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A Environmental impact following chemical contamination: The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain.

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Presentation on theme: "A Environmental impact following chemical contamination: The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain."— Presentation transcript:

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2 A Environmental impact following chemical contamination: The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain

3 A Environmental impact following chemical contamination: The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain

4 A Authors: Jose Manuel López Abuin General Practitioner Primary Care Health Center of Padrón Director of the Institute of Rural Health Juan Ramón García Cepeda General Practitioner Emergency Care Center of Boiro PHS of the Institute of Rural Health Environmental impact following chemical contamination: The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain

5 A Authors: Jose Manuel López Abuin General Practitioner Primary Care Health Center of Padrón Director of the Institute of Rural Health Juan Ramón García Cepeda General Practitioner Emergency Care Center of Boiro PHS of the Institute of Rural Health Environmental impact following chemical contamination: The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain

6 A Authors: Jose Manuel López Abuin General Practitioner Primary Care Health Center of Padrón Director of the Institute of Rural Health Juan Ramón García Cepeda General Practitioner Emergency Care Center of Boiro PHS of the Institute of Rural Health Environmental impact following chemical contamination: The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain

7 A Authors: Jose Manuel López Abuin General Practitioner Primary Care Health Center of Padrón Director of the Institute of Rural Health Juan Ramón García Cepeda General Practitioner Emergency Care Center of Boiro PHS of the Institute of Rural Health Environmental impact following chemical contamination: The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain Prestig e

8 A The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION 13 November 2002, Oil tanker Prestige (Bahamian flag) 77,000 tons of heavy fuel oil with a high sulphur content: Issued an SOS off Cape Finisterre, as it was navigating at the mercy of the sea. The crew was evacuated and the tanker towed: impossible to take it into a safe harbour, it was decided to tow it out to sea.

9 A The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

10 A Weather conditions: very extreme, The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

11 A A crack appeared in the hull and gradually became larger The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

12 A Until the vessel split in half, six days after, (19 Nov) The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

13 A at a distance of 130 miles from Cape Finisterre The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION 19 November

14 A The stern sunk four hours after The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

15 A And the bow four hours later The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

16 A

17 A Result: The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

18 A Result: thousands of tons of heavy fuel oil were spilled, in addition to the vessel’s own fuel. The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

19 A November – December: The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

20 A November – December: a number of “black tides” reached the Galician coastline The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

21 A The sea, the day of the first impacts: 16-17 Nov

22 A The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION New impacts, one week after (Nov 23) (Nov 24)

23 A The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION The Asturian and west Galician coast, 10 days after the disaster

24 A The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION New impacts, Nov 30 New impacts, Dec 1 The ship’s sinking area 15 days after the disaster

25 A The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION Evolution of black tides in the first 15 days

26 A The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION Dec 4Dec 7Dec 11 Dec 14Dec 21 Dec 28 New impacts on the shore, December (30-50 days after)

27 A The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION January 11 January 18January 25 February 1February 8February 15 60-90 days after the disaster

28 A The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION March 1March 15April 5 April 19May 3May 17 100-180 days after the disaster

29 A Response: fishermen tried to remove all of the oil they could by using their bare hands or any kind of tool available The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

30 A Response: in order to prevent it from reaching the shore and entering into the Galician Estuaries (very rich in seafood). The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

31 A At the same time wave after wave of volunteers The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

32 A At the same time wave after wave of volunteers, by the thousands, kept arriving from all Spain and also some foreign countries, The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

33 A At the same time wave after wave of volunteers, by the thousands, kept arriving from all Spain and also some foreign countries, in order to cleanup the coastline. The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

34 At the same time wave after wave of volunteers, by the thousands, kept arriving from all Spain and also some foreign countries, in order to cleanup the coastline: a unique experience A The accident with the Prestige ship in Galicia, Spain INTRODUCTION

35 A At the same time wave after wave of volunteers, by the thousands, kept arriving from all Spain and also some foreign countries, in order to cleanup the coastline: a unique experience

36 A High toxicity: (Russians): heavy fuel oil no. 2 or (British): no. 6 or hold fuel used basically for industrial purposes (thermal power stations, furnaces, etc.) obtained from residual fuel oil mixed with gas oil and diesel oil high sulphur content (2.58%) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), other hydrocarbons and heavy metals characterised by its low volatility and solubility in water, high viscosity and adherence and a very lengthy degradation time What could happen with this manipulation to the people?

