachments. The IT staff were amongst the fittest departments in your company, running from Personal Computer (PC) to the next cleaning them up. hundreds of computers within personal company infected by viruses transmitted via attachments. Personal Computer (PC) There had to be a better way. Companies now realize that viruses aren't "urban myths", and can have a serious impact on their operations. They invest in anti-virus software on the desktops, servers and gateways and even put in place procedures to ensure their anti-virus is up-to-date with the very latest detection routines. Companies now realize that viruses aren't "urban myths", and can have a serious impact on their operations.

33 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security It sounds like companies have put in place adequate defenses to protect against viruses. But have they? in place adequate Anti-virus software detects most of the viruses your users are likely to encounter — often without the user even knowing. However, the software must be updated regularly, preferably daily in any large company. Even then, a very new virus can infect your users. With the rapid transmission of files through networks and the Internet, a virus can spread a considerable distance before it can be identified and protected against. Fortunately, only a few viruses everupdatedWith the rapid transmission of files through networks and the Internet, a virus can spread a considerable distance before it can be identified and protected against

34 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security do this but the likes of Melissa and the Love Bug can inflict serious damage before their progress is stopped. Whilst employees become suddenly aware during the ensuing media excitement, they soon forget about the virus threat as the stories disappear from the news headlines. Melissa the Love Bug

35 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security This is the danger. Complacency can set in when there is no perceived "action" on the virus front with no global crisis, and the importance of being vigilant about viruses recedes in your users' minds. They forget what the big deal was in the first place — after all, the anti-virus software deals with the viruses, doesn't it? And isn't it the IT department's job to look after this sort of thing? Complacency can set in when there is no perceived "action" on the virus front with no global crisis, and the importance of being vigilant about viruses recedes in your users' minds. in the first place

36 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Before you know it your users are opening unsolicited attachments once more, downloading unauthorized software, and putting your company's data and credibility at risk. All because the users think that they are working in a safe environment. Employees see anti-virus software, firewalls and IT departments as guarantees that their computers will work and will be safe. Of course, there aren't any guarantees. Anti- virus software plays one, albeit important, part in the defense of your company from malicious attack but the security of your computer system is only as strong as the weakest link. And that, more often than not, is the human factor. at riskbut the security of your computer system is only as strong as the weakest link.

37 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security No employer wants to come across as a killjoy or an ogre. Most will willingly accept that the happiest employees are those who feel that they are respected and trusted by their employer. Many companies accept that employees will send and receive a certain amount of personal and make the odd personal telephone call. However, the worry comes when employees start risking company security in pursuit of personal amusement. Funny screensavers and games downloaded from the Internet can seem harmless enough but they could easily be harboring a dangerous virus. come across as However, the worry comes when employees start risking company security in pursuit of personal amusement.

38 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Software downloaded from the net is often unlicensed and unsupported, and may cause conflicts with existing software in use at your company. Unlicensed, pirated software is an ideal vector for a computer virus. Virus writers and hackers often use such software as the ideal "kick-start" for their virus distribution. conflictsVirus writers and hackers often use such software as the ideal "kick-start" for their virus distribution.

39 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security It is vitally important that employees be educated about the virus threat but this cannot be a one-off event. The potential threat should always be in the back of an employee's mind and precautionary measures should be taken as a matter of course. There is no harm in reminding people about what could happen if they let their guard down. In the end, education is the key to a virus-free environment and this is a continual process. It may not be the most exciting thing on the agenda but it works. The potential threat should always be in the back of an employee's mind and precautionary measures should be taken as a matter of course.

40 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security The lesson is simple. You can have the best software in the world protecting your company's defenses; you can even be the biggest IT company in the world; but without your users practicing safe computing they will always be the weakest link.

41 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 1.innocent: ( of things) harmless, knowing nothing of evil or wrong; (of people) guiltless Examples: An innocent prank turned into disaster. He was pronounced innocent of the charge.charge

42 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 2. or so: about Examples: There will be twenty or so people at the party. In another year or so, you will have forgotten all about him.about him.

