Presentation on theme: "CE 510 Hazardous Waste Engineering"— Presentation transcript:
1CE 510 Hazardous Waste Engineering Department of Civil EngineeringSouthern Illinois University CarbondaleInstructor: Jemil YesufDr. L.R. ChevalierLecture Series 1:Environmental Legislations and Regulations
2Course GoalsReview the history and impact of environmental laws in the United StatesUnderstand the terminology, nomenclature, and significance of properties of hazardous wastes and hazardous materialsDevelop strategies to find information of nomenclature, transport and behavior, and toxicity for hazardous compoundsElucidate procedures for describing, assessing, and sampling hazardous wastes at industrial facilities and contaminated sitesPredict the behavior of hazardous chemicals in surface impoundments, soils, groundwater and treatment systemsAssess the toxicity and risk associated with exposure to hazardous chemicalsApply scientific principles and process designs of hazardous wastes management, remediation and treatment
3Introduction to Approach SourcesPathwaysReceptorsIndustrial processes that generate hazardous wasteTypes of contamination that results from their disposal
4Introduction to Approach SourcesPathwaysReceptorsMAIN EMPHASIS OF COURSEStorage systems, soil, groundwater, air, water treatment systemsQuantitative problem solvingProvides the conceptual basis for understanding hazardous chemicals
5Introduction to Approach SourcesPathwaysReceptorsMAIN EMPHASIS OF COURSEPartitioningVolatilizationAbiotic and biotic transformation
6Introduction to Approach SourcesPathwaysReceptorsHumans and wildlifeFundamentals of toxicologyRisk Assessment
7Generation of HW High Standard of Living Waste that may be persistent, toxic, flammable corrosive or explosiveCOMPUTERhalogenatedsolventsAIRCRAFTpetroleumsolventsheavy metalsPLASTICSorganicsolvents
8Estimates of Amounts in US 30-60 million tons per year subject to federal regulationsAdditional million tons per year regulated by stateThese are conservative estimates – other sources predict 750 million tons per yearEven conservative estimates put the annual rate generated as 1 ton per year per person in the US
9Definition of Hazardous Waste Long or short-term toxicity to humansEco-toxicityFlammabilityExplosivityCorrosivity
10Pre-Regulatory Disposal Practices (prior to 1970’s) Pesticide Rinse and Formulation AreasUnderground Storage TanksPits, Ponds and LagoonsSanitary LandfillsDrum Storage AreasUnlined Hazardous Waste LandfillsMidnight DumpingUncontrolled IncinerationsStudents are responsible for reviewing
11EPA Estimates of the Magnitude of Problem Prior to Landmark Legislation 50,000 Sites60 million tons
12Estimated Cost (billions of dollars) Table 1.1 Potential Number of Hazardous Waste Sites and Associated Cleanup CostsNo. of Potential SitesEstimated Cost (billions of dollars)Superfund sites60,00050Sites of RCRA cleanups2,40023State funded cleanup sites22,00045DOD sites7,20011-15DOE sitesNot reported66-110
13Observed Releases from NPL Landfills to Water and Air Table 1.2 Pathways of Releases of Hazardous Chemicals from National Priority List LandfillsObserved Releases from NPL Landfills to Water and Air PercentGroundwater only37Groundwater and surface water23None observed15Surface water only9Groundwater, surface water, air8Groundwater and air3Surface water and airAir only248% ofUS population receives drinking water from groundwater
14Landmark Legislations Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 1976Hazard and Solid Waste Amendment (HSWA), 1984Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, Superfund), 1980Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986: from $1.8 in 1980 to $8.5 billion fund.
15RCRA, 1976 Legislation that requires total documentation Where waste is generatedWhere waste is disposedHas provisions for citizen actionsSignificant funding cuts to EPAAgency criticized by Congress for not carrying out mandatesCongress passed Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment 1984 to strengthen the act
16Primary Goals of RCRA & HSWA Protect public health and the environment from hazardous and other solid waste through:Hazardous waste managementSolid waste managementUST regulationTo preserve natural resources through resource recovery and conservationLarge portion of RCRA is definition of hazardous wasteManagement goal of RCRA is to control HW from “cradle to grave”: Generators, transporters and TSD facilities.