37 A High toxicity: Hydrocarbons with high sulphur content (PHAs) Taking account the: composition of the product, the intensity and duration of the contact, the pathway of entry, the individual characteristics of the person exposed It can enter our bodies by: inhalation, affecting the respiratory and digestive tracts, or by direct contact with the skin and mucous membranes What could happen with this manipulation to the people?

38 A High toxicity: Hydrocarbons with high sulphur content (PHAs) Taking account the: composition of the product, the intensity and duration of the contact, the pathway of entry, the individual characteristics of the person exposed It can enter our bodies by: inhalation, affecting the respiratory and digestive tracts, or by direct contact with the skin and mucous membranes A MENACE TO HEALTH What could happen with this manipulation to the people?

39 A Who did provide health care for volunteers?

40 A In Galicia, Health Care for volunteers was provided: Who did provide health care for volunteers?

41 A In Galicia, Health Care for volunteers was provided: in 151 Health Centers, 35 Outpatient Emergency Services, 3 field Hospitals, and the Hospital Vessel “Galicia”. Who did provide health care for volunteers?

42 A In Galicia, Health Care for volunteers was provided: in 151 Health Centers, 35 Outpatient Emergency Services, 3 field Hospitals, and the Hospital Vessel “Galicia”. The total ammount of General Practitioners involved was of 855. Who did provide health care for volunteers?

43 A What did our Group do? Coordinators: García-Cepeda JR, López-Abuin JM Local coordinators: Caulonga E, Fachado B, Pedreño I, Gil M, Quintas, JC Primary Care Health Centers and Primary Care Emergency Services of: Rianxo, Boiro, Póboa do Caramiñal, Riveira, Porto do Son, Noya, Padrón and Muros

44 A What did our Group do? PROCEDURE

45 A Seeing initial volunteer morbidity and to prevent more health problems, our Group: What did our Group do? PROCEDURE

46 A Seeing initial volunteer morbidity and to prevent more health problems, our Group: Distributed in all spanish northern and western coast’s Health Centers, 15 days after, 35.000 informative triptyches destinated to volunteers containing preventive fuel cleanup measures, What did our Group do? PROCEDURE

47 A Seeing initial volunteer morbidity and to prevent more health problems, our Group: Distributed in all spanish northern and western coast’s Health Centers, 15 days after, 35.000 informative triptyches destinated to volunteers containing preventive fuel cleanup measures, Distributed informative bulletines to General Practitioners, What did our Group do? PROCEDURE

48 A Seeing initial volunteer morbidity and to prevent more health problems, our Group: Distributed in all spanish northern and western coast’s Health Centers, 15 days after, 35.000 informative triptyches destinated to volunteers containing preventive fuel cleanup measures, Distributed informative bulletines to General Practitioners, Celebrated press. TV and radio conferences, professional and non-professional notices, What did our Group do? PROCEDURE

49 A Seeing initial volunteer morbidity and to prevent more health problems, our Group: Distributed in all spanish northern and western coast’s Health Centers, 15 days after, 35.000 informative triptyches destinated to volunteers containing preventive fuel cleanup measures, Distributed informative bulletines to General Practitioners, Celebrated press. TV and radio conferences, professional and non-professional notices, Studies were made by our Group. Some have not yet concluded (long-term surveys). What did our Group do? PROCEDURE

50 A Seeing initial volunteer morbidity and to prevent more health problems, our Group: Distributed in all spanish northern and western coast’s Health Centers, 15 days after, 35.000 informative triptyches destinated to volunteers containing preventive fuel cleanup measures, Distributed informative bulletines to General Practitioners, Celebrated press. TV and radio conferences, professional and non-professional notices, Studies were made by our Group. Some have not yet concluded (long-term surveys). The most important one (Dr. García-Cepeda and Dr. López Abuin) is showed next: What did our Group do? PROCEDURE

51 Our main study: Coordinators: García-Cepeda JR López-Abuin JM Primary Care Health Centers and Primary Care Emergency Services of: Rianxo, Boiro, Póboa do Caramiñal, Riveira, Porto do Son, Noia, Padrón and Muros

52 A Study of the morbidity derived from the work involved in the cleanup of the fuel oil spilled by the tanker Prestige

53 A

54 A included 67% of equivalent cases attended -in the period of the study- by the Governmental Information System: Study of the morbidity derived from the work involved in the cleanup of the fuel oil spilled by the tanker Prestige

