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Beer Recipe Design Brad Smith, PhD 1. A spectrum of choices… 2 Deliberate - MechanicalArtistic.

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Presentation on theme: "Beer Recipe Design Brad Smith, PhD 1. A spectrum of choices… 2 Deliberate - MechanicalArtistic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Beer Recipe Design Brad Smith, PhD 1

2 A spectrum of choices… 2 Deliberate - MechanicalArtistic

3  Come up with an idea  Research the target style and beer ◦ Determine target color, gravity, bitterness  Develop the: ◦ Grain bill ◦ Hop varieties and schedule ◦ Yeast variety ◦ Water profile  Apply Techniques ◦ Mash schedule, fermentation, hop techniques, more…  Brew, Judge, and Iterate 3

4  I want to brew a…. ◦ Robust Porter (Category 12B) for Competition ◦ Clone of Bass Ale ◦ Something with Smoked Oats ◦ Gluten Free Imperial Stout ◦ Jalapeño flavored Atomic Hop Bomb “I don’t know where I’m going, but I am on my way.” - Voltaire  I want to brew a…. ◦ Robust Porter (Category 12B) for Competition ◦ Clone of Bass Ale ◦ Something with Smoked Oats ◦ Gluten Free Imperial Stout ◦ Jalapeño flavored Atomic Hop Bomb “I don’t know where I’m going, but I am on my way.” - Voltaire 4

5  What are you trying to accomplish? ◦ Style, Clone, Unique beer?  What does each ingredient contribute? ◦ Can I do it with fewer ingredients? ◦ Is the beer balanced?  How do the techniques contribute? ◦ Do they support overall goal?  What’s Unique about my beer? ◦ Read Radical Brewing 5

6  Start with the BJCP style guide ( ◦ Provides target OG, color, bitterness, some ingredients and history  Books ◦ Designing Great Beers, Brewing Classic Styles, recipe and style specific books  Research Online (styles and recipes) ◦ Google search,, discussion forums, blogs, style specific articles  First Hand Research ◦ Sample commercial and home brewed beer! 6

7  What ingredients define the style? ◦ A Wit requires unmalted wheat ◦ Weizen banana/clove flavors come from yeast ◦ Dry Irish Stout needs roast barley  What alternatives might I consider? ◦ Vary the yeast, grains, hops used ◦ What about something really new (aka Radical Brewing)  How does each contribute to my goal? ◦ Can I simplify (SMaSH style) rather than dumping everything but the kitchen sink in? ◦ What can I get rid of? 7

8  Use Software or a spreadsheet ◦ Match your equipment  Estimate  Original Gravity  Color  Bitterness  ABV (rough)  Compare these to your target style 8

9  I like to work in percentages ◦ Base grains first (80% typical) ◦ “Key” specialty grains next (5-10%) ◦ Remaining grains (body, ABV, etc) (5-10%)  Select grains that match your target ◦ Ex: Maris Otter for flavorful English Ale  Understand what each brings to the table ◦ SMaSH brewing (and variants) a great way to understand what each grain does 9

10  Bittering Additions ◦ Tend to use a single addition, long boil to achieve my target bitterness (IBU) level ◦ I use Bitterness Ratio (IBU:GU ratio) for balance  Aroma Additions ◦ Most of the aromatic “hop oils” will boil off within a few minutes ◦ I’ve moved towards very late or steeped/whirlpool hops to maximize aroma and hop oil flavor  Dry Hopping ◦ Shorter contact times (24-72 hours) 10

11  Select yeast for effect ◦ “Styles” for yeast provide a good starting point ◦ Go “off style” to achieve a specific effect such as a dry finish, low attenuation, or complexity added by esters  A Starter is Important for Liquid Yeast ◦ A typical liquid pack is 100 Bil cells when produced and degrades about 20%/month ◦ Ideal pitch rate for 5 gal, 1.048 ale: 164 Bil cells ◦ Lagers ideal pitch rate is double that of ale  Fermentation Temperature Matters! 11

12  Know your local water source! ◦ What is your Residual Alkalinity (How to Brew)? ◦ Is your water deficient minerals or is it too hard?  Consider the Mash pH when designing beer ◦ Dark grains lower pH – less of a worry ◦ Light beers - need buffer or acid to lower pH  Water additions ◦ pH buffers or acids – to manage mash pH ◦ Overall water profile considerations  Should I target a particular profile for this beer?  Do I need to start with bottled water then add minerals? 12

13  Pick mash temp as needed for beer body: ◦ Light body – 148 F ◦ Medium body – 152 F ◦ Full body – 156 F  A Single Infusion Mash - 98% of the time! ◦ Add melanoidin malt to simulate decoction ◦ Use flaked or torrified grains when you need to work with unmalted barley/wheats/oats (no cereal rest)  Consider Brew-in-a-bag ◦ Saves an hour due to short sparge and cleanup  Prevent Stuck Sparges ◦ Use rice hulls for wheats, oats, etc… 13

14  Late Extract Additions ◦ Reduces scorching, increases hop utilization  Segregate Dark Grains into Tea ◦ Steep dark/harsh grains separate from mash (Gordon Strong) ◦ Reduces perceived bitterness/harshness  Add Honey/Fruit (some sugars) after boil or in secondary ◦ Fragile fruit/honey aromas boil off ◦ Risk of infection relatively low after primary fermentation complete 14

15  First Wort Hopping ◦ Add hops to pot during sparge (smooth flavor)  Mash Hopping ◦ Don’t bother!  Late Hop Additions ◦ Very late may be best!  Steep/Whirlpool/Hop Back Additions ◦ Great for preserving volatile hop oils ◦ Adds small amount of bitterness  Dry Hopping – use pellets just before bottling ◦ Trend to shorter contact times – usually 1-3 days ◦ Recent research indicates 24 hours may be enough 15

16  Pitch two different yeasts ◦ Either together, or separated in time  Add Lacto or Brett in Secondary ◦ Sour beers only  Diaceytl Rest - Lagers ◦ Raise temp by a few degrees for a day in secondary  Cold Crashing ◦ Crash beer to near freezing in secondary ◦ Lager or Ale – may require more yeast for bottling 16

17  Is Clarity Important?  Ways to improve clarity ◦ Watch protein content of grains ◦ Cool wort quickly – Chiller ◦ Use Irish Moss/Whirlfloc at end of boil ◦ Choose yeast with high flocculation ◦ Add a fining agent:  Isinglass, Chillguard, Gelatin, Polyclar ◦ Cold store beer after carbonation 17

18  Must be able to Judge your beer! ◦ Evaluate external appearance first ◦ Capture aroma up front – right after its poured ◦ Evaluate color, clarity, head retention ◦ Taste the beer- overall impression first  Finish, malt, hops, aroma  Obvious flaws ◦ Mouthfeel ◦ Overall Impression  The BJCP score sheet is a great guide ◦ Provides 17 taste terms (grassy, phenolic, astringent, etc…) used for evaluating beer  Beer Judges are some of the best brewers! 18

19  Diacetyl/Butterscotch ◦ Use starter, diacetyl rest for lagers  Astringency/Grainy ◦ Oversparging, sparging too hot, excess tannins  Phenolics/Medicinal ◦ Chlorine in water, bacteria, oversparging  Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS)/Cabbage/Eggs ◦ Bacteria, high moisture malt, covering during boil or insufficient boil  Sour/Acidic flavors ◦ Sanitation, Bacteria, excessive acid 19

20  Pro brewers perfect their beer ◦ Many homebrewers never brew the same twice!  Seriously evaluate the flaws in your beer ◦ Adjust grain percentages? ◦ Change hop schedule or varieties? ◦ Fix or try new techniques? ◦ Correct specific flaws?  Brew it Again! 20

21  Start with a clear artistic vision  Do your homework (research!)  Create a list of potential ingredients’ ◦ Simplify whenever possible – more is not better!  Run the numbers ◦ Grain bill first ◦ Then hops, yeast, misc items  Consider which techniques are best ◦ Mash, Boil, Fermentation and Aging techniques ◦ Body, Clarity, Eliminating flaws  Judge your beer after brewing  Correct flaws and iterate! 21

22 Beer Brewing Software Brad Smith, PhD 22

23  Recipe Design ◦ Build a recipe by picking ingredients from a set of several hundred preloaded hops, grains, yeasts, etc… ◦ Calculates OG, Color, etc… in real time so you can focus on designing the beer ◦ Print Step-by-step instructions for your recipe  Recipe Manipulation ◦ Scale a recipe, adjust bitterness, adjust color, convert from all grain to extract, change to your equipment  Recipe Management ◦ Organize recipes in folders, share them in several formats, record data as you brew 23

24 PC Version Macintosh Version 24 iPhone, iPad, and Android

25 Color Ingredients Style Comparison Custom Fields Mash, Fermentation Profiles Name, Equipment Name, Equipment Choose Ingredients 25

26  Current design is compared against the style guide as you build the recipe ◦ OG, Bitterness, Color and ABV displayed ◦ Lets you focus on the design of the beer itself 26

27  Brew Sheet ◦ Step by step instructions for any recipe  Brew Day Timer ◦ Mash and boil timers in desktop and mobile versions 27 Screen clipping taken: 5/16/2013, 3:59 PM

28 28 Cloud Recipe Sharing/Storage Cloud Recipe Sharing/Storage Desktop – Cloud Folder Mobile – Cloud Folder Web – Share/Search

29  Features ◦ Brewday Timer (Mash and Boil) ◦ Local (offline) recipe editing ◦ Cloud folder recipe editing ◦ Editable ingredients ◦ Equipment, Mash, Fermentation and Carbonation profiles editable ◦ BJCP Style Guide ◦ Tools: Hydrometer, Infusion, Attenuation, Mash Adjust, Refractometer, Carbonation ◦ Unit Converters 29

30  Resources ◦ – BJCP style guide ◦ Books:  Designing Great Beers - Daniels  Radical Brewing – Randy Mosher  How to Brew – John Palmer  Brewing Classic Styles – Zainasheff and Palmer  Brew Like a Monk – Stan Hieronymous  India Pale Ale – Mitch Steele  BeerSmith References ◦ ◦ ◦ Newsletter, blog, podcast   Questions? 30

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