43 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 3. encounter: meet or be faced by (something bad, esp. a danger or a difficulty); meet unexpectedly Examples: The plane encountered a storm over the Rockies. He encountered many interesting people on his travels. travels

44 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 4. infect: fill with disease, germs, give disease to (a person) Examples: This meat is infected because of the hot weather. The flu virus infected almost the entire class.class

45 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 5. transmit: send or pass from one person, place or thing to another Examples: The material was transmitted by satellite throughout the world. This kind of disease sometimes transmits to humans. humans

46 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 6. in place: in the right or proper place Examples: He nodded approvingly, his wide grin still in place. The books were in place on the shelves.shelves

47 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 7. adequate: enough for the purpose Examples: What should be done to assure adequate supplies of energy? There was adequate rain and snow last winter. winter

48 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 8. update: make more modern or up-to-date Examples: The information will need updating from time to time. The speech had been corrected and updated after the last-minute reports from abroad. abroad

49 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 9. identify: prove or show who or what somebody is or something is Examples: Could you identify your umbrella among a hundred others? The light was too dim for me to identify her.identify her

50 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 10. set in: begin and (probably) continue Examples: Fortunately the wound was treated before infection could set in. I must try and get my garden tidied up before the bad weather sets in.sets in

51 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 11. in the first place: at an earlier, more appropriate time Examples: Why didn't you tell us that in the first place? Nobody can remember what was agreed in the first place.the first place.

52 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 12. at risk: in danger Examples: The disease is spreading, and all children under 5 are at risk. The economy sill fall further, putting more jobs at risk.at risk

53 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 13. come across as: seem to be (judging from behavior or actions) Examples: He came across (to me) as (being) quite a nice person. He came across to voters as (being) honest, sincere and hard-working.hard-working

54 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Words and Expressions 14. conflict: disagreement, opposition Examples: They tried to stir up conflicts between us. No one expected this to be the last conflict between the two countries. countries

55 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Notes to the Text 1. But those long lazy summers disappeared too fast. (para. 2) That summer doesn't last as long as we would like it to last. 那些长长的夏日,悠闲自得,可惜消逝得太快。可惜消逝得太快。

56 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Notes to the Text 2.It wasn't unusual to find hundreds of computers within one company infected by viruses transmitted via attachments. (para. 2) It was often the case that in the same company hundreds of computers would have viruses because the employees had opened attachments containing these viruses. 一家公司里的数百台计算机因为发送电子邮件附件而感染 病毒,这是十分平常的事。这是十分平常的事。

57 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Notes to the Text 3.Companies now realize that viruses aren't "urban myths", and can have a serious impact on their operations. (para. 3) Companies now understand that viruses are not modern made-up stories, and they can do great harm to a company's operations. 各家公司现在都意识到病毒并不是 “ 现代神话 ” ,而会严重影 响到公司的实际运作。实际运作

58 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Notes to the Text 4.With the rapid transmission of files through networks and the Internet, a virus can spread a considerable distance before it can be identified and protected against. (para. 5) With the fast spread of information through networked computers and the Internet, a virus can reach many computers before anything can be done about it. 通过网络和互联网,文件可以快速地传输,等到人们发现 一种病毒并加以防范时,病毒可能已经扩散到了相当的范 围。

59 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Notes to the Text 5.Complacency can set in when there is no perceived "action" on the virus front and no global crisis and the importance of being vigilant about viruses recedes in your users' minds.(para. 6) People may ignore viruses and stop worrying about them when no major worldwide viruses have been reported recently, and the need to be very on guard against viruses is easily forgotten.. 若病毒战线没有能察觉到的 “ 大动作 ” ,也没有全球性的危机, 人们就会变得心安理得,对病毒保持警惕的重要性的意识 就会在用户的脑子中渐渐淡化。渐渐淡化。

60 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Notes to the Text 6.but the security of your computer system is only as strong as the weakest link.(para. 5) But the security of your computer system against viruses rests with its user who is actually the weakest point. 公司的计算机系统安全与否实际上系于最薄弱的一个环节.的一个环节

61 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Notes to the Text 7.However, the worry comes when employees start risking company security in pursuit of personal amusement.(para. 9) But the worry arises when employees start breaking the company security rules in order to amuse or entertain themselves by doing personal downloading from the Internet. 但是,如果员工为了追求个人乐趣而置公司安全于不顾, 就着实堪忧了。 就着实堪忧了

62 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Notes to the Text 8.Virus writers and hackers often use such software as the ideal "kick-start" for their virus distribution.(para. 10) Virus writers and people who break into other people's computer files often use such software as the best means to get their viruses to start spreading. 制造病毒者以及黑客们经常利用这类软件作为病毒扩散的 理想开端。 理想开端。

63 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Notes to the Text 9.The potential threat should always be in the back of an employee's mind and precautionary measures should be taken as a matter of course.(para. 11) Employees should always be aware of the possibility of a virus infection and they should take protective measures as their daily routine. 员工的潜意识里应该随时留意潜在的危险,而且应该总是 采取防范措施。 采取防范措施。

64 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Personal Computer (PC) All computers, from the first room-sized mainframes, to today's powerful desktop, laptop and even hand-held PCs, perform the same general operations on information. What changes over time is the information handled, how it is handled, how much is moved around, and how quickly and efficiently it can be done.

