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PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Carlo Lupi

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Presentation on theme: "PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Carlo Lupi"— Presentation transcript:

1 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Carlo Lupi

2 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 The PCB inventory has three purposes:  MANAGEMENT  TRACEABILITY  EMERGENCY RESPONSE

3 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 A PCBs inventory should consist in: An organized and dynamic list of all the PCBs contaminated equipment, wastes and sites A system for PCBs inventory data management Rules and procedures for adding or deleting items from the inventory and for reporting A dedicated administrative structure with personnel and responsibilities

4 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Following the Stockholm convention, the PCB inventory should include all the equipment with internal volume greater than 5Liters and PCBs concentration greater than 50 ppm. In order to improve the usefulness of the PCB inventory, other items can be added: PCBs wastes, PCBs contaminated sites, equipment with internal volume < than 5 Liters. Other concentration limits (in any case below 50 ppm) could be considered for inclusion in the PCB inventory

5 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Equipment which has been definitively proven to have a PCBs concentration < 50 ppm (or a lower limit selected by the authority) should not be included in the PCBs inventory Wastes with a PCBs concentration which has been definitively proven to be < 50 ppm (or a lower limit selected by the authority) should not be included in the PCBs inventory. A decision must be made on PCB contaminated soil.

6 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013  Announcement effect and miscomunication  Lacking of clear rules for PCB owners  Unrealistic objectives and timeframe  Lacking of a sound inventory plan  Economic interest of PCB owners (disposal cost, missed revenues for scrapped material)  Technical issues

7 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 If data are lacking, (i.e., equipment is not classified as PCB free or has not been tested), the equipment must be considered as PCB contaminated. If equipment has been tested for PCB and/or it is certified as PCB free following international accepted methodologies, it should not be includede in the inventory. (UNEP, Guidelines for the identification of PCBS and materials containing PCBs, 1999) UNEP document “PCB Transformers and Capacitors: From Management to Reclassification and Disposal, may 2002

8 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 They are in a good working condition without any symptom of leaking They are not located in sensitive sites. Transformers do not need to be immediately decontaminated or disposed if: PCBs equipment MUST be included in the inventory! HOWEVER

9 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013

10 Gather list of relevant industries By consumption (i.e. electric contracts > 100 KW)  needs EVN support By production and number of workers (i.e. industries with more than 100 workers)  needs Central and Local chamber of commerce support Arrange telephone survey Perform simple telephone survey (do not ask for “PCB equipment” but only for “equipment”); ask also for any equipment requiring hydraulic and heat transfer oil and oil storage. Follow up with more detailed survey with industries which have that equipment. Arrange site surveys and sampling plan Training and establishment of a network Collect and process samples Perform site surveys

11 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Site Record info Site code (to be repeated in form “B” and “C”) Date Inspector Information about the company Company name Company type (NIC-2008)* Public / Private Headquarter address Site Contact and Address Information State* Site address Geo ref. (°) Location features* Contact person name Contact position Phone Fax Site Information Number of Staff at the site Number of Transformers Number of Capacitors Number of other equipment Electricity Consumption at site (KWh) PCB Elimination plan?

12 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Equipment identification Site Code (the same as A) Label Code (univocal code for each equipment, to be placed on the label) Name of the Manufacturer Country of origin Equipment Type* Serial Number Equipment description Power rating High Voltage (V) Low Voltage (V) Manufacturing date Equipment weight, including dielectric oil (Kg) Oil Weight (Kg) Trade name of the dielectric oil or insulating oil PCB content in the liquid (ppm) PCB analysis performed* Information source

13 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Equipment condition Operational status* Condition of the equipment* Storage* Retrofilled (Y/N)* Retrofilling date Retrofilling liquid Maintenance company

14 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Site Code(the same as A) PCBs Waste identification Type of Waste including Basel code and Indian Waste Classification code Estimated quantity (kg) Packaging modality* Are containers leak proof ? Storage conditions.* Geographical coordinates PCB contaminated Site identification Site Name Land use of the site and of the surroundings Monitoring report if available (attach documents) Cleanup plan if available (attach documents) Cleanup report if available (attach documents)