17Definition of a RCRA HW HWs are considered a subset of solid waste Once a waste is defined as solid waste-next step is to determine if it is HW.“a solid waste or combination of solid wastes, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics, may: 1) cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness, or 2) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.”
18Exempted Waste Household waste Agricultural waste returned to the groundMining overburden returned to the mine siteUtility wastes from coal combustionOil and gas exploration drilling wasteWastes from the extraction and processing of ores and mineralsCement kiln wastesArsenic-treated wood wastes generated by end users of such woodCertain chromium bearing waste
19Classification of HWsIf waste material is a solid waste and not exempt, list must be examined to assess if it is hazardous.F listHazardous Waste from nonspecific sources20 F classifications from F001-F029Primarily from industrial processesK ListHazardous Waste from a specific source87 K classificationsP + U ListPrimarily commercial productsAlso includes hazardous residues and spillsP list is acutely hazardousU list is toxic
20Class ExerciseDetermine the classification (Industry and EPA Hazardous Waste Number and Hazard Code) for the following:Waste Treatment sludge from the chemical conversion coating of aluminumAcetoneSilver cyanide(See Appendix A)
21Class ExerciseWaste Treatment sludge from the chemical conversion coating of aluminum – F019 (T)Acetone – U002 (I)Silver cyanide – P104NOTE: use of Hazardous Codes C, E, H, I, R, and T in tables
23Critical Path for determining if a waste is hazardous under RCRA Solid WasteCritical Path for determining if a waste is hazardous under RCRAYesExempt?NoYesF ListNoHazardous WasteCharacteristicsYesK ListNoNoNoP + U ListYesYesYesDelistedHazardousWasteNon-hazardousWasteNo
24Cradle-to-Grave Management GeneratorsGenerates over 1000 kg of HW per monthEPA formObtain an EPA identification numberDocuments the generation of the wasteEPA form aMechanism for tracking the waste until it is disposed ofForm must accompany waste, and must be kept by all parties
25CERCLA, 1980A.k.a SuperfundTrust funded by taxes on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided to federal authorityfunds and regulates cleanup of hazardous waste sites
26Additional Aspects of CERCLA and SARA Moves beyond cradle-to-grave managementFocused on past disposal sitesBroadened the definition of Hazardous Waste established by RCRAAny chemical regulated underClean Air ActClean Water ActToxic Substance Control ActRCRANational Contingency Plan developed as blueprint for prioritized clean-up
27Additional Legislature Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (1986)Clean Water Act (1972)Toxic Substance Control Act (1976)Safe Drinking Water Act (1974)Clean Air Act (1970)More information about major environmental laws and regulations can be accessed at: :
28Definitionsbased on regulations, the most common working definitions of hazardous chemicals in the practice of hazardous waste management areHazardous waste – chemicals disposed of under RCRAHazardous substance – chemicals regulated under CERCLAHazardous materials – chemicals transported by truck, rail, air or pipeline under USDOT regulations
29Summary of important points and concepts Hazardous waste have been generated from essentially all industrial activities. Prior to the passage and promulgation of federal legislation in the late 1970s, hazardous waste were often disposed of improperly in pits, ponds, and lagoons, on surface soils and in landfills.RCRA, passed in 1976, provides cradle-to-grave management of hazardous wastes, and was amended as HSWA in Hazardous waste generators, transporters, and treatment/storage/disposal facility operators have responsibilities to provide safeguards against improper hazardous waste disposal
30Summary of important points and concepts CERCLA, also know as Superfund, was passed in 1980 to provide a mechanism for the mitigation of chronic environmental damage, particularly the cleanup of contaminated sites. Amended in 1986, SARADefinitions of hazardous chemicals are based on regulatory and administrative criteria. Hazardous waste are defined by RCRA, hazardous substances by CERCLA and hazardous materials by DOT regulationsThe current estimate of hazardous waste generation is approximately 750 million tons per year in the US. Most of the waste is classified as corrosive, and can be treated by neutralization.
31Summary of important points and concepts The hazardous waste field is multidisciplinary and requires the expertise of environmental engineers, environmental chemists, microbiologists, soil scientists, toxicologists, hydrogeologists.Hazardous waste professionals have a number of responsibilities, including site assessment, risk assessment, soil and groundwater remediation, RCRA TSD permitting, hazardous waste management, and hazardous waste treatmentHazardous waste problems can be approached using the conceptual theme of sources, pathways and receptors.