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Jeff DeByl March 26 th, 2012 CBE 555, Spring 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Jeff DeByl March 26 th, 2012 CBE 555, Spring 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Jeff DeByl March 26 th, 2012 CBE 555, Spring 2012

2 Petroleum Background  Flammable liquid consisting of hydrocarbons and organic compounds (non-polar) ◦ Composition by weight  Carbon: 83-87%  Hydrogen: 10-14%  Nitrogen: 0.1-2%  Oxygen: 0.05-1.5%  Sulfur: 0.05-6% ◦ Fossil fuel formed by the decomposition of dead organisms under sedimentary rock ◦ Hydrophobic (immiscible with water) ◦ World Consumption: about 85,000,000 barrels per day  3.57 billion gallons per day (42 US gallons in 1 barrel)

3 Why Oil Spills Occur?  Accidents ◦ Usually from carelessness  Exxon Valdez – 1989  10.9 million gallons  Unavoidable events ◦ Weather ◦ Earthquakes ◦ Methane bubble  Deepwater Horizon – 2010  207 million gallons (5 million barrels)  Intentional ◦ Gulf War – January 1991  240 million gallons released to deter US Troops http://www.womansday.com/cm/womansday/images/fU/06-Gulf-War-Oil-Spill-10- Worst-Manmade-Natural-Disasters-1.jpg

4 http://www.history.com/interactives/historys-worst-oil-spills

5  In Water ◦ Boom ◦ Burning ◦ Dispersants ◦ Skimming ◦ Solidifying ◦ Vacuum  Bioremediation  On Land ◦ Chemical Cleaning ◦ High Pressure Water ◦ Manual/Mechanical removal Clean up Techniques

6 Oil Booms  Floating barrier used for containment and diversion ◦ Uses the property of oil floating on top of the water  First response ◦ Used to help concentrate oil for use of skimmers and vacuums  Material hangs 18-48 inches beneath surface  Can fail at water speeds over 1 knot (1.15mph)  Requires a lot of manpower http://www.popularmechanics.com/cm/popularmechanics/images/0l/OilBo omLine_300_0510-md.jpg

7 Burning  Very efficient method of removal (~99% )  Quickest removal technique  Tarry residue produced, which is easily removed  Downfall: loss of resource, release of green house gases  Limited by location, weather and time ◦ Emulsions up to 35% water http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2010/images/06/17/c1main.oil.burn.cnn.jpg

8 Dispersants  Chemical used to increase the fluidity of a material ◦ Prevents settling or clumping ◦ Removes oil from the surface of the water  Spreads the oil throughout a greater amount of water ◦ Reduces concentrations ◦ Prevents beach contamination  Negatively effects animals who live in water http://www.southernstudies.org/images/sitepieces/chemical_dispersant_spraying.jpg

9 Skimming  Collects the floating oil from the surface of water  Used in coordination with booms ◦ High concentration of oil  Most effective in calm waters  Three types ◦ Weir skimmer ◦ Drum Skimmer ◦ Oleophilic skimmer

10 Weir Skimmer  Floating oil flows over a weir ◦ Liquid pools around structure but allows flow over top of weir  Height of weir is adjustable with water levels  Outlet stream pumped through hose http://www.skimoil.com/images/skprod11_lg.gif http://i00.i.aliimg.com/photo/251834094/Circular_Weir_Oil_Skimmer.jpg

11 Drum Skimmer  Spinning drum collects oil on the sides ◦ Oil wiped from surface of the drum and collected ◦ Driven by motor  Efficient in that they do not collect much water ◦ Large surface area exposed to water http://www.skimoil.com/images/blackoil5-lg.jpg

12 Oleophilic Skimmer  “Oil-Attracting’  Ropes, discs, mops and belts treated to adhere to oil ◦ Blot oil from water surface ◦ Oil scraped off into a recovery tank  Flexible http://images1.hellotrade.com/data2/NW/PI/HELLOTD-1123467/web_seamop- 250x250.jpg

13 Solidifying  Dry hydrophobic polymers ◦ Adsorb and absorb  Change the spilled oil from a liquid to a semi-solid or rubber- like material that floats on water  Suppresses harmful vapors http://theintelhub.com/wp- content/uploads/2010/08/45176_154150897929836_138109319533994_464412_7651693_n.jpg

14 Vacuum  Simple vacuum used to remove the oil from the surface of the water  Not as efficient, as a lot of water is retrieved as well ◦ Can use other techniques such as centrifuges, gravity separation and vacuum dehydration to separate the oil and water