15 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013

16 Step up transformers Power plants A closed application is defined as “an application in which the PCBs are held completely within the equipment”. In normal condition, therefore, the exposure of the environment or humans to PCBs contained in closed application is null. However, exposure may occur in circumstances like maintenance operations, and damage of the equipment due to the aging of the equipment or misuse. Distribution transformers Power plants, transformer substation, electricity distribution network, large industrial plants, railways, large ships, hospitals Power capacitors Electricity distribution network, large industrial plants Lighting ballastsOffices, large building, hospitals SwitchesTransformer substations, electricity distribution network, large industrial plants, railways, large ships

17 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Heat transfer fluids Chemical industry; petroleum refineries. Partially closed applications are heat transfer fluids and hydraulic fluids. In partially closed applications, PCBs is not directly in contact with the environment; however emission to the environment may occur in certain circumstances during typical use, leading in some cases to significant release Hydraulic fluids Any industrial process requiring hydraulic fluids. Mining equipment; ferrous and non ferrous metal industry. Vacuum and compressors pumps Natural gas transfer substations and pipes; any industrial facility requiring large compressors or vacuum pumps.

18 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Lubricants Immersion oil for microscopes; brake linings; cutting oils; lubricating oils It is reported that PCBs has been used as additive in paint, flame retardant in surface coatings, plasticizers in chlorine based plastic and rubber like PVC and neoprene. PCBs has been also used as an additive to the paint of older ships Casting waxes Pattern waxes for casting Surface coatings: Paints (including the ones used for ship painting); surface treatment for textiles; carbonless copy paper; flame retardants; PlasticizersGasket sealers; filling materials; PVC; rubber sealers

19 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 In general, capacitors with an internal volume in the order of one or more liters are used to compensate for the inductive reactive power required by the electrical load. Very often, capacitors can be found wherever there is: An intensive use of fluorescent lamps, like in the case of large buildings, hospitals, railway stations, etc.; An intensive use of electrical motors, for instance in industry manufacturing plants; A compensation system. Compensation systems in cabinets and electrical panels can be identified by the presence of instruments for indicating and adjusting cos (φ), as well as by the term "Compensation". Normally, the capacitors can be found in a primary or secondary distribution panel (cabinet) located in example in a basement or an ancillary room in a transformer station or in another secure location of the company;

20 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Power capacitors can be therefore found in Buildings: Administrative buildings, Hospital, Museums, Railway Stations, Shopping Centers and in general large buildings (including the old buildings planned for demolition) Workshops and Industrial Manufacturing; Wastewater treatment plants Power distribution and power distribution substations; Refrigeration facilities; Research institutions.

21 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013  All industries connected with an high voltage supply with their internal step-down systems  Industries with high power contracts (for instance > 100 kW)  Large facilities (hospitals, commercial centers, large hotels, universities)

22 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013

23  An essential part of all investigations is that evidence gathered be controlled.  Sampling operations should to be supervised bY an external observer. Right after sampling, samples have to be sealed and the seal signed.  Sample possession must be traceable from the time the samples are collected until they are analysed.  a sample form must be signed each time a sample is passed from an operator to another.

24 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013  Before starting the sampling it is crucial to check:  1) status of transformer (any rust, leakage, etc.)  2) suitable sampling points: valves, tanks, pipes  3) if enough space for sampling operations is available  4) general safety condition at the workplace

25 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013  Before sampling:  Take photo of the transformer plate  Take note of relevant data  Wear PPE (personal protective equipment)  Be sure all the necessary equipment is in place

26 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013  Gloves  Mask  Glasses  Helmet

