2 Stanley Milgram Born on August 15, 1933 Psychologist Studied and taught atHarvard, Yale, and NYU
3 The Basis of the Experiment Began in July of ’61After trial of Adolf EichmannEichmann was ordered to electrocute prisoners during WWIIMilgrams’ Experiments were set up to answer the question….“Could it be that Eichmann and his million accomplices in the holocaust were just following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?”
4 Milgram’s Intentions He set up an experiment at Yale How much pain will an ordinary citizen would inflict on another person simply because he was ordered to by an experimental scientist or superior.
5 Milgram’s Intentions Cont. He wanted to prove that the willingness of adults will go to any lengths on the command of the authority constitutes the chief finding of the study and the fact most urgently demanding explanation.In other words…..
6 The ExperimentThe role of the experimental scientist was played by a stern, impassive biology teacher dressed in a technicians coat.The victim was played by an Irish-American accounted trained for the “shocking” role.The student who conducted the test was told that they were conducting a study on memory and learning in different situations.
7 The Experiment Cont.The student conducting the test was given a 45-volt electric shock that the tester was going to be given.The students believed that for every wrong answer the tester was given the 45-volt shock.After awhile, the testers were told to bang on the wall to tell them to stop to see if the student would continue.
8 The Experiment Cont.If the tester asked to stop, the student must ask them a succession of verbal responses in this order.Please continue.The experiment requires that you continue.It is absolutely essential that you continue.You have no other choice you must go on.
9 Results 60% > 1.2% Milgram before the tests polled students 1.2% said that the students would inflict the max. damage.The first set of experiment- 60% shocked to the max of 450-volts although did not enjoy it.60% > 1.2%
10 ResultsAlthough Milgram was looked at as crazy for conducting this test, he proved that under direct command, people will go to any lengths to obey that command.
11 Milgram’s Interpretations He elaborated to main theories out of the experiment.The theory of conformismThe agentic state theory
12 Theory of ConformismIt describes the fundamental relationship between the group of reference and the individual person. A subject who has neither ability nor expertise to make decisions will leave decision making to the group or hierarchy.
13 Agentic State TheoryThe essence of obedience consists in the fact that a person comes to view himself as the instrument for carrying out another person’s wishes, and he therefore no longer sees himself as responsible for his actions.
14 Variations of this experiment ZimbardoMovies like…Songs like...V for vendetta , Atrocity , Tenth level---- Peter Gabriel wrote a song called We do what we're told
15 Substitute: “A short dramatization of Stanley Milgram's 1961 psychology experiment” –student production (1:26)But to understand the ethical concerns, you need the five and a half minute version.