55 A included 67% of equivalent cases attended -in the period of the study- by the Governmental Information System: 982 vs 1462. Study of the morbidity derived from the work involved in the cleanup of the fuel oil spilled by the tanker Prestige

56 A included 67% of equivalent cases attended -in the period of the study- by the Governmental Information System: 982 vs 1462. Study of the morbidity derived from the work involved in the cleanup of the fuel oil spilled by the tanker Prestige

57 A included 67% of equivalent cases attended -in the period of the study- by the Governmental Information System: 982 vs 1462. Surely, due to the geographical limits of our sample, this meant that: Study of the morbidity derived from the work involved in the cleanup of the fuel oil spilled by the tanker Prestige

58 A included 67% of equivalent cases attended -in the period of the study- by the Governmental Information System: 982 vs 1462. Surely, due to the geographical limits of our sample, this meant that: care was provided to much more people than what official cyphers said. Study of the morbidity derived from the work involved in the cleanup of the fuel oil spilled by the tanker Prestige

59 A JUSTIFICATION

60 A As a result of the foregoing: keeping in mind that thousands of people were involved and that we lack experience in disasters of this kind, JUSTIFICATION

61 A As a result of the foregoing: keeping in mind that thousands of people were involved and that we lack experience in disasters of this kind, we considered it advisable to prevent and also to study: the acute morbidity, both the direct as well as the indirect, derived from the cleanup of the black tide that washed up on our shores JUSTIFICATION

62 A As a result of the foregoing: keeping in mind that thousands of people were involved and that we lack experience in disasters of this kind, we considered it advisable to prevent and also to study: the acute morbidity, both the direct as well as the indirect, derived from the cleanup of the black tide that washed up on our shores in order to be: better prepared in the event of the reoccurrence of a similar situation or to contribute our knowledge to assist any other area that may find itself immersed in a similar tragedy in the future. JUSTIFICATION

63 A General: To ascertain the acute morbidity derived from the cleanup work for removing the spill caused by the Prestige on the Galician coast. Specific: To quantify and classify the acute cases treated. To identify preventive measures capable of minimising the health problems derived from such cleanup activities. OBJECTIVES

64 A MATERIAL AND METHODS:

65 A An observational, descriptive study, based on the collection of data, on a standard and the 061 emergency care checklist, with respect to all of the people attended to in the primary care health centers and emergency services who were involved in the fuel oil cleanup. A research group (Boiro Outpatient Emergency Service) was set up to perform the study, and the cooperation of the Primary Care Health centers and Outpatient Emergency Services of Rianxo, Poboa do Caramiñal, Riveira, Porto do Son, Noya, Padrón and Muros. MATERIAL AND METHODS:

66 A The field work: performed from November 02 - April 03. Statistical analysis: Input of the data was later effected on computer support, and performed a statistical analysis of variables noted on checklists. Percentages were determined for the qualitative variables, while central trend and dispersion measurements were obtained for quantitative variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS:

67 A RESULTS:

68 A 1.-SUBJECTS: 982 people were treated (67% males vs 32% females); age average 26 (96% 18-40 years of age) 2.-PATHOLOGIES (cases): Eye irritations: 156 (16%). Skin irritations: 134 (14%). Traumatisms: 126 (13%). Pharyngeal irritations: 116 (12%). Colds and flu: 111 (11%). Nausea and vomiting: 87 (9%). Back pain: 82 (9%). Headache&general complaints: 78 (8%). Respiratory difficulties: 64 (7%). Gastric disorders: 16 (1%). Others: 12 (1%). RESULTS:

69 A It must be noted that: - 47 presented 2 or more pathologies at the same time (quantified as a single case and classified under the more or most serious pathology). - 34 were referred to hospital care (23 traumatisms, 7 respiratory insufficiency, 4 other reasons)…... RESULTS:

70 A 3.-CONCOMINANT PATHOLOGIES: Respiratory difficulties (64 cases:48 -75%- had asthma or bronchial hypersensitiv); Skin irritations (134 cases: 72,- 54%- were allergic). Back pain (82 cases: 38 -46%- had a lumbago background). 4.-CHRONOLOGY: the major part of the demand for emergency care occurred between 5 Dec and 6 Jan (15-45 days after): 694 cases were treated (70.67%). 5.-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT: the majority of those treated up to the end of December had not used any kind of protection whatsoever.... RESULTS:

