Presentation on theme: "Kualitas lahan. KOMPONEN TANAH Soil is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic components and living organisms. Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt."— Presentation transcript:
KOMPONEN TANAH Soil is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic components and living organisms. Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
HUMUS Dark, crumbly mass of undifferentiated material made up of complex organic compounds Soils with high humus content hold moisture better and are more productive for plant life. Diunduh dari: …… 21/12/2012 Components of soil organic matter and their functions Soil organic matter consists of a variety of components. These include, in varying proportions and many intermediate stages, an active organic fraction including microorganisms (10-40 percent), and resistant or stable organic matter (40-60 percent), also referred to as humus. Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
PROFIL TANAH Consists of layers called horizons. Simplest: A = topsoil B = subsoil C = parent material But most have O, A, E, B, C, and R Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
SOIL PROFILE O Horizon: Organic or litter layer A Horizon: Topsoil. Mostly inorganic minerals with some organic material and humus mixed in. Crucial for plant growth E Horizon: Eluviation horizon; loss of minerals by leaching, a process whereby solid materials are dissolved and transported away B Horizon: Subsoil. Zone of accumulation or deposition of leached minerals and organic acids from above C Horizon: Slightly altered parent material R Horizon: Bedrock Diunduh dari: EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012 Diunduh dari: 1060a.gif/ /AG1060a.gif …… 21/12/2012
DESKRIPSI TANAH Soil can be characterized by color and several other traits: – Texture (percentage sand, silt, clay) – Structure; Porosity – Cation exchange capacity ; pH – Parent Material – Infiltration rate – Nutrient concentrations – Best for plant growth is loam, an even mix of sand, silt and clay. Diunduh dari: …… 21/12/2012 Diunduh dari: r.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh0 6Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012
EROSION & DEPOSITION Erosion = removal of material from one place and its transport elsewhere by wind or water Deposition = arrival of eroded material at a new location These processes are natural, and can build up fertile soil. But where artificially sped up, they are a big problem for farming. Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
EROSION & DEPOSITION Sand dunes around Moses Lake are all that are left of the wind erosion in that area. The smaller particles, silt and clay were blown eastward toward the Palouse. The deposition of the silt and clay particles led to the formation of the Palouse Hills. The Palouse Hills are a wind/water erosional surface. Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 Diunduh dari: 21/12/2012 Four types of soil erosion on an exposed slope.
Diunduh dari: …… 21/12/2012 EROSI TANAH
TIPE EROSI TANAH Diunduh dari: …… 21/12/2012 Raindrop impact is the major cause of soil particle detachment, which can result in the particles moving down slope in flowing water (as sheet erosion) during a rainfall event. Flowing water can also detach soil particles if the velocity is high enough, usually where water starts to concentrate (rill and gully erosion ). If the velocity is reduced sufficiently, particles will settle out. The velocity at which settling begins is dependent on particle size and density, as is the time required for the particles to settle out. Large, dense particles, such as grains of sand, settle first. Fine clays settle out slowly and only in relatively still water.
Over 19 billion ha (47 billion acres) suffer from erosion or other soil degradation. Mississippi River…to thin to plow to thick to drink (Sam Clemens) Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 EROSI TANAH: MASALAH GLOBAL Terasering pada lahan kentang di lereng G. Arjuno, untuk mengendalikan erosi tanah. Foto Jasa Tirta 2009
Diunduh dari: …… 21/12/2012 KONSERVASI TANAH Soil conservation is the best way to make sure that we have the land we need to live on. Erosion is the biggest enemy of soil and land conservation. Protecting / conserving soil with grass, plants or mulch is needed. Always make sure that the soil on your property stays right where it should be!
Alternating the crop planted (e.g., between corn and soybeans) can restore nutrients to soil and fight pests and disease. Diunduh dari: nzdl.org …… 21/12/2012 ROTASI TANAMAN DESIGNING THE CROP ROTATION PATTERN: 1.Based on knowledge from past years or from rainfall data, determine the onset and the end of the rainy season. 2.Choose short-maturing varieties of both rice and legume crop to accomodate a three-crop sequence or to avoid water stress. 3.Estimate the planting and harvesting dates of each crop in the cropping sequence. 4.If, based on the rainfall occurrence and drainage system, only a two-crop sequence is possible, there is a flexibility to choose a longer duration crop variety which has other desired characteristics..
