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N2ON2O CH 4 CO 2 Sustainability and Tree Fruit Production David Granatstein WSU-Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources Wenatchee, WA USA.

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Presentation on theme: "N2ON2O CH 4 CO 2 Sustainability and Tree Fruit Production David Granatstein WSU-Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources Wenatchee, WA USA."— Presentation transcript:

1 N2ON2O CH 4 CO 2 Sustainability and Tree Fruit Production David Granatstein WSU-Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources Wenatchee, WA USA IFTA Annual Conference, Pasco, WA, Feb. 28, 2011 Yakima Valley

2 CH 4 Outline ● What is ‘sustainability’? ● Examples for tree fruit ● Measuring sustainability ● Opportunities CO 2 N2ON2O CH 4 CO 2

3 Eroded wheat field >30 tons soil loss/ac/yr 5 bu soil lost for 1 bu wheat

4 Gulf of Mexico ‘dead zone’ Average size 7-8,000 sq. miles

5 Source: New Farm, Rodale Institute

6 Western Iowa Watershed Redesign Wells Creek watershed  Sediment-56%  Nitrogen-63%  Water runoff-24%  Downstream Cleanup cost-56% Chippewa Study Area  Sediment-35%  Nitrogen-51%  Water runoff-21%  Downstream Cleanup cost-35% Burkhart et al., 2005 Strategy: more integration of crops and livestock

7 Tree fruit does not have a lot of these problems. So what are the sustainability issues?

8 USDA-ARS Sustainability Issues Pesticides Worker exposure Residues on fruit Regulations Drift Pest resistance Water quality Endangered species

9 IPM and Biocontrol in Washington Apples Total kg a.i./yr Pesticide 1989 2000 Guthion 193,270 117,680 Dimethoate 5,410 60 Malathion 28,820 1,730 B.t. 370 11,090 Spinosad n.a. 3,000 Practice % growers using Field monitor9199 Econ. threshold3792 Use biocontrols3481 Source: WSU IPM survey Sustainability Issues Pesticides

10 Codling moth pheromone products used in Washington apple and pear orchards Total ha treated with pheromone products 0 8000 16000 24000 32000 40000 48000 19901992199419961998200020022004 CAMP Project 60% of area Source: J. Brunner 2008 – 85%

11 Rose gardens planted in 2000; parasitism increases thru the summer and has increased from 2001-2005 Courtesy: T. Unruh Agro-ecosystem Redesign ‘Rose Gardens’ Rosa woodsii

12 Sustainability Issues Water Water conservation ● micro sprinklers, drip irrigation ● soil moisture monitoring ● deficit irrigation Apples, Quincy, WA NRCS handbook (1985) 47” Quincy grower 12” Evaporative cooling ? Photo: L. Schrader Water Supply ● Lower summer flows ● Endangered fish Source: Seattle PI Receding Glaciers, WA

13 Sustainability Issues Energy Tractors Wind machines Pumps Trucking Fruit storage and packing Transport to markets Del Mar Farms Silver Bull GmbH

14 Sustainability Issues Labor Availability Cost Safety, training HR practices Community effects USA Pears

15 Social Sustainability Broetje Orchards “…75% of our profits to local, domestic, and international projects.”

16 Sustainability Issues Demand Decline in ‘Red Delicious’ apple production – Washington State

17 US per capita fresh fruit consumption 1970-2004: Orange -33% Banana +48% Grape +177% Total +24% Apple - flat, slight decline; Cherry - increase Predicted 5-8% increase for fruit from 2000-2020 Greater emphasis on fruit and vegetable consumption – ‘Five A Day’ campaign Growth in pre-sliced fruit – convenience factor, healthy snack food New fruit varieties, more focus on flavor Sustainability Issues Demand

18 Sustainability Issues Profitability WSU study – high density Fuji apple, 40 ha farm Variable costs$7350 / ha Fixed costs$6867 / ha Labor$ 3.12 / box Total growing + harvest$10.28 / box Warehouse costs$ 7.50/ box Breakeven$17.78 / box Ave. price 2000$12.75 / box Loss$6916 / ha 1995-2002 – price > breakeven in 4 of 8 years (Schotzko, 2004)

19 Sustainability Issues Demand and Profitability 2007200820092010 - - - - - $/box FOB - - - - - All varieties21.4016.7219.0519.93 Red Delicious19.7314.5216.3616.67 Honeycrisp44.6644.1840.6145.80 Sustainable Pricing Shepherd’s Grain – price based on transparent cost of production plus reasonable rate of return

20 Sustain: to endure, to last indefinitely Sustainability – a goal we move towards, not a threshold that is crossed Sustainability Sustainable Agriculture Balance economic, environmental, and social aspects “ A more sustainable farm” vs. “A sustainable farm” Is easier to say what is NOT sustainable than what is Is best judged in hindsight Is a relative term, depending on assumptions, conditions (e.g., energy, irrigation) Can agriculture be “sustainable” if the rest of society is not?