71 A CONCLUSIONS:

72 A 1.- The major part of the demand for health care was due to the lack of coordination, information and means of protection during the first month following the tragedy. CONCLUSIONS:

73 A 1.- The major part of the demand for health care was due to the lack of coordination, information and means of protection during the first month following the tragedy. 2.- The most serious pathology was that derived from accidents, either by falls or by blows with the utensils or containers used in the cleanup work. CONCLUSIONS:

74 A 1.- The major part of the demand for health care was due to the lack of coordination, information and means of protection during the first month following the tragedy. 2.- The most serious pathology was that derived from accidents, either by falls or by blows with the utensils or containers used in the cleanup work. 3.- The most prevalent pathology treated involved skin and mucous membrane irritations (406 cases, 41.34%). CONCLUSIONS:

75 A

76 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:

77 A ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS

78 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS PROGRAMA DE EVALUACIÓN INICIAL E DE CONTROL PERMANENTE DOS EFECTOS SOBRE OS ORGANISMOS PROCEDENTES DA PESCA, O MARISQUEO E A ACUICULTURA:

79 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS PROGRAMA DE EVALUACIÓN INICIAL E DE CONTROL PERMANENTE DOS EFECTOS SOBRE OS ORGANISMOS PROCEDENTES DA PESCA, O MARISQUEO E A ACUICULTURA: - Centro de Control do Medio Mariño (Consellería de Pesca e Asuntos Marítimos), Consellería de Sanidade e a Axencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria. Finalidade: avalia-la aptitude deste tipo de alimentos para a sua incorporación, con tódalas garantías sanitarias, á cadena alimentaria humana.

80 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS PROGRAMA DE EVALUACIÓN INICIAL E DE CONTROL PERMANENTE DOS EFECTOS SOBRE OS ORGANISMOS PROCEDENTES DA PESCA, O MARISQUEO E A ACUICULTURA: - Centro de Control do Medio Mariño (Consellería de Pesca e Asuntos Marítimos), Consellería de Sanidade e a Axencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria. Finalidade: avalia-la aptitude deste tipo de alimentos para a sua incorporación, con tódalas garantías sanitarias, á cadena alimentaria humana. Estreita relación con: programas de control de presencia de fuel nos fondos, plan de control de productos nas lonxas, mercados, centros de transformación e distribución.

81 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS Total number of visits to establishments in 1 year

82 A Nov 1st, day sample results (one year after) ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS

83 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS Fases principais do programa: a)Fase de evaluación: para determina-lo grado inicial de afectación dos organismos. Permite información para calendarios de apertura das zonas onde a actividade extractiva está prohibida. b) Establecemento dun programa de control permanente, para a determinación da presencia de derivados de hidrocarburos nas zonas de producción. - Nunha primeira etapa permitiría o seguimento do vertido e, - Posteriormente, detectaría os cambios na situación das augas costeiras respecto á presencia de HC (importante para o control de vertidos de pequena magnitude, contaminación mariña asociada a actividades portuarias, etc.)

84 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS Parámetros a considerar neste programa: a)Concentración de hidrocarburos totais na columna de auga, dende la superficie ó fondo. b)Examen visual dos organismos. c)Examen organoléptico dos organismos. d)Análises do contido de derivados dos hidrocarburos (PAH´s) nos organismos.

85 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS A)Contido de hidrocarburos totais na columna de agua. Obxetivos: Avalia-las concentracións de hidrocarburos disoltos nas augas das distintas zonas dende a superficie ata o fondo. Determina-las diferencias entre as distintas zonas de producción. Coñece-los cambios que se produzan no tempo. Caracteristicas: Periodicidade semanal Toma de mostras en toda a columna de auga de 38 estacions nas rías de Vigo, Pontevedra, Arousa e Muros (con posterioridade extendeuse a toda a costa de Galicia).

86 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: PROBING: Feb 20th (3 months after the disaster) Rastros de Vieira Lances de NasasLances de Miños

87 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS B) Examen visual dos organismos: Obxetivos: Avalia-lo grado de afectación directa por hidrocarburos nos organismos. Procedemento Operativo (si examen visual positivo): Solicitase informe sobre o estado da zona de producción (presencia de fuel nas augas e fondos, afectación das zonas rocosas próximas, etc.) os Servicios de Asistencia Técnica da Consellería de Pesca e Asuntos Marítimos. En función do informe: - Zona afectada: peche ou mantemento do peche; no se continúan as restantes análises sobre os organismos. - Zona libre de hidrocarburos: mantemento da situación actual (pechada ou abierta) e continuación das análises.