Planting along contour lines of slopes helps reduce erosion on hillsides. Diunduh dari: …… 21/12/2012 PERTANIAN KONTUR The management practices such as contouring, strip planting, cover cropping, alley cropping,reduced tillage, terracing and leaving some crop residue on the land help to eliminate or minimize the loss of soil from water and wind erosion
Diunduh dari: …… 21/12/2012 ALLEY CROPPING The Concept of Alley Cropping on Sloping Lands Fast-growing, deep-rooted legume trees such as leucaena ( Leucaena leucocephala) have been planted in double or single rows in Indonesia and the Philippines by small-scale farmers on sloping lands to control erosion (Lungren and Nair 1985). Food crops are then planted in the alleys between the trees. Periodic pruning is needed to prevent shading of the food crops by the tree canopy. Once established, the trees facilitate terrace formation within the alley
Cutting stairsteps or terraces is the only way to farm extremely steep hillsides without causing massive erosion. Bench terraces are a soil and water conservation measure used on sloping land with relatively deep soils to retain water and control erosion. They are normally constructed by cutting and filling to produce a series of level steps or benches. This allows water to infiltrate slowly into the soil. Bench terraces are reinforced by retaining banks of soil or stone on the forward edges. This practice is typical for rice-based cropping systems. In China, a modification of bench terraces includes an interval slope planted with perennials and grasses between individual terraces. This system is suitable where soil erosion is critical, rainfall is low and labor and farm manure are not typically available. Shrubs or herbs can also be grown on the edges of the terraces. Diunduh dari: …… 21/12/2012 TARASSERING
No-till and reduced-tillage farming leaves old crop residue on the ground instead of plowing it into soil. This covers the soil, keeping it in place. Here, corn grows up out of a “cover crop.” Diunduh dari: …… 21/12/2012 PENGOLAHAN TANAH KONSERVASI
Conservation tillage is not a panacea for all crops everywhere. It often requires more chemical herbicides (because weeds are not plowed under). It often requires more fertilizer (because other plants compete with crops for nutrients). But legume cover crops can keep weeds at bay while nourishing soil, and green manures can be used as organic fertilizers. Diunduh dari: much-more-than-plant-nutrition …… 21/12/2012 PENGOLAHAN TANAH KONSERVASI The increased soil stratification and size and activity of soil organism populations under conservation tillage compared to conventional tillage lead to increased nutrient retention. Figure credit: Ed Zaborski, University of Illinois. Adapted from House and Parmelee (1985).
Reduces erosion Saves fuel Cuts costs Holds more soil water Reduces soil compaction Allows several crops per season Does not reduce crop yields Reduces CO 2 release from soil Can increase herbicide use for some crops Leaves stalks that can harbor crop pests and fungal diseases and increase pesticide use Requires investment in expensive equipment Disadvantages Advantages Trade-Offs Conservation Tillage Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
IRRIGATION The artificial provision of water to support agriculture 70% of all freshwater used by humans is used for irrigation. Irrigation has boosted productivity in many places … but too much can cause problems. Diunduh dari: …… 21/12/2012 Fungsi Irigasi 1.memasok kebutuhan air tanaman 2.menjamin ketersediaan air apabila terjadi betatan 3.menurunkan suhu tanah 4.mengurangi kerusakan akibat frost 5.melunakkan lapis keras pada saat pengolahan tanah
Diunduh dari: abadi/69/ …… 21/12/2012 SAWAH IRIGASI Bojonegoro tetapkan sawah irigasi jadi sawah abadi Pemerintah Kabupaten Bojonegoro, Jawa Timur, menetapkan sawah irigasi teknis yang memperoleh air irigasi kontinyu sebagai sawah abadi yang dilarang dimanfaatkan sebagai kawasan industri dan permukiman. Kepala Dinas Pertanian Bojonegoro Subekti, Rabu mengatakan, pihaknya sudah menentukan sawah abadi yang menjadi sentra penghasil tanaman pangan, berdasarkan Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) No. 1 Tahun 2011 tentang Penetapan dan Alih Fungsi Lahan Pertanian Berkelanjutan.