21 Pest management successes – IPM, biocontrol, reduced risk products Apple - Cydia pomonella control – change over time Lead arsenate DDT Azinphos-methyl Pheromone mating disruption Codling moth granulosis virus ?? Conventional then Conventional now Sustainability is Relative

22 ‘Pedestrian’ orchard benefits: - economic (faster returns, higher quality fruit, potentially lower labor costs for maintenance) - environmental (better IPM) - social (less risk of worker injury with few or no ladders) Dwarf treesLarge trees Has fruit production become more sustainable?

23 System comparison studies long term studies do they use the latest technology? Established standards soil erosion (tolerable soil loss) water quality (10 mg/L nitrate) pesticide residues, worker exposure Indices – soil quality, Env. Impact Quotient Economics – profitability, new farmers Social – family farms, community impacts, food quality and human health No single unifying measure How do we measure sustainability in agriculture?

24 Effect of orchard management system on sustainability indicators WSU Apple Systems Trial - Zillah, WA USA Conv. Integrated Organic Total energy input 516,489488,661 445,328 (MJ/ha) Environmental impact 2,893 2,211 466 rating Soil quality rating 0.70 0.81 0.83 TCSA 6th leaf (cm 2 ) 28.0 28.2 28.5 Fruit yield 1996-99 210 205 198 (MT/ha) Variable costs ($/ha/yr) 10,145 9,666 9,124 (Reganold et al., 2001)

25 Fieldprint Calculator Results for Corn Source: Keystone Alliance

26 What is a footprint ? A measure of the impact of a system, practice, or product on one or more environmental factors; need a reference point Food miles – ignores production energy, different transport forms Energy use – renewable or not; primary or embedded; input/output ratios Water – quantity, quality Global Warming Potential Life Cycle Assessment An environmental analysis; “cradle to grave”

27 Energy Regional Electricity Generation Fossil Fuel Production & Transport Pesticide Production & Transport Compost Production & Transport Trellis Production & Transport Plastic Sheet Production & Transport Fertilizer Production & Transport Seed/ Nursery Post- Harvest Production PlantFertilize Weed Control Pest Management TrellisHarvest Energy is an input to almost all processes; for simplicity, its arrows are not included in this diagram Preliminary Apple LCA Scoping Flow Chart System Boundary (IERE, 2001, unpublished)

28 New Zealand Apple LCA Energy Machinery use64-71% Fertilizers 5-11% Total energy = 420-720 MJ/Mt apples Differences among producers for same operation varied 40-80% GWP Energy related CO 2 emissions 34-50% Fertilizer 25-51% N 2 0: Urea > CAN GWP = 40-98 kg CO 2 e/Mt fruit Uncertainty: +/-50% is common (Milia i Canales et al., 2006)

29 Authorkg CO 2 e/Mt apple kg CO 2 e/ha NZ Milia i Canales 40 - 982560 - 4802 NZ Saunders et al. 1859250 UK Saunders et al. 2723808 Europe Kägi et al. 100 - 1703157 - 5490 Many Different LCA Numbers Use LCA to identify ‘hot spots’, compare production options, improve efficiency, make product claims

30 What’s driving sustainable ag standards and certification? Environmental movement Science Regulations Grower interest Consumer interest in food and farming Corporate sustainability Evolution over time

31 Walmart: Sustainabilty Index Will ask suppliers about: - water- energy - fertilizer - pesticides used per unit of food produced. Sustainable Produce Assessment for producers in 2011 Involved in: - Sustainability Consortium - Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops - Field to Market Alliance to develop science-based metrics. Source: SISC website

32 Acres in IPM Program in thousands of acres Estimate of Pesticides Avoided in thousands of pounds of a.i. SOURCE: SYSCO 2010 Sustainability Report OSHA Recordable Injuries injuries per 100 employee equivalents Product Purchases from Minority & Women owned Suppliers in millions of dollars

33 Unilever Continuous improvement Soil, water, agrochemicals Biodiversity Energy, waste Social and human capital Metrics Published 2010; 76 pp.

34 Environmental Criteria

35 Source: GLOBALGAP and SQF GLOBALGAP standard designed in response to consumer concerns: Food Safety (strong) Environmental protection (baseline…not comprehensive) Worker health, safety and welfare (strong) Animal welfare SQF Voluntary Modules: Responsible Environment Practice module Responsible Social Practice module GLOBALGAP and SQF Equivalent acceptance Additional elements beyond Food Safety Global Food Safety Initiative goal: “Once certified, accepted everywhere.”

