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NASSCO and Southwest Marine Sediment Investigation Preliminary Results Thomas Ginn, Ph.D. Dreas Nielsen June 18, 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "NASSCO and Southwest Marine Sediment Investigation Preliminary Results Thomas Ginn, Ph.D. Dreas Nielsen June 18, 2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 NASSCO and Southwest Marine Sediment Investigation Preliminary Results Thomas Ginn, Ph.D. Dreas Nielsen June 18, 2002

2 Site Location

3 Potential Effects of Contaminated Sediments

4 Study Goals Aquatic life Aquatic-dependent wildlife Human health Develop cleanup levels that are protective of:

5 Study Components Sediment chemistry analyses Sediment chemistry analyses Toxicity tests Toxicity tests Bioaccumulation tests Bioaccumulation tests Sediment profile image analysis Sediment profile image analysis Benthic community analysis Benthic community analysis Fish histopathology Fish histopathology Standard assessment methods used to conduct: Bioaccumulation by resident biota Bioaccumulation by resident biota Ecological risk assessment Ecological risk assessment Human health risk assessment Human health risk assessment Technological feasibility analysis Technological feasibility analysis Economic feasibility analysis Economic feasibility analysis

6 Study Overview

7 Phase 1 Study Design Sediment profile images Sediment profile images –101 shipyard stations –5 reference stations Sediment triad study Sediment triad study –Chemistry, toxicity, and benthic community analysis –30 shipyard stations –5 reference stations Supplemental sediment chemistry Supplemental sediment chemistry Bioaccumulation tests Bioaccumulation tests –9 shipyard stations –5 reference stations

8 Phase 1 Target Chemicals Metals (10) Metals (10) Acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extractable metals Acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extractable metals Tributyltin Tributyltin Polychlorinated biphenyls Polychlorinated biphenyls –Aroclor ® mixtures (8) –Congeners (41) Polychlorinated terphenyls (3) Polychlorinated terphenyls (3) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (17) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (17) Petroleum hydrocarbons Petroleum hydrocarbons

9 Sediment Quality Triad

10 Phase 1 Toxicity Tests Amphipod survival Amphipod survival Echinoderm fertilization Echinoderm fertilization Bivalve larval development Bivalve larval development

11 Phase 1 Sampling Locations Shipyard stations Shipyard stations –Based on previous shipyard data –Range of concentrations –Located throughout shipyards Reference stations Reference stations –Recommended by SCCWRP and Board staff based on Bight ’98 data –Data demonstrate low toxicity, low chemical concentrations, and healthy benthic communities

12 Phase 1 Sediment Stations

13 Sediment Profile Images

14 Reference Station Locations REF 1 REF 2 REF 3 REF 4 REF 5

15 Phase 1 Samples Type of sample Shipyardstations Reference stations ReplicatesSamples Sediment profile image 10153*325 Sediment chemistry Amphipod toxicity test Echinoderm toxicity test Bivalve toxicity test Bioaccumulation test Benthic community Total1,149 *Target number

16 Phase 1 Results Sediment chemistry Sediment chemistry Amphipod survival test Amphipod survival test Echinoderm fertilization test Echinoderm fertilization test Bivalve larva development test Bivalve larva development test Bioaccumulation test Bioaccumulation test Benthic macroinvertebrate community Benthic macroinvertebrate community

17 Sediment Chemistry: Phase 1 Reference Stations and Background (Robertus 2002)

18 Sediment Data

19 Sediment Concentrations (continued)

20

21

22

23 Copper (mg/kg)

24 Lead (mg/kg)

25 Mercury (mg/kg)

26 Zinc (mg/kg)

27

28

29 Sediment Chemistry Summary Footprints show concentration gradients at both shipyards Highest concentrations found near shore Reference range exceeded at some location for all chemical groups (metals, butyltins, PAH, PCBs, PCTs, petroleum hydrocarbons)

30 Sediment Toxicity Tests Amphipod survival – –Whole sediment tested Echinoderm fertilization – –Pore water tested Bivalve larva development – –Sediment-water interface tested