IMPROVED IRRIGATION In conventional irrigation, only 40% of the water reaches plants. Efficient drip irrigation targeted to plants conserves water, saves money, and reduces problems like salinization. Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
Reduce irrigation Switch to salt- tolerant crops (such as barley, cotton, sugar beet) Prevention Flushing soil (expensive and wastes water) Not growing crops for 2-5 years Installing under- ground drainage systems (expensive) Cleanup Solutions Soil Salinization Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
Supply nutrients to crops Inorganic fertilizers = mined or synthetically manufactured mineral supplements Organic fertilizers = animal manure, crop residues, compost, etc. Diunduh dari: …… 21/12/2012 PUPUK & PEMUPUKAN Pemberian pupuk berimbang dalam kajian ini bukan berarti memberikan pupuk N, P dan K dalam jumlah seimbang untuk tanaman padi. Yang dimaksud pemupukan berimbang dalam kajian ini adalah pemberian pupuk N, P dan K disesuaikan dengan target hasil gabah yang ingin dicapai, sumbangan hara N, P dan K berasal dari tanah serta kekurangan hara untuk mencapai target hasil tersebut dengan penambahan pupuk anorganik dalam bentuk pupuk urea, SP-36 dan KCl. Berdasar teori dikatakan bahwa hasil gabah ditentukan oleh faktor tanah, tanaman dan lingkungan.
GLOBAL FERTILIZER USAGES Fertilizer use has risen dramatically in the past 50 years. Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
Trade-Offs Inorganic Commercial Fertilizers Advantages Disadvantages Do not add humus to soil Reduce organic matter in soil Reduce ability of soil to hold water Lower oxygen content of soil Require large amounts of energy to produce, transport, and apply Release the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O) Runoff can overfertilize nearby lakes and kill fish Easy to transport Easy to store Easy to apply Inexpensive to produce Help feed one of every three people in the world Without commercial inorganic fertilizers, world food output could drop by 40% Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
Overgrazing When livestock eat too much plant cover on rangelands, impeding plant regrowth The contrast between ungrazed and overgrazed land on either side of a fenceline can be striking. Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
OVERGRAZING Overgrazing can set in motion a series of positive feedback loops. Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
However, the world still has 800 million hungry people, largely due to inadequate distribution. And considering soil degradation, can we count on food production continuing to rise? Global food security is a goal of scientists and policymakers worldwide. Diunduh dari: …… 21/12/2012 KETAHANAN PANGAN DUNIA Pada 2012, produksi padi jatim diperkirakan 11,69 juta ton Kepala Badaan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Jatim Irlan Indrocahyo SE MSi di kantornya Jl Kendangsari Industri, Surabaya,Selasa (3/7) mengatakan, kenaikan produksi padi terjadi karena naiknya luas panen padi seluas 32,81 ribu hektare atau 1,70 persen dan produktivitasnya juga mengalami kenaikan 4,78 kuintal/hektare atau 8,71 persen.
GIZI = NUTRITION Undernourishment = too few calories (especially developing world) Overnutrition = too many calories (especially developed world) Malnutrition = lack of nutritional requirements (causes numerous diseases, esp. in developing world) Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
An intensification of industrialization of agriculture, which has produced large yield increases since 1950 Increased yield per unit of land farmed Begun in U.S. and other developed nations; exported to developing nations like India and those in Africa are more productive for plant life. Diunduh dari: lumbung-padi-jawa-barat/ …… 21/12/2012 REVOLUSI HIJAU Tingginya produksi padi Indramayu ini disebabkan oleh luasnya lahan sawah yang ada. Dari luas wilayah Indramayu yang mencapai 204 ribu ha, 114 ribu ha (55%) di antaranya adalah lahan sawah. Dengan luas sebesar itu, Indramayu menempati urutan pertama di Jawa Barat.