36 Shifting the Paradigm: Current Solar Income ENERGY – the fundamental ‘currency’ of life More solar energy intersects the earth in 24 hours than is contained in all of the conventional oil reserves the world has (not all of this solar energy could be captured). Total global annual consumption of energy (400 quads) is roughly equivalent to 40 minutes of sunlight intersecting earth. Source: G. R. Davis. Energy for planet earth. Scientific American. September, 1990, p. 55-62. Future Sustainability FOOD = SUNSHINE + OIL

37 Solar Energy Capture Total solar energy hitting earth100% Non-absorbed wavelengths (60%) 40% Reflection and transmission (8%) 32% Heat dissipation (8%) 24% Plant metabolism (19%) 5% Carbohydrate 100 Kcal solar energy yields max. 4-5 Kcal chemical energy stored per gram dry matter of biomass (Taiz & Zeiger, 2002) Usable Energy PV: 7-17% capture

38 Sunshine Farm Experiment 50 acre crop and livestock farm, Kansas – 10 year study Energy generated on farm per year236 GJ Annual energy needed263 GJ “Amortized” embodied energy154 GJ -- Build some energy production into farms Energy ratios Oil (Saudi)100 Gas, coal10-30 Solar, wind3-10 Renewables from ag5 or less (M. Bender, 2003) Future Sustainability

39 Premium winegrape area in US declines 81% by late 21 st century under IPCC scenario A2 (White et al., 2006) Greg Jones, Southern Oregon Univ. Effects of a Changing Climate Heat intolerant, Cold tolerant Heat tolerant, Cold intolerant Future Sustainability CurrentFuture

40 Future Sustainability Challenges:Opportunities: EnergyBiofuels, solar WaterIrr. mgt., mulch Labor Mechanization PesticidesBiocontrol ClimateHigh tunnels Consumer demandFlavor, label identity, nutraceutical content Mechanical cherry harvest Genetics/ genomics

41 Shrinking the Footprint Biocontrol practices/products Less machine use; biofuel, electric vehicles; solar roof; wind machine wind turbine Less N; change fertilizer form; use legumes in orchard Genetics – pest resistance, water and nutrient efficiency, tree habit Lower impact trellis systems C stored in soils, trees

42 Closing Thoughts Sustainability – a journey, a goal, not a destination; more than profitability Fruit production has become more sustainable; farms, industry can have continual improvement; let’s document Big challenges – energy, water, labor, pesticides Tree fruit has sustainability advantages; zero impact farming unlikely

43 Satellite photo of methane cloud Questions ? Recommended read: Paul Dolan, True to Our Roots

44 What you can do Support research Innovate – try new things Share information – IFTA Look for environmental and social benefits that also improve profitability Increase efficiency, reduce waste Use sustainability to meet consumer interest, public policy, while reducing your footprint and increasing efficiency and profits

45 What Does a Fruit Tree Need? Water, air, sunlight, proper temperatures, nutrients Edible fruit Pest control, good yields, storability, etc. Environmental Social Economic

46 e e What would a sustainable agriculture look like ? Lower costs, fewer externalities agriculture Better profits, wages, benefits New farmers – young, farmworkers Open space Clean water and air Minimal toxins Biodiversity, habitat Improved soil quality Renewable energy e More people involved in agriculture Vibrant rural communities Plentiful, nutritious food Consumer connections Safe workplace

47 Energy (MJ/MT apple) Emissions (kg CO 2 /MT fruit) NZUKNZUK Farm9502,96160.1186.0 Direct energy5732,33729.8152.1 Indirect (N,P,pesticides,…) 30062424.733.8 N fertilizer1043624.818.1 Equipment, buildings78?5.6? Post-harvest2,0302,069124.985.8 Cold storage UK 6 mo-2,069-85.8 Ocean ship (17.8K km)2,030-124.9- Total2,9805,030185.0271.8 (Saunders et al., 2006) NZ vs UK Apple Study 1 gal diesel = 147 MJ

48 Fieldprint Calculator Results for Corn Per bushel findings: Productivity (yield per acre) increased 41 percent Land use decreased 37 percent Soil loss decreased 69 percent Irrigation water use has been variable, with an average 27 percent decrease Energy use decreased 37 percent Greenhouse gas emissions decreased 30 percent Total annual trends indicate increases in total annual energy use (28 percent), water use (17 percent), and greenhouse gas emissions (34 percent). Total annual soil loss has decreased 33 percent. Source: Keystone Alliance

49 Food for Health Nutrient density Minerals, vitamins Anti-oxidants Grass-based livestock products – CLA, omega 3 Nutrition and behavior - children, learning, depression, criminals Role of crop breeding

50 PRIME Pesticide Risk Mitigation Engine - Probabilistic risk management tool for SISC - Evaluate pesticide options for impacts on health and environment, and also improve IPM Being developed by IPM Institute

51 Other National Initiatives Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops Lead: Natural Resources Defense Council Goal: metrics usable for specialty crops 2010 pilot included farms in WA, OR, ID, potatoes, onions, sweet corn, carrots, herbs, etc. Field to Market Alliance Lead: Keystone Alliance Goal: quantify and improve the environmental and socioeconomic performance of agricultural production; outcome-based metrics National Sustainable Agriculture Standard Lead: Leonardo Academy, SCS Goal: ANSI approved standard

52 Life Cycle Assessment Started in the 1970s as an environmental analysis tool; “cradle to grave”; initial focus on industrial, manufacturing processes; ISO 14400 standard. Steps: Goal and scope definition Inventory analysis Life cycle impact assessment Interpretation and presentation of results Raw material acquisition Processes Transports Manufacture Use Waste mgt Resources (raw materials, energy, land) Emissions to air, water, land Life Cycle Model Baumann and Tillman, 2004

53 Western Iowa Watershed Design Before change (ha 000)  Maize 499  Soybean461  Oat/alfalfa 13  Grass hay 39  Pasture 83  Perm. cover157  Cow/calf pair 91,000  Stockers 204,000  Finished hogs 970,000 After redesign (ha 000)  Maize379  Soybean269  Oat/alfalfa 33  Grass hay100  Pasture262  Perm cover221  Cow/calf pair 251,000  Stockers 197,000  Finished hogs 7,566,400 Burkhart et al. 2005. Impacts of integrated crop livestock systems on nitrogen dynamics and soil erosion in western Iowa watersheds. J. Geophysical Research (110) Moved to more integration of crops and livestock

54 Sustainability Issues Food Safety GAP SQF HACCP

55 Soil degradation Water quality – sediment, nutrients, pesticides Competition for water Air quality – dust, odor, pesticides Biodiversity – habitat loss, invasive species Toxics loading Global change – greenhouse gases, desertification Palouse River Sustainability Issues - Environmental Impacts from Agriculture -

56 Social Sustainability Family farms Farm workers Rural communities Human health Food security Fair trade Next generation of farmers 79% from residue exposure

57 Global Sustainable Ag Trends Production Reduced tillage IPM / Biocontrol of pests Organic farming Water quality protection (pesticides, nutrients, pathogens) Biodiversity enhancement on farms Marketing More product identity – ecolabels, wine grape sustainability code, fair trade, country of origin Social accountability in business - SASA; sustainable business practices

58 Has fruit production become more sustainable? Water conservation – micro sprinklers, drip irrigation, soil moisture monitoring, deficit irrigation Evaporative cooling ? Photo: L. Schrader 25% water savings

59 Has fruit production become more sustainable? Two established approaches: Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) Organic farming Similarities: Emphasize bio-intensive management, whole system Use guidelines, standards, certification, label identity Restrict materials Differences: IFP focus on IPM, organic focus on soil Synthetics generally not allowed in organic, fewer tools Organic standards more rigid, less adaptable to locale Organic more widely known by consumers, higher price No GMOs in organic

60 Google image BoingBoing Google image UK Agriculture

61 attra pfi U Maine Tek supply attra

62 Why pay attention to sustainability issues? Marketplace Regulatory Efficiency Adaptability to changing world Resource constraints – finite world Economic sust – needs constant attention, no guarantees Enviro sust – less transient results Social sust – both customers and workers; thru the marketplace, thru regulation; Future Sustainability

63 Energy Ratios Usable energy recovered per unit energy invested Oil 20-100:1 (declining) Gas, coal10-30:1 Solar, wind3-10:1 Renewables from ag,5:1 or less tar sands Ethanol (corn)1.26-1.33 Ethanol (cellulosic)4-10 ? Biodiesel (soy)3.2 Fischer Tropsch10 ? Caution: method of calculation is not uniform

64 Agricultural sustainability: Ability of farms and agricultural landscapes to evolve indefinitely under farmer management and public policy toward greater productivity of goods and services and toward effective interfaces with changing biological, economic and social environments. --Richard Harwood Can agriculture be “sustainable” if the rest of society is not?

65 Apple Small inherent footprint Plant seed; water (rain or irrigate); pick fruit; eat; throw away core As we add management, we add footprint: ● tractors to plant trees; ● irrigation piping and pumps; ● bins, CA storage, packing lines, boxes; ● trucks for transport; ● waste disposal Compare to car: everything has a footprint - Metal, glass, plastic, paint, fuel, paved road

66 WA Apple Production LCA On-farmUpstream Fossil fuel kg oil37,5313,818 Waterkg457,800156 MineralKg09.3 GHGkg CO 2 60,63514,245 Acidificationkg SO 2 1.221 Aquatic ToxL water8.5312,650 Air Toxkg PM-104.64.5 (IERE, 2001 unpublished)

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