31 Amphipod Survival Response by Station

32 Echinoderm Fertility Response by Station

33 Bivalve Normality Response by Station

34 Summary of Toxicity Tests

35 Causation: Use of Chemistry and Toxicity Relationships

36 Amphipod Survival vs. Copper

37 Echinoderm Fertility vs. Copper

38 Bivalve Development vs. Copper

39 Sediment Toxicity Test Summary Three toxicity tests at each of 30 shipyard stations Statistical comparisons to reference – –13 stations had no effect – –17 stations had one or more types of effect No effects seen at stations with highest concentrations of most shipyard chemicals

40 Bioaccumulation Testing— Laboratory (Phase 1) Purpose: Evaluate bioaccumulation potential, and the need to sample resident biota

41 Bioaccumulation Tests 28-day test using a surface deposit feeding clam (Macoma nasuta) Tissues tested for all chemicals measured in sediments Tests conducted at 9 shipyard stations and 5 reference stations Five replicate tests conducted at each station

42 Bioaccumulation Exposure-Response Relationship for Lead

43 Bioaccumulation Exposure-Response Relationship for PCBs

44 Bioaccumulation Exposure-Response Relationship for Mercury

45 Bioaccumulation Test Summary Statistically significant bioaccumulation exposure-response relationship observed for most chemicals No significant bioaccumulation exposure-response relationship for cadmium, chromium, mercury, or PCTs

46 Crab Benthic Macroinvertebrates Polychaete Polychaete Amphipod Sand Shrimp

47 Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Metrics Total abundance Total abundance Total richness (number of species) Total richness (number of species) Major taxa abundances Major taxa abundances –Crustaceans, polychaetes, molluscs Schwartz’ Dominance Index (SDI) Schwartz’ Dominance Index (SDI) Percent dominance Percent dominance Shannon-Wiener diversity index Shannon-Wiener diversity index

48 Benthic Macroinvertebrates: Reference Communities Similar abundances—total and major taxa Similar abundances—total and major taxa –30–50 species –400–1,000 organisms per sample Species change away from mouth of bay Species change away from mouth of bay REF4 dominated by invasive crustacean REF4 dominated by invasive crustacean –Total abundance: 6,000 to 8,000

49 Benthic Macroinvertebrates: Shipyard Communities Statistical analysis of all 8 metrics Statistical analysis of all 8 metrics Multivariate analyses of similarities among stations Multivariate analyses of similarities among stations Differences from reference stations Differences from reference stations –Major differences: 8 stations –Moderate differences: 2 stations –Minor differences: 3 stations –No differences: 17 stations

50 Total Abundance

51 Total Number of Taxa

52 Benthic Community Results

53 Benthic Macroinvertebrates: Notable Conditions Northwest end of Southwest Marine (Stations SW02 and SW04) Northwest end of Southwest Marine (Stations SW02 and SW04) –Different from all other stations –Higher abundances of crustaceans and polychaetes Chollas Creek outlet (Station NA22) Chollas Creek outlet (Station NA22) –Very different from all other stations –Seven of 8 metrics are different from reference

54 Sediment Profile Camera

55 Sediment Profile Images

56 Typical Pattern of Benthic Recolonization

57 Sediment Profile Image Summary Mature communities at reference stations Early communities at 11 shipyard stations Mature communities at 88 shipyard stations

58 Benthic Stage

59 Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments

60 Planned Phase 2 Fieldwork Pore water Supplementary surface sediment sampling Sediment coring Chemical analyses of resident biota to: – –Perform risk assessments – –Assess adverse effects on fish Fish histopathology Sampling of eelgrass to: – –Assess adverse effects on sea turtles – –Assess adverse effects on eelgrass

61 Cleanup Alternatives Analysis Cleanup levels and areas chosen to protect: Cleanup levels and areas chosen to protect: –Aquatic life –Aquatic-dependent wildlife –Human health Technical feasibility analysis Technical feasibility analysis Economic feasibility analysis Economic feasibility analysis Alternative remedial designs Alternative remedial designs Selection of a cleanup alternative Selection of a cleanup alternative

62 Summary Phase 1 results Phase 1 results –Standard evaluation methods used –Obtained all planned data –Shipyard conditions contrasted with reference conditions Phase 2 sampling will address: Phase 2 sampling will address: –Effects on fish –Effects on aquatic-dependent wildlife –Effects on human health Feasibility analyses and selection of a cleanup alternative will follow Feasibility analyses and selection of a cleanup alternative will follow


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