15 Bioremediation  Use microorganisms to break down the oil ◦ Uses the Carbon atoms of the oil  Long process (sometimes up to several years)  Most natural oil removal technique  Used in coordination with dispersants  Emit carbon dioxide as a result of digesting the hydrocarbons  Nitrogen and phosphorus have been used http://www.eoearth.org/articles/view/158455/

16 High Pressure Hot Water  Primary technique used for clearing oil off of beaches ◦ Leaves shoreline bare and kills many plants and animals ◦ Usually still used since damage from hot water is less than damage from oil  Oil is blasted back into water, where booms and skimmers are in place for removal http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_saKQ607KvoI/S-hvGxgPktI/AAAAAAAADg8/zzAQqa- 1B3U/s1600/oil+cleanup.jpg

17 Manual/Mechanical Removal  Shovels, rakes and hand pickup of pooled oil  Tractors and backhoes used to dig up pockets of buried oil  Front-end loaders used to scrape deposits  Some oil back into water; controlled by booms and skimmers http://media.syracuse.com/news/photo/2010-06-14-ap-gulf-cleanupjpg- ebfec12f612cbf5c.jpg

18 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (1989)  Prince William Sound, Alaska  Oil tanker struck the Bligh Reef ◦ Main captain was not controlling the ship ◦ Had 53 million gallons of crude oil ◦ Spilled 10.9 million gallons of crude oil  Boom and skimmer around tanker completed one day after grounding (100 miles eventually deployed)  Dispersants used a day later ◦ Not effective, as oil turned to mousse from storms http://www.aolnews.com/2010/06/30/how-oils-morphing-chemistry-affects-human- health/

19 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (1989)  Environmental Impact ◦ 20 acres of shoreline still contaminated ◦ Many species still affected today  Economic impact ◦ Estimated up to $500 million losses in fishing ◦ Reduction in tourism  Exxon has paid over $1 billion in settlements with state and federal governments http://whyfiles.org/168oil_spill/images/valdez_duck.jpg

20 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (2010)  40 miles southeast of Louisiana  High pressure methane gas rose up the drilling well, where it ignited and the rig exploded ◦ 11 workers reported dead ◦ Ship burned for 36 hours before sinking  Many discrepancies over amount of oil released ◦ Estimated over 2 million gallons per day ◦ Total of 207 gallons released http://www.eoearth.org/article/Deepwater_Horizon_oil_spill

21 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (2010)  Tried to use remote controlled underwater vehicles to close the blowout preventer valves  Also shot debris at high pressure to try and clog leak  Eventually used a relief well to stop spilling ◦ Almost 5 months from initial explosion http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2010/images/07/07/relief.well.cnn.gfx.gal.jpg

22 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (2010)  Cleanup methods deployed ◦ Over 1200 miles of boom used  Skimmers accompanied ◦ 1.345 million gallons of dispersants ◦ More than 37,000 people helped ◦ Controlled burning of oil on waters surface ◦ Shoreline modification  13.5 million gallons recovered to date http://www.oilspillnews.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/1284879616-63.jpg

23 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (2010  Cost of response for BP has been approximately $1.5 billion  Much of the Gulf Coast’s wildlife remains impacted  Detrimental to strong fishing industry in southern shores

24 Conclusions  Techniques continue to be improved for cleanup  Ultimately, prevention is the best method ◦ Computers, electromagnetic and ultrasonic sensors used to detect weak spots in equipment ◦ Drilling blowout preventer  BP oil spill effects will continue to affect the Gulf for a long time, much like the Exxon Valdez spill continues to have an impact in Alaska  Emergency response plans are better clarified http://www.oilfield- auction.com/classifieds/bop/hydril%20BOP%20blowout%20preventer.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Annular_BOP.svg

25 Questions and Discussion

26  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/06/010615071546.htm  http://library.thinkquest.org/10867/cleanup/methods/index.sht ml  http://www.eoearth.org/article/Exxon_Valdez_oil_spill  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/02/us/02oil.html?_r=1  http://www.eoearth.org/article/Deepwater_Horizon_oil_spill  http://www.fas.org/ota/reports/9109.pdf  http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/science/ article/pii/S0016236102003836  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spill  http://www.ceoe.udel.edu/oilspill/cleanup.html  http://pubs.acs.org/isubscribe/journals/cen/81/i14/html/8114 sci2.html  http://www.gizmag.com/gizmag-overview-gulf-oil-spill-clean- up-options/15212/


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