88 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS C) Examen organoléptico dos organismos. Obxetivos: Avalia-lo grado de afectación por hidrocarburos dos organismos. Impedi-la incorporación á cadea alimentaria humana de productos nos que un consumidor medio poida detectar sabor/olor a derivados dos HC. Características: Análise do olor a fuel en crudo e tras cocción, e sabor a fuel tras cocción. En función dos resultados, clasificanse como Aptas, Dudosas e Non Aptas. As análises son realizadas por un panel de catadores, altamente especializados e cada mostra é analizada cando menos por 15 catadores. As analises organolepticas estanse realizando mediante convenio coa Facultade de Veterinaria en Lugo, da Universidade de Santiago. - Actualmente estase en fase de entrenamiento e fixación dos niveis de detección e nivel umbral, para a apertura ou peche das zonas de producción.

89 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS D) Contido de derivados de hidrocarburos (PAH´s). Obxetivos: Cuantificar analíticamente as concentracions de PAH´s acumuladas nos organismos. Características: Límite de contido en PAH´s para a apertura-peche das zonas de producción fixado pola Agencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria en colaboración coa OMS. Os resultados, no momento actual, son o criterio determinante para a apertura-peche das zonas de producción.

90 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ANALISE DE ORGANISMOS... D) Contido de derivados de hidrocarburos (PAH´s). NIVELES TOLERABLES? - Unión Europea non ten establecidos límites para os residuos de PAH. - De acordo con expertos de: Agencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria (AESA), Organización Mundial de la Salud, e outras Consellerías e CC.AA: Nas zonas de producción, dos 6 PAH principais: Benzo(a)antraceno, Benzo(b)fluoranteno, Benzo(k)fluoranteno, Benzo(a)pireno, Dibenzo(a,h)antraceno, Indeno (1,2,3-cd) pireno : Moluscos (peso seco): 200 microgramos/quilo,. Moluscos (peso de tecido fresco de parte comestible): 40 microgramos/quilo (a materia seca equivale a un 20% do peso fresco) Peixes (peso seco): 20 microgramos/quilo Peixes (peso fresco): 100 microgramos/quilo.

91 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: 7-8 meses

92 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: 1 mes

93 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: 3 meses

94 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: 14 meses

95 A PESCADO (Toneladas) Enero-Oct, 2001 Enero-Oct, 2004 (y diferencia) Enero-Oct, 2001 Enero-Oct, 2004 (y diferencia) Jurel23,65218,600 (-21%) Congrio 1,889 1,766 (-7%) Sardina14,09116,096 (+14%)Maragota 205 174 (-15%) Robaliza 131 142 (+8%)Merluza12,49613,553 (+8%) Raya 4,958 3,295 (-34%)Abadejo 243 204 (-16%) Xarda 7,396 9,267 (+25%)Rape 2,379 3,010 (+27%) Sargo 169 150 (-11%)Faneca 1,251 820 (-34%) Lenguado 95 84 (-12%)Lirio15,98411,118 (-30%) MARISCO Percebe 394 329 (-16%)Cigala 641 868 (+35%) Nécora 61 63 (+3%)Almeja (2002) 2,616 1,996 (-24%) Centolla 111 112 (+1%)Berberecho (2002) 989 276 (-72%) CEFALOPODOS Pota (2001) 18,45027,631 (+50%)Pota (2002) 26,50527,631 (+4%) Choco 280 491 (+75%)Pulpo 208 254 (+22%) ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: PESCA COMPARATIVA 2001 vs 2004

96 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: ECONOMICAL LOSS FOR FISHING: 2003: 32,7 tons less of fish and seafood (25% less than the mean of the last 10 years). 2004: The fishing sector will loose 17,3 millions of euros in this year due to the disaster (a loss in 15% of the invoicement).