Intensified agriculture meant monocultures, vast spreads of a single crop. This is economically efficient, but increases risk of catastrophic failure (“all eggs in one basket”). Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 SISTEM MONOKULTUR The Costs of Modern Agriculture The process of agricultural modernisation has had an important influence on farm productivity and improved living standards for many farmers. However, farmers need access to: modern seeds, water, labour, capital or credit, fertilisers and pesticides. Many poorer farming households simply cannot adopt the whole package. If one element is missing, the seed delivery system fails or the fertiliser arrives late, or there is insufficient irrigation water, then yields may not be much better that those for traditional varieties. Even if farmers want to use external resources, very often delivery systems are unable to supply them on time. Diunduh dari: 23/12/2012
Monocultures also have reduced crop diversity. 90% of all human food now comes from only 15 crop species and 8 livestock species. Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 DIVERSITAS TANAMAN Pengaturan Jarak Tanam Ubikayu dan Kacang Tanah untuk Meningkatkan Indeks Pertanaman di Lahan Kering Masam Penelitian di Banjarnegara dilakukan dengan menanam ubikayu dengan jarak tanam baris ganda (60 cm x 70 cm) x 2 m dan (60 cm x 70 cm) x 2,6 m. Kacang tanah ditanam diantara baris ganda ubikayu. Pada saat tanam kacang tanah MH II, ubikayu sudah berumur tiga bulan. Pada sistem tanam baris ganda (60 cm x 70 cm) x 2 m dan (60 cm x 70 cm) x 2,6 m populasi ubikayu masing-masing sekitar 105% dan 86% dibandingkan cara petani (monokultur) dengan jarak tanam 120 cm x 80 cm. Populasi kacang tanah pada kedua pola tersebut sekitar 70% dari populasi monokultur.
Biodiversity Loss Loss and degradation of habitat from clearing grasslands and forests and draining wetland Fish kills from pesticide runoff Killing of wild predators to protect livestock Loss of genetic diversity from replacing thousands of wild crop strains with a few monoculture strains Soil Erosion Loss of fertility Salinization Waterlogging Desertification Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
Air Pollution Greenhouse gas emissions from fossil Fuel issue Other air pollutants from fossil fuel use Pollution from pesticide sprays Water Water waste Aquifer depletion Increased runoff and flooding from land cleared to grow crops Sediment pollution from erosion Fish kills from pesticide runoff Surface and groundwater pollution from pesticides and fertilizers Overfertilization of lakes and slow-moving rivers from runoff of nitrates and phosphates from fertilizers, livestock wastes, and food processing wastes Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
Techniques to increase crop output per unit area of cultivated land (since world was running out of arable land) Special crop breeds (drought-tolerant, salt-tolerant, etc.) are a key component. It enabled food production to keep pace with population. Diunduh dari: menjadi.html …… 21/12/2012 REVOLUSI HIJAU HKTI sulap Tanah Tandus Samosir menjadi Ladang Jagung Unggulan HKTI patut bangga. Pasalnya, petani jagung di wilayah tersebut biasanya hanya mampu menghasilkan 4 ton setiap hectare (ha). Namun dengan bibit percontohan dari HKTI mampu menghasilkan 8 ton per ha atau dua kali lipat pipil jagung.
Intensification of agriculture causes environmental harm: Pollution from synthetic fertilizers Pollution from synthetic pesticides Water depleted for irrigation Fossil fuels used for heavy equipment However, without the green revolution, much more land would have been converted for agriculture, destroying forests, wetlands, and other ecosystems. Diunduh dari: 1…… 23/12/2012 REVOLUSI HIJAU: DAMPAK LINGKUNGANNYA Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 "Sustainable Agricultural Development" defined by FAO in 1990 was translated into several basic criteria to measure the sustainability of present agriculture and future trends. These criteria can be listed as follows: 1.Meeting the food needs of present and future generations in terms of quantity and quality and the demand for other agricultural products. 2.Providing enough jobs, securing income and creating human living and working conditions for all those engaged in agricultural production. 3.Maintaining, and where possible enhancing, the productive capacity of the natural resources base as a whole and the regenerative capacity of renewable resources, without impairing the function of basic natural cycles and ecological balance, destroying the socio-cultural identity of rural communities or contaminating the environment. 4.Making the agricultural sector more resilient against adverse natural and socio-economic factors and other risks, and strengthening the self-confidence of rural populations.