27 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013

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33 Labeling is something more than placing a sticker onto an article Labeling functions may include traceability to link articles to a database (with univocal codes); to ensure that operators and general public are informed (including, for instance, emergency operators during an accident) about the existence of PCB equipment in their factory, so that they can adopt suitable management measures when needed; to enforce obligations on PCBs labeled equipment (for instance, to “track” the status and movement of these equipment)

34 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August Target identification2. Clear assignment of responsibilities3. Clear establishment of rules4. Selection of the information content5. Printing and distributing labels6. Building and mantaining the database7. Enforcement

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38 WARNING This equipment contains PCBs Polychlorinated Biphenyls The PCBs contained in this equipment is capable to cause cumulative permanent effect to the organism and to severely contaminate the environment. It is severely forbidden to open this equipment. If it is necessary to open, move, replace or repair this equipment, call the number 0091 – 11 – In case of fire, leakage or any other emergency involving this equipment contact immediatly the emergency number below. EMERGENCY HOTLINE 0091 – 11 – UNIVOCAL EQUIPMENT CODE: ABC CAB

39 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Data and info from PCB inventory worldwide

40 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013  China produced PCB from 1965 to 1980 (Shanghai, Suzhou, Xi’an)  The cumulated PCBs oil output was 7, 130 tons, of which PCB3 account for 6, 130 tons and PCB5 account for 1, 000 tons.  Very few PCB transformers found (7 over 1000 > 50 ppm)  China has produced about capacitors using domestic PCBs oil  About sets of capacitors containing PCBs may be still in service, but only 2, 027 sets have been verified.  The large majority of PCB capacitors has been buried, recycled or resold.  Several PCB burial sites were lost.

41 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013  Due of the situation, the PCB project in China has been mainly a “PCB site cleanup” project  Around 20 PCB sites treated in Zhejiang  PCB soil treated in a thermal desorber  PCB capacitors shredded and incinerated  Pure PCB oil incinerated

42 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Centralized Sealed up in the cave Site in Gansu Province Site in the Beijing municipality

43 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Centralized underground sealed-up 辽宁锦州 PCBs 地下封存点 Site in the Zhejiang Province, Shaoxing City

44 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 PCBs capacitors stored in the open air PCBs capacitors stored in warehouse

45 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013

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47 Trial burn test 1 (PCB contaminated soil, PCB 1-2%)  PCDD/F ngTEq/Nm3 Trial burn test 2 (PCB oil, PCB 20%)  PCDD/F ngTEq/Nm3 Trial burn test 3 (PCB soil+capacitors, PCB 10%)  PCDD/F ngTEq/Nm3 Minimize release of POPs from the whole process !! Site cleanup Transportation and Storage Final Disposal

48 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013

49 PCB oil wt (metric tons) N of transfIn useStored Transf. Weight (metric tons) Oil wtN of transfIn useStored Transf. Weightavg conc Pure PCB transformers Transformers contaminated by PCB In India, almost all the inventoried PCB equipment are online. Most of them are pure PCB transformers

50 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 PCB oil wt (metric tons)N of transf Transf. Weight (metric tons) Pure PCB transformers In India, a large number of pure - PCB transformers were found in the iron and steel industry

51 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 over the 56 transformers sampled for chlorine testing by means of disposable screening test kits (50 ppm), 32 units were found contaminated by PCBs. NIP Inventory (2004): Over the 216 transformers tested with the LX 2000, 95 were found contaminated by PCBs Inventory conducted during the preparation of GEF project (summer 2011)

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59 IMELS European Commission National Agency for the Protection of the Environment Regions: drafting of PCB management plan

60 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 PCB production around tons (most from Caffaro) electrical devices contaminated by PCB of which 60% owned by ENEL (National Electric Board) devices with PCB conc. between 50 and 500 mg/kg devices with PCB conc. > 500 mg/kg

61 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013 Northern regions, where the consumption of electricity is higher, have more PCB contaminated equipment than the Southern regions

62 PPG Inception Meeting – Colombo, Sri Lanka 5-10 August 2013

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64 The database of USA PCBs transformer still in use is available online


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