65 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security The Internet The Internet is a computer network made up of thousands of networks worldwide. No one knows exactly how many computers are connected to the Internet. It is certain, however, that these number in the millions and are increasing at a rapid rate. An Internet user has access to a wide variety of services: electronic mail, file transfer, vast information resources, interest group membership, interactive collaboration, multimedia displays, real-time broadcasting, shopping opportunities, breaking news, and much more. The most popular search engine on the Internet -- Yahoo

66 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Even with the multimedia excitement of the Web, Electronic Mail ( ) is the most frequently used application of the Internet. Many people who have access to the Internet at school, home, and work, use the Internet for no other purpose than to send and receive . allows computer users locally and worldwide to exchange messages. Each user of has a mailbox address to which messages are sent. Messages sent through can arrive within a matter of seconds. Junk What is an address made up of? Junk slows down genuine messages and invade the privacy of users.

67 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Computer Virus A computer virus is a program that invades your computer system, hides there, and makes copies of itself. Viruses spread when you launch an infected application or start up your computer from a disk that has infected system files. All computer viruses are manmade. A simple virus that can make a copy of itself over and over again is relatively easy to produce. Even such a simple virus is dangerous because it will quickly use all available memory and bring the system to a halt. It is highly recommended that you have Virus Protection installed in your computer before you consider downloading anything.

68 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Macro Viruses Macro viruses are computer viruses that use an application's own macro programming language to distribute themselves. These macros have the potential to inflict damage to the document or to other computer software. The infecting files can be modified or deleted and may not be recoverable.

69 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Melissa Melissa affects Word documents. If launched, the macro virus will attempt to start Microsoft Outlook to send copies of the infected document via to up to 50 people in Outlook’s address book as an attachment. The subject line reads "Important Message from [the name of someone]," and the message reads "Here is that document you asked for...don't show anyone else ;-)".

70 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security The Love Bug The virus is circulating through and affecting many customers. If run, the virus could overwrite.jpg,.mp3, and other file types, and attempt to send a copy of itself to everyone in the recipient's address book. The containing the virus typically carries a subject line of "ILOVEYOU". Inside the mail is a short message saying "Kindly check the attached LOVELETTER coming from me" and an attachment named LOVE-LETTER-FOR-YOU.txt.vbs. The Love Bug virus is also called the Loveletter Virus, or simply I Love You.

71 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Culture Salon Milestones in Computer History Microsoft releases Windows 3.1, the latest version of its Windows operating system. Windows 3.1 offers improvements such as True Type fonts, multimedia capability, and object linking and embedding (OLE). In two months, 3,000,000 copies of Windows 3.1 are sold. 1993Marc Andreessen creates a graphical Web browser called Mosaic. This success leads to the organization of Netscape Communications Corporation. 1994Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen found Netscape and launch Netscape Navigator 1.0, a browser for the World Wide Web. 1995Microsoft releases Windows 95 which consists of more than 10,000,000 lines of computer instructions developed by 300 person-years of effort. 1996An innovative technology called webtv combines television and the Internet by providing viewers with tools to navigate the Web. 1997Microsoft releases Internet Explorer 4.0 and seizes a key place in the Internet arena. This new Web browser is greeted with tremendous customer demand. 1998Apple Computer introduces the iMac, the latest version of its popular Macintosh computer. The iMac abandons such conventional features as a floppy disk drive but wins customers with its futuristic design, see-through case, and easy setup. 1999Microsoft introduces Office 2000, offering new tool for users to create content and save it directly to a Web site.

72 Experiencing English 2 Unit 8 Computers and Security Goal Checking On a scale of A to E, where A stands for “very well”, B for “well”, C for “moderately well”, D for “not very well”, and E for “not at all”, rate how well you have achieved the goals set at the beginning of this unit. A B C D E talk about computers and security A B C D E understand the two reading passages A B C D E use the new words and expressions A B C D E explain what should be done to protect against computer viruses A B C D E use omission and emphasis A B C D E write Internet notice A B C D E understand the introduction to the milestones in computer history If you have given yourself a C or lower rating on any of these goals, please: visit the Experiencing English website for additional help. review the section that you found difficult. ask your teacher for extra help. work with a peer or form a study group to reinforce your progress.-

73 Thank You!


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