Diunduh dari: …… 23/12/2012 REVOLUSI HIJAU: DAMPAK LINGKUNGANNYA Ecological Costs Many ecological problems have increased dramatically in recent years. These include: 1.Contamination of water by pesticides, nitrates, soil and livestock wastes, causing harm to wildlife, disruptions of ecosystems and possible health problems in drinking water; 2.Contamination of food and fodder by residues of pesticides, nitrates and antibiotics; 3.Damage to farm and natural resources by pesticides, causing harm to farmworkers and public, disruption of ecosystems and harm to wildlife; 4.Contamination of the atmosphere by ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane and the products of burning, which play a role in ozone depletion, global warming and atmospheric pollution; 5.Overuse of natural resources, causing depletion of groundwater, and loss of wild foods and habitats, and of their capacity to absorb wastes, causing waterlogging and increased salinity; 6.The tendency in agriculture to standardise and specialise by focusing on modern varieties, causing displacement of traditional varieties and breeds; 7.New health hazards for workers in the agrochemical and food-processing industries.
2,000 1,500 1, Grain production (millions of tons) Total World Grain Production Year Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 Social Costs Agricultural modernisation has also helped to transform many rural communities, both in the South and the North. The process has had many social impacts. These include the loss of jobs, the further disadvantaging of women economically if they do not have access to the use and benefits of the new technology, the increasing specialisation of livelihoods, the growing gap between the well-off and the poor, and the cooption of village institutions by the state. Source: Pretty, J. (1998) Regenerating Agriculture, Earthscan, London, p. 4. Agricultural modernisation
MANAJEMEN HAMA Terms pest and weed have no scientific or objective definitions. Any organism that does something we humans don’t like gets called a pest or a weed. The organisms are simply trying to survive and reproduce… and a monoculture is an irresistible smorgasbord of food for them. Diunduh dari: …… 23/12/2012 B-IPM Biologically based Integrated Pest Management (B-IPM) integrates, or combines, different management tools to provide better leafy spurge control than any single tool could produce. The foundation for this B-IPM approach is biological control: Biocontrol agents like the host-specific leafy spurge flea beetle are integrated with other tools -- such as multi- species grazing programs, herbicides, reseeding, tillage, burning and clipping -- to produce effective, affordable and ecologically sustainable leafy spurge control. B-IPM offers the flexibility landowners and land managers need to devise different management strategies for different situations.
B-IPM Diunduh dari: …… 23/12/2012 Disadvantages of biological control: Like other management tools, biological control is not a perfect solution to the leafy spurge problem. The biggest drawback is that biological control is not a "quick fix." In most cases, biocontrol agents will take several years to successfully establish a population and begin making a significant contribution to leafy spurge management. In addition, no one biocontrol agent works in every situation. An agent that works well in one soil type, for example, may not work at all in another soil type. In the long run, more than one type of biocontrol agent may have to be used to achieve uniform control across a variety of different situations and land types.
B-IPM Diunduh dari: …… 23/12/2012 Control tools a)Herbicides are the most commonly used control tool, and are the preferred tool for containing and preventing the spread of infestations. Disadvantage: Herbicides are expensive -- the cost of treatment can exceed the value of the land and/or the economic return from the land. In addition, herbicides are not target specific and are subject to environmental restrictions. b)Cultural and mechanical controls such as reseeding, clipping and burning can be used to give desirable grasses and plants a competitive advantage while reducing leafy spurge’s dominance. c)Multi-species grazing can provide leafy spurge control while increasing ranch profitability by diversifying cattle grazing operations with sheep or goats. d)Biological control is another tool that can be used to manage leafy spurge and offers some advantages when compared to "traditional" management tools. 1.Biological control is economically sustainable. Leafy spurge biocontrol agents can usually be obtained or collected for free, and do not require a large investment of money or time to use or maintain. Other tools require a greater investment of resources. 2.Biological control is ecologically sustainable. Once established, leafy spurge biocontrol agents are self-sustaining -- they’ll always be there, working in the background to control leafy spurge. 3.In addition, biocontrol agents are not known to cause any adverse ecological consequences.
