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CE 510 Hazardous Waste Engineering

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1 CE 510 Hazardous Waste Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering Southern Illinois University Carbondale Instructor: Jemil Yesuf Dr. L.R. Chevalier Lecture Series 1: Environmental Legislations and Regulations

2 Course Goals Review the history and impact of environmental laws in the United States Understand the terminology, nomenclature, and significance of properties of hazardous wastes and hazardous materials Develop strategies to find information of nomenclature, transport and behavior, and toxicity for hazardous compounds Elucidate procedures for describing, assessing, and sampling hazardous wastes at industrial facilities and contaminated sites Predict the behavior of hazardous chemicals in surface impoundments, soils, groundwater and treatment systems Assess the toxicity and risk associated with exposure to hazardous chemicals Apply scientific principles and process designs of hazardous wastes management, remediation and treatment

3 Introduction to Approach
Sources Pathways Receptors Industrial processes that generate hazardous waste Types of contamination that results from their disposal

4 Introduction to Approach
Sources Pathways Receptors MAIN EMPHASIS OF COURSE Storage systems, soil, groundwater, air, water treatment systems Quantitative problem solving Provides the conceptual basis for understanding hazardous chemicals

5 Introduction to Approach
Sources Pathways Receptors MAIN EMPHASIS OF COURSE Partitioning Volatilization Abiotic and biotic transformation

6 Introduction to Approach
Sources Pathways Receptors Humans and wildlife Fundamentals of toxicology Risk Assessment

7 Generation of HW High Standard of Living
Waste that may be persistent, toxic, flammable corrosive or explosive COMPUTER halogenated solvents AIRCRAFT petroleum solvents heavy metals PLASTICS organic solvents

8 Estimates of Amounts in US
30-60 million tons per year subject to federal regulations Additional million tons per year regulated by state These are conservative estimates – other sources predict 750 million tons per year Even conservative estimates put the annual rate generated as 1 ton per year per person in the US

9 Definition of Hazardous Waste
Long or short-term toxicity to humans Eco-toxicity Flammability Explosivity Corrosivity

10 Pre-Regulatory Disposal Practices (prior to 1970’s)
Pesticide Rinse and Formulation Areas Underground Storage Tanks Pits, Ponds and Lagoons Sanitary Landfills Drum Storage Areas Unlined Hazardous Waste Landfills Midnight Dumping Uncontrolled Incinerations Students are responsible for reviewing

11 EPA Estimates of the Magnitude of Problem Prior to Landmark Legislation
50,000 Sites 60 million tons

12 Estimated Cost (billions of dollars)
Table 1.1 Potential Number of Hazardous Waste Sites and Associated Cleanup Costs No. of Potential Sites Estimated Cost (billions of dollars) Superfund sites 60,000 50 Sites of RCRA cleanups 2,400 23 State funded cleanup sites 22,000 45 DOD sites 7,200 11-15 DOE sites Not reported 66-110

13 Observed Releases from NPL Landfills to Water and Air
Table 1.2 Pathways of Releases of Hazardous Chemicals from National Priority List Landfills Observed Releases from NPL Landfills to Water and Air  Percent Groundwater only 37 Groundwater and surface water 23 None observed 15 Surface water only 9 Groundwater, surface water, air 8 Groundwater and air 3 Surface water and air Air only 2 48% of US population receives drinking water from groundwater

14 Landmark Legislations
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 1976 Hazard and Solid Waste Amendment (HSWA), 1984 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, Superfund), 1980 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986: from $1.8 in 1980 to $8.5 billion fund.

15 RCRA, 1976 Legislation that requires total documentation
Where waste is generated Where waste is disposed Has provisions for citizen actions Significant funding cuts to EPA Agency criticized by Congress for not carrying out mandates Congress passed Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment 1984 to strengthen the act

16 Primary Goals of RCRA & HSWA
Protect public health and the environment from hazardous and other solid waste through: Hazardous waste management Solid waste management UST regulation To preserve natural resources through resource recovery and conservation Large portion of RCRA is definition of hazardous waste Management goal of RCRA is to control HW from “cradle to grave”: Generators, transporters and TSD facilities.

17 Definition of a RCRA HW HWs are considered a subset of solid waste
Once a waste is defined as solid waste-next step is to determine if it is HW. “a solid waste or combination of solid wastes, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics, may: 1) cause, or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness, or 2) pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed.”

18 Exempted Waste Household waste
Agricultural waste returned to the ground Mining overburden returned to the mine site Utility wastes from coal combustion Oil and gas exploration drilling waste Wastes from the extraction and processing of ores and minerals Cement kiln wastes Arsenic-treated wood wastes generated by end users of such wood Certain chromium bearing waste

19 Classification of HWs If waste material is a solid waste and not exempt, list must be examined to assess if it is hazardous. F list Hazardous Waste from nonspecific sources 20 F classifications from F001-F029 Primarily from industrial processes K List Hazardous Waste from a specific source 87 K classifications P + U List Primarily commercial products Also includes hazardous residues and spills P list is acutely hazardous U list is toxic

20 Class Exercise Determine the classification (Industry and EPA Hazardous Waste Number and Hazard Code) for the following: Waste Treatment sludge from the chemical conversion coating of aluminum Acetone Silver cyanide (See Appendix A)

21 Class Exercise Waste Treatment sludge from the chemical conversion coating of aluminum – F019 (T) Acetone – U002 (I) Silver cyanide – P104 NOTE: use of Hazardous Codes C, E, H, I, R, and T in tables

22 Additional Codes-Hazardous Waste Characteristics (Table 1.4)
Ignitability – D001 Corrosivity – D002 Reactivity – D003 Toxicity – D004-D043 Extraction Procedure – EP Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure – TCLP Prevents industry from simply diluting waste

23 Critical Path for determining if a waste is hazardous under RCRA
Solid Waste Critical Path for determining if a waste is hazardous under RCRA Yes Exempt? No Yes F List No Hazardous Waste Characteristics Yes K List No No No P + U List Yes Yes Yes Delisted Hazardous Waste Non-hazardous Waste No

24 Cradle-to-Grave Management
Generators Generates over 1000 kg of HW per month EPA form Obtain an EPA identification number Documents the generation of the waste EPA form a Mechanism for tracking the waste until it is disposed of Form must accompany waste, and must be kept by all parties

25 CERCLA, 1980 A.k.a Superfund Trust funded by taxes on the chemical and petroleum industries and provided to federal authority funds and regulates cleanup of hazardous waste sites

26 Additional Aspects of CERCLA and SARA
Moves beyond cradle-to-grave management Focused on past disposal sites Broadened the definition of Hazardous Waste established by RCRA Any chemical regulated under Clean Air Act Clean Water Act Toxic Substance Control Act RCRA National Contingency Plan developed as blueprint for prioritized clean-up

27 Additional Legislature
Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (1986) Clean Water Act (1972) Toxic Substance Control Act (1976) Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) Clean Air Act (1970) More information about major environmental laws and regulations can be accessed at: :

28 Definitions based on regulations, the most common working definitions of hazardous chemicals in the practice of hazardous waste management are Hazardous waste – chemicals disposed of under RCRA Hazardous substance – chemicals regulated under CERCLA Hazardous materials – chemicals transported by truck, rail, air or pipeline under USDOT regulations

29 Summary of important points and concepts
Hazardous waste have been generated from essentially all industrial activities. Prior to the passage and promulgation of federal legislation in the late 1970s, hazardous waste were often disposed of improperly in pits, ponds, and lagoons, on surface soils and in landfills. RCRA, passed in 1976, provides cradle-to-grave management of hazardous wastes, and was amended as HSWA in Hazardous waste generators, transporters, and treatment/storage/disposal facility operators have responsibilities to provide safeguards against improper hazardous waste disposal

30 Summary of important points and concepts
CERCLA, also know as Superfund, was passed in 1980 to provide a mechanism for the mitigation of chronic environmental damage, particularly the cleanup of contaminated sites. Amended in 1986, SARA Definitions of hazardous chemicals are based on regulatory and administrative criteria. Hazardous waste are defined by RCRA, hazardous substances by CERCLA and hazardous materials by DOT regulations The current estimate of hazardous waste generation is approximately 750 million tons per year in the US. Most of the waste is classified as corrosive, and can be treated by neutralization.

31 Summary of important points and concepts
The hazardous waste field is multidisciplinary and requires the expertise of environmental engineers, environmental chemists, microbiologists, soil scientists, toxicologists, hydrogeologists. Hazardous waste professionals have a number of responsibilities, including site assessment, risk assessment, soil and groundwater remediation, RCRA TSD permitting, hazardous waste management, and hazardous waste treatment Hazardous waste problems can be approached using the conceptual theme of sources, pathways and receptors.

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