Presentation on theme: "ACHEIVING ENERGY INDEPENDENCE THROUGH SOLID WASTE?"— Presentation transcript:
ACHEIVING ENERGY INDEPENDENCE THROUGH SOLID WASTE?
Goals 1) Finding an alternative source of oil. 2) Finding this source without adversely impacting the environment. 3) Finding a procedure that is cost efficient and technologically feasible.
CURRENTLY... As of 1999, 61% of US solid waste was disposed of in landfills. Prices for disposal of waste have increased. New technologies and recycling could mitigate current landfill problems.
HOW MUCH MSW DO WE CREATE? 230 million tons of MSW. 4.6 pounds of waste per day per person. double that of the 1960 figures (2.6 pounds per day per person).
How do we deal with Municipal Solid Waste? Recycling Composting Combustion Landfills
How is oil formed in the earth?
HOW DO WE TURN WASTE INTO OIL? THERMO-DEPOLYMERIZATION PROCESS (TDP)
What is TDP? “The Thermal Conversion Process, or TCP, mimics the earth’s natural geothermal process by using water, heat and pressure to chemically reform organic and inorganic wastes into specialty chemicals, gases, carbons and fertilizers. Even heavy metals are transformed into harmless oxides..”
Which company does TDP?
HOW DOES TDP WORK (1)? 1. The feedstock (waste) is fed into a hopper. 2. The waste goes to the mixing tank where it is mixed with water to form a slurry. 3. Placed under high pressure and heated. 4. Oil separated from water. 5. Different temperatures and pressures create different kinds of oils.
What Type of Waste Can the TDP Process? Food Industry Crop residuals, poultry plant waste, slaughterhouse waste Petroleum, Coal, Shale & Tar Sand industries Processes waste from bottom of tanks, heavy crude oil, coal and shale and tar sands Paper and Pulping Plastics Converts PVC, HDPE and mixed plastics Tires and Rubber Scraps, oil, plastics, wood and steel Hazardous Waste Medical Infectious Waste Kills bacteria, viruses and other pathogens MSW Nonvaluable recyclables
What is produced (1)? 1) Hydrocarbon Oils: Typical elements of the oil produced consists of Cyclohexane (i.e paint remover), Methylethyl Benzene (i.e. rubber and waxes), Toluene (i.e. solvent for manufacturing of explosives). And Cyclopropane. A high value crude oil product that refiners, fuel blenders, and boiler operations want. 2) Natural Gas Fuel gas (methane, propane and butane) with sufficient BTU levels to operate turbines or boilers in order to create electricity or steam.
What is produced (2)? 3) Solid/Minerals Minerals produced are valuable fertilizers for the agriculture industry 4) Fatty Acid Oils Used to make soap, lubricants, and rubber products 5) Solid/Carbon Used as a filter or fuel source
Costs The estimated cost of the 1 st commercial TDP site is $15 million dollars. The operational costs are minimal because 1) It is a closed system, so there is no environmental cleanup cost 2) The process creates its own gas to power the operation. Keep in mind that the end product is marketable.
FYI- Oil Production Costs According to the inventor of TDP, oil could be produced at $8-$12/Barrel.
Environmental Bonuses (1) 1) Water is the only waste from the system (discharged into the city sewage). 2) Energy efficiency is 85%. 3) Does not use combustion, therefore the process does not emit harmful pollutants such as dioxins.
Environmental Bonuses (2) 1) Reduces the need to dispose of harmful materials. 2) Helps reduce landfill problems. 3) TDP can be used to clean coal prior to combustion. Also, Methane and Propane will be extracted from the coal. 4) By recycling waste, TDP reduces the emission of greenhouse gases.
Effects on Petroleum “The TDP bridges the gap between the petroleum industry and the renewable energy sector by providing a new source of clean, high quality oils that will supplement dwindling oil reserves.”
Permitting For the purposes of permitting, the plants are not treated as waste treatment facilities; they are treated as manufacturers. Since no combustion takes place inside the plant there is no pollution. Because of this, the plants receive a solid waste permit waiver.
INPUT AND OUTPUT FROM THE BUTTERBALL TURKEY PLANT INPUT Fats Bones Feathers Cartilage OUTPUT Oil Very high grade oil: TDP-40. (The 40 stands indicates the weight of the oil). Gases High Quality Fertilizers Specialty Chemicals
End Product Distribution 75% Oil 15% Fuel-Gas 10% Carbon and Minerals
Quantity of End Product The Butterball Turkey Plant produces 200 tons of waste a day. 75% of that can be converted into oil = 150 tons 150 x 2000 pounds = 300,000 lbs 300,000/7 (lbs per gal of oil) = 42,857 Then, take 42,857/42 (Gal per Barrel) = Barrels/day x 365 = 372, barrels/yr
What if we lose 25% of our Oil imports? The U.S. imports approximately 11.5 million barrels of oil a day. 25% of 11.5 million is 2,876,712 barrels/day 2,876,712 x 365 = 1,003,750,000 barrels/year 1,050,000,000/372, (plants production/yr)=2,819 That means that we would need approximately 2,819 plants with as much output as the Butterball Turkey plant to cover the 25% reduction
Conclusion There is a fair amount of apprehension. Therefore, getting companies to practice TDP could be a major challenge for Changing World Technologies. There is a fair amount of apprehension. Therefore, getting companies to practice TDP could be a major challenge for Changing World Technologies. Few people know about it. Few people know about it.
Practically Speaking TDP cannot solve our energy deficiency problems. TDP cannot solve our energy deficiency problems. TDP produces useful products without environmental harm. TDP produces useful products without environmental harm.