B-IPM Diunduh dari: …… 23/12/2012 Biologically based Integrated Pest Management The best approach to controlling leafy spurge is Biologically based Integrated Pest Management. It’s effective and affordable, and can be used anywhere. B-IPM integrates, or combines, different management tools to provide more effective leafy spurge control than could be achieved by using any single tool. This integration offers the flexibility ranchers, landowners and land managers need to tailor management programs that fit their specific needs. Biologically based Integrated Pest Management combines ecologically sound strategies with other tools to provide better control and more flexibility than can be achieved using any single tool alone. It is by far the best approach. The results speak for itself. The dramatic change is the result of a cost-effective, integrated approach using grazing and biological control.
PESTISIDA KIMIAWI Synthetic poisons that target organisms judged to be pests Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012
Pesticides gradually become less effective, because pests evolve resistance to them. Those few pests that survive pesticide applications because they happen to be genetically immune will be the ones that reproduce and pass on their genes to the next generation. This is evolution by natural selection, and it threatens our very food supply. Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 RESISTENSI HAMA THD PESTISIDA Effects of pesticide selection Repeated use of the same class of pesticides to control a pest can cause undesirable changes in the gene pool of a pest leading to another form of artificial selection, pesticide resistance. When a pesticide is first used, a small proportion of the pest population may survive exposure to the material due to their distinct genetic makeup. These individuals pass along the genes for resistance to the next generation. Subsequent uses of the pesticide increase the proportion of less-susceptible individuals in the population. Through this process of selection, the population gradually develops resistance to the pesticide. Diunduh dari: 23/12/2012
– 3.All pests except a few with innate resistanc e are killed 4. Survivor s breed and produce pesticide-resistant population Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 RESISTENSI HAMA THD PESTISIDA
– 5. Pestici de applied again 6.Has little effect. More-toxic chemicals must be developed. Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 RESISTENSI HAMA THD PESTISIDA
Diunduh dari: 23/12/2012 RESISTENSI HAMA THD PESTISIDA How pesticide resistance develops Some plant pathogens have also become resistant to pesticides. Among fruit producers in North America, apple growers perhaps have faced the most significant problems with pesticide resistance. Examples include streptomycin resistance in the fire blight bacterium and benomyl resistance in the apple scab pathogen. Although the precise genetic and ecological factors differ among pests that have become resistant, in all cases resistance is driven by one process -- selection. PERKEMBANGAN RESISTENSI PESTISIDA
Synthetic chemicals can pollute and be health hazards. Biological control (biocontrol) avoids this. Biocontol entails battling pests and weeds with other organisms that are natural enemies of those pests and weeds. (“The enemy of my enemy is my friend.”) Diunduh dari: …… 22/12/2012 PENGENDALIAN HAYATI Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 Pengendalian hayati adalah suatu teknik pengendalian hama atau organisme pengganggu tanaman dengan memanfaatkan musuh alami dari OPT tersebut. Pendekatan dalam pengendalian hayati 1.Konservasi : menjaga atau melindungi populasi musuh alami yang terdapat di lapangan. 2.Augmentasi : melakukan pembiakan masal musuh alami di laboratorium jika jumlah populasi musuh alami di lapangan sangat sedikit. 3.Introduksi : mendatangkan musuh alami dari suatu daerah ke daerah lain yang populasinya masih sedikit.
Biocontrol has had success stories. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) = soil bacterium that kills many insects. In many cases, seemingly safe and effective. Cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (above), was used to wipe out invasive prickly pear cactus in Australia. Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 PENGENDALIAN HAYATI
Most biocontrol agents are introduced from elsewhere. Some may turn invasive and become pests themselves! Cactus moths brought to the Caribbean jumped to Florida, are eating native cacti, and spreading. Wasps and flies brought to Hawaii to control crop pests are parasitizing native caterpillars in wilderness areas. Diunduh dari: 22/12/2012 RISIKO PENGENDALIAN HAYATI Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 The relativity of potential risk to nontarget plant species based on phylogeny, biogeography, and ecology. The testing procedure should seek to measure the maximum level of risk posed by an agent’s introduction. Actual measured risk may in fact be much lower than potential risk, but the latter provides a useful framework for selecting test plants.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) Combines biocontrol, chemical, and other methods May involve: – Biocontrol – Pesticides – Close population monitoring – Habitat modification – Crop rotation – Transgenic crops – Alternative tillage – Mechanical pest removal Diunduh dari: …… 20/12/2012 Diunduh dari: 23/12/2012