97 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: TOTAL FUEL RECOVERED BY VESSELS (1 year after)

98 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: TOTAL FUEL RECOVERED BY VESSELS (2 years after) (seabed depth, 3´5 Km)

99 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: TOTAL FUEL RECOVERED BY VESSELS (2 years after) This summer: 14,000 tons were emptied directly from the vessel to specially-designed containers (seabed depth, 3´5 Km)

100 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:

101 A

102 A BIRDS

103 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: (9 months)

104 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: 4 months Totales

105 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:

106 A

107 A 1º mes 2º mes 3º mes 4º mes

108 A ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: Por las estimaciones realizadas en catástrofes similares (Erika, Braer, Exxon Valdez, Treasurer, Amocco Cadiz, etc.) sobre la cantidad de aves encontradas con respecto al total afectado, para el caso del Prestige oscilan entre el 15 y el 50% Estimando el número de aves marinas severamente afectadas en la banda baja (una estima conservadora), situaría el porcentaje entre el 10 y el 20%: Por tanto, considerando que se han recogido un total de 23.181 aves entre vivas y muertas, en las costas de España, Portugal y Francia, se puede estimar que: el número de aves marinas afectadas por el fuel del “Prestige” oscila entre las 115.000 y las 230.000 aves.

109 A The Prestige disaster: CONCLUSIONS

110 A The Prestige disaster: CONCLUSIONS

111 A We hope to have prevented morbidity among the volunteers, The Prestige disaster: CONCLUSIONS

112 A We hope to have prevented morbidity among the volunteers, and also been useful with our morbidity rates. The Prestige disaster: CONCLUSIONS

113 A We hope to have prevented morbidity among the volunteers, and also been useful with our morbidity rates. The Prestige disaster: CONCLUSIONS

114 A We hope to have prevented morbidity among the volunteers, and also been useful with our morbidity rates. Galician’s situation has not reached the previous status: The Prestige disaster: CONCLUSIONS

115 A We hope to have prevented morbidity among the volunteers, and also been useful with our morbidity rates. Galician’s situation has not reached the previous status: certainly we can conclude that this has been the worst disaster of fuel- contamination in the history of Europe, The Prestige disaster: CONCLUSIONS

116 A We hope to have prevented morbidity among the volunteers, and also been useful with our morbidity rates. Galician’s situation has not reached the previous status: certainly we can conclude that this has been the worst disaster of fuel- contamination in the history of Europe, concerning both the total ammount of fuel leaked and the ecological impact. The Prestige disaster: CONCLUSIONS

117 A

118 A The Prestige disaster: BIBLIOGRAPHY

119 A Baert A. Los posibles riesgos para la salud de la exposición y contacto con el fuel vertido por el Prestige. Informe del Centro de Documentación, Investigación y Experimentación sobre la Contaminación Accidental del Agua (CEDRE). Jano. 2003 (1459: 124-127) Institut National de l´Environnemental Industriel et des Risques. Evaluation des risques sanitaires et environnementaux résultant du naufrage de l´Erika et des opérations de nettoyage des cotes. Paris. Mars 2000 Marita A, Kusaka Y, Deguchi Y et al. Acute Health Problems among the People Engaged in the Cleanup of the Nakhodka Oil Spill. Environmental Research Section, 1999 ; 81 (185-194). Miner JR, Controlling Odors from Livestock Production Facilities: State of the Art. In: Livestock Waste: A Renewable Resource. St. Joseph. MI American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 1980 (297-301). Nicolás C. El impacto sanitario de la catástrofe del Prestige. El Médico 2003 (850:24-30) Shusterman D. Critical: Review: The Health Significance of Environmental Odour Pollution. Archives of Environmental Health. 1992 (76-87) World Health Organization. Environmental Health Criteria 202 Selected Non- Heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Geneva OMS 1998. The Prestige disaster: BIBLIOGRAPHY

120 A The Prestige disaster: INTERNET ADDRESSES

121 A http://www.seo.or/2002/prestige/ The disaster of the oil tanker Prestige and its impact on seabirds http://www.comm-prestige.cesga.es/ Information about the Prestige. http://www.wwf.es/prestige.php/ ADENA: Prestige and after the Prestige. http://www.accede.org/prestige/prestige.htm/ Compilation of basic information on the oil spill caused by the tanker Prestige on the coast of Galicia (Spain) 2002 http://www.le-cedre.fr/fr/prestige/ Report by the Centro de Documentación, Investigación y Experimentación of the Accidental Pollution of the Water (CEDRE) in the Prestige case. The Prestige disaster: INTERNET ADDRