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Hate Groups and the Internet Jasmine, Lea, Adam, and Mike.

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Presentation on theme: "Hate Groups and the Internet Jasmine, Lea, Adam, and Mike."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hate Groups and the Internet Jasmine, Lea, Adam, and Mike

2 Hate Groups and the Internet “The price of freedom is eternal vigilance.” -- Thomas Jefferson “We do not have censorship. What we have is a limitation on what newspapers can report.” -- Louis Nel, Deputy Minister of Information, South Africa “People demand freedom of speech to make up for the freedom of thought which they avoid.” -- Søren Kierkegaard

3 Outline Legal Background “Expression” Hate Web Sites “Action” Hate Web Sites Examples and Conclusion

4 Legal Background Free speech is often instrumental in bringing about social change and righting injustice even when in opposition to public opinion. It does have some legal restrictions which make it less than absolute.

5 Legal Background “It is well understood that the right of free speech is not absolute at all times and under all circumstances. There are certain well-defined and narrowly limited classes of speech, the prevention and punishment of which have never been thought to raise any Constitutional problem. These include the lewd and obscene, the profane, the libelous, and the insulting or 'fighting' words--those which by their very utterance inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of the peace. It has been well observed that such utterances are no essential part of any exposition of ideas, and are of such slight social value as a step to truth that any benefit that may be derived from them is clearly outweighed by the social interest in order and morality.” -- Justice Murphy, Decision in Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire

6 Legal Background Fighting words - “words which have a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person to whom, individually, the remark is addressed.”

7 Legal Background Fighting words - “words which have a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person to whom, individually, the remark is addressed.” That ruling gave the states certain discretion in regulating “fighting words,” but the Court has routinely kept the states in check with regard to vaguely-worded legislation.

8 Legal Background Fighting words - “words which have a direct tendency to cause acts of violence by the person to whom, individually, the remark is addressed.” That ruling gave the states certain discretion in regulating fighting words, but the Court has routinely kept the states in check with regard to vaguely-worded legislation. “Fighting words doctrine” in printed or online format not well understood, since there is no immediacy to their delivery.

9 Legal Background A second doctrine, “clear and present danger,” can be used to suppress speech which advocates illegal action. Proximity and degree are important factors in determining if this applies to a given situation.

10 Legal Background A second doctrine, “clear and present danger,” can be used to suppress speech which advocates illegal action. Proximity and degree are important factors in determining if this applies to a given situation. This too has been watered down by the Court, which has been adamant in its insistence that states prove an eminent danger before they are allowed to exercise police power.

11 Legal Background A second doctrine, “clear and present danger,” can be used to suppress speech which advocates illegal action. Proximity and degree are important factors in determining if this applies to a given situation. This too has been watered down by the Court, which has been adamant in its insistence that states prove an eminent danger before they are allowed to exercise police power. Assuming the threat of a website is immediate enough, “clear and present danger” can be a potential tool for anti- hate group advocates.

12 Legal Background Finally, libel and slander are considered restricted forms of speech since they present untruths and foster unwarranted social and moral conflicts for those attacked.

13 Legal Background Finally, libel and slander are considered restricted forms of speech since they present untruths and foster unwarranted social and moral conflicts for those attacked. In Beauharnais v. Illinois, the Court ruled that it can be illegal to defame a class of people, although subsequent rulings have essentially invalidated that ruling.

14 Legal Background Finally, libel and slander are considered restricted forms of speech since they present untruths and foster unwarranted social and moral conflicts for those attacked. In Beauharnais v. Illinois, the Court ruled that it can be illegal to defame a class of people, although subsequent rulings have essentially invalidated that ruling. In Tally v. California, the Court overturned a state law requiring publishing information on political pamphlets. This would imply a more lenient stance on free speech.

15 Legal Background The legal precedents regarding free speech have been inconsistent over time. The Courts go through alternating periods of libertarianism and strong social conscience.

16 “Expression” Web Sites While one can argue that all hate speech has a certain degree of malice and purpose, much of it is still valid free speech.

17 “Expression” Web Sites The individual experience of hate speech is entirely subjective, further complicating its action/expression status.

18 “Expression” Web Sites “White Separatists” - a racist collective that believe in the inborn superiority of whites. White Aryan Resistance --

19 “Expression” Web Sites “White Separatists” - a racist collective that believe in the inborn superiority of whites. Group focuses on subtle actions individuals can use to improve the position of the white race, and does not necessarily endorse overt acts of racism. White Aryan Resistance --

20 “Expression” Web Sites Doesn’t embrace traditional ultra- conservative viewpoints on religion, nationalism, or violence. White Aryan Resistance --

21 “Expression” Web Sites Doesn’t embrace traditional ultra- conservative viewpoints on religion, nationalism, or violence. Calls of separation, not slaughter -- Separatists want the white race to flourish independently of supposedly “inferior” races. White Aryan Resistance --

22 “Expression” Web Sites A less creative organization which simply espouses all traditional neo-fascist viewpoints with little regard for a cohesive ideology. Nationalist.org --

23 “Expression” Web Sites A less creative organization which simply espouses all traditional neo-fascist viewpoints with little regard for a cohesive ideology. Seems overly preoccupied with protecting the Confederate flag and hailing Mississippi as the cradle of free thought. Nationalist.org --

24 “Expression” Web Sites This site presents “news” articles about subjects relevant to racists, going so far as to list individuals and groups who stand in the way of “progress.” Nationalist.org --

25 “Expression” Web Sites This site presents “news” articles about subjects relevant to racists, going so far as to list individuals and groups who stand in the way of “progress.” The lack of violent or suggestive speech on the site makes it more an outlet for expression than a call for action. Nationalist.org --

26 “Action” Web Sites A disturbing trend in recent websites is the targeting of individuals by hate groups, along with suggested actions towards them.

27 “Action” Web Sites The line between promoting ideology and enabling violence is often crossed by these groups.

28 “Action” Web Sites The Nuremberg Files -- An attempt to unite radical elements of the anti-abortion movement, and to disseminate information about doctors and clinics providing abortions.

29 “Action” Web Sites The Nuremberg Files -- An attempt to unite radical elements of the anti-abortion movement, and to disseminate information about doctors and clinics providing abortions. The stated goal of the site is to provide accountability for crimes against humanity when the movement is successful.

30 “Action” Web Sites The Nuremberg Files -- Addresses and phone numbers of listees included, resulting in easy harassment by movement sympathizers.

31 “Action” Web Sites The Nuremberg Files -- Addresses and phone numbers of listees included, resulting in easy harassment by movement sympathizers. In addition, three people on the list were murdered and their names consequently crossed off, indicating a collaboration between murderers and the website.

32 “Action” Web Sites The Nuremberg Files -- Recently the website operator opened a new site. This one features live webcams, where radical activists situate themselves outside clinics with camcorders and broadcast everyone entering or leaving the building. This gives would-be killers even more vital information.

33 Examples The Internet complicates free speech even more by blurring lines of jurisdiction, ensuring rapid dissemination of hate speech, and making cause-effect relationships uncertain. Furthermore, one has to make an effort to see hate speech on the net, which could make the viewer technically responsible for their own reaction.

34 Examples “Fact: Virtually all taxes today are directly, or indirectly, used to control and destroy the future of our race. Logic: Any program or method that circumvents taxes is a White revolutionary act. This even applies to tax avoidance by those that you perceive as your enemies, who are doing it purely for personal financial greed…Spread these ideas among even your non-racial contacts, since all tax avoidance and underground economic activity, directly helps our cause. It is easy and it is fun! Use your imagination, and start your war today.” - White Aryan Resistance

35 Examples “PHILADELPHIA - Proclaiming it ‘the vote to re-Americanize America,’ Richard Barrett hailed Mississippi's adoption of the Confederate flag at the Liberty Bell on election day. Covered by all major, national news media, Barrett termed the banner ‘that best-known symbol against communism, black-power and what remains of Lyndon Johnson's 'Great Society.' It even irritates even Japanese 'businessmen,' but is signaling 'closure' to the old Reconstruction and new freedom to America.’ Two-hundred police protected the news conference in front of Independence Hall after Nationalists had requirements for a million-dollar bond struck down. Newspapers nationwide reported Barrett as saying, ‘Today, Mississippi's vote rings the Liberty Bell.’ ‘Where are the demands of the favored few being denied, the same as we denied King George III? Mississippi,’ Barrett exclaimed, as onlookers applauded.” - Nationalist.org

36 Examples “ In order to facilitate this effort, you can help collect evidence against: 1) Persons who perform abortion (doctors, nurses, etc.); 2) Persons who own or direct abortion clinics; 3) Persons who provide protection to abortion clinics (security guards, escorts, law enforcement officers, etc.); and 4) Judges and politicians who pass or uphold laws authorizing child-killing or oppressing pro-life activists. These classes of individuals are all committing various crimes to which they should answer. We regard them all as "abortionists." The evidence we collect will be forwarded to several secure locations so that pro-abortion forces will not be able to destroy the evidence and prevent its future use. In addition, we will share copies of the pertinent information with local or national pro-life organizations which may need it in their work. Some of the information, for instance, may be very useful in a present day trial if the abortionist is being sued or charged with another crime. Other information may be useful in revealing to neighbors and colleagues of the abortionist by way of exposing the horrible crimes the people are committing. ” - Christiangallery.com

37 The End Any Questions?


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