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OIL SPILLS and THEIR EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT Instructor: Instr. Dr. Aysu Sagun Kentel Prepared by: Taylan Çetinkaya.

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Presentation on theme: "OIL SPILLS and THEIR EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT Instructor: Instr. Dr. Aysu Sagun Kentel Prepared by: Taylan Çetinkaya."— Presentation transcript:

1 OIL SPILLS and THEIR EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT Instructor: Instr. Dr. Aysu Sagun Kentel Prepared by: Taylan Çetinkaya

2 Outline Motivation Introduction Impact on the environment Clean-up Methods Exxon Valdez & Deepwater Horizon Oil Spills Conclusions References Recommended Reading

3 Motivation Recent Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill (Deepwater Horizon or BP Oil Spill) Nature of the disasters: Man-made Size of the disasters Technology in offshore oil platforms Effects on natural balance

4 Introduction Focus of the Project: Oil spills occurring in marine areas Oil spill: Release of liquid petroleum products into the rivers, seas or oceans by human related activities Tanker accidents Offshore oil platform accidents

5 Introduction (cont.) Tanker accidents: Running aground, collisions with other vessels, fires and explosions on the ship - Torrey Canyon spill (1967): 132.5 million liters of oil - Amoco Cadiz spill (1978): 260 million liters - Exxon Valdez spill (1989): 41.7 million liters Offshore oil platform accidents: Fires/explosions on the platform, leakage from the wells located on the seafloor - Ixtoc I spill (1979): 530 million liters - Deepwater Horizon spill (2010): 780 million liters

6 Impact on the Environment Natural Environment  Short and long-term damages to the ecosystem Social Environment  Suffering economy = suffering people  Damage to the recreational areas  Psychological effects Built Environment  Loss of tankers & offshore oil platforms, fisheries

7 Impact on the Environment (cont.) Natural Environment:  Immediate death of species  Long –term effects: Reduced reproduction, years of recovery  Sea & soil pollution  Disrupted natural balance Social Environment:  Loss of jobs, decreased incomes  Damage to recreational areas: Fishing, beaches, natural parks  Sorrow and depression  Built Environment:  Loss of tankers and offshore platforms

8 Impact on the Environment (cont.) Light oil: Remains on near surface, evaporates quickly, but highly lethal Medium & heavy oil: lower water columns, long-term damage Damage to habitat: Physical contact, ingestion, inhalation and absorption Plankton, algae, fish eggs, and the larvae of invertebrates: base of food chain Clogged blowholes of whales/dolphins: drowning Oiled skin/fur/feathers: loss of insulation; hypothermia Ingesting and inhaling oil: sudden death or internal organ damage Immune system suppression: vulnerability to other diseases !! Limited/impaired reproduction capability !!

9 Clean-up Methods On the Water: On the Shores: Boom Bioremediation Burning Chemical Cleaning Dispersants Hot Water & High Pressure Skimming Manual Treatment Mechanical Treatment content/uploads/2010/05/c130oil.jpg content/uploads/2010/10/iStock_000013436777XSmall.jpg

10 Clean-up Methods (cont.) On the use of dispersants:  To break off oil droplets from the slick to prevent re-coalesce  Standard usage: Oil ratio of 1:20  Reduces the risk of contact  May remove natural oils on animal skins hypothermia  More dangerous for some species than the spill itself  Chemical may disrupt chemical balance of water  Disperses oil further spreading of oil into lower water column

11 Exxon Valez Oil Spill Caused by stranded oil tanker, Exxon Valdez in March 24 1989 in Alaska 41.7 million of 200.9 million liters of crude oil spilled Four people killed in cleanup efforts Nearly 2100 km of shoreline affected 28000 km 2 of ocean affected Two years of shoreline cleanup Logistical problems encountered Wide spreading due to storms

12 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (cont.) Economical Impact: Recreational Fishing, Tourism, Existence Value, Wildlife Replacement & Care Losses Estimated total loss of the state and government: Over $5 billion Animal replacement: Cost of $218 million in first week for only four mainly affected species : otters, seals, sea birds, eagles Ongoing effects On the company Exxon: $4.3 billion for cleanup, resident compensation and fines

13 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (cont.) Environmental Impact: 2800 otters, 302 harbor seals, 250000 sea birds, 22 orcas, 247 eagles, billions of fish killed Reduced breeding in various species since the spill ll_victim.jpeg

14 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Known also as Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill or BP Oil Spill Caused by the leakage of Macondo well drilled by Deepwater Horizon offshore oil rig; April 20, 2010 Rig exploded and sank - Continuous leaking for 3 months -780 million liters of oil spilled -1070 km of Gulf Mexico coastline contaminated, 180000 km 2 of ocean affected -11 workers killed in the explosion 106-methane-study-gulf.jpg/9301481-1-eng-US/0106-METHANE-study- Gulf.JPG_full_600.jpg t_on_fire_2010.jpg

15 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (cont.) Economical Impact: Recreational and commercial fishing, tourism, existence value, wildlife replacement & care losses: still not fully known As of the end of 2010: Clean-up efforts costing about $40 billion $5 billion paid by BP to claimants and nearly $20 billion to response efforts

16 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (cont.) Environmental Impact: Reported deaths 3 months after the accident: 997 birds, 400 sea turtles, 47 sea mammals Corals, lobsters, crabs, oysters, clams, zooplankton, starfish and sand-dwelling organisms: likely to be affected for decades Wetland vegetation: habitat for many species; long-term damage Too recent to assess long-term damage

17 Conclusions Highest toxicity: Early in spill events Quick response Clean-up efforts may also be harmful Further developments on ship and oil platform designs Further research on clean-up chemicals Organized, trained response/clean-up personnel and volunteers Environmental education Corporates: Environment oriented rather than profit oriented

18 References deadly_toll.html

19 Recommended Reading Oil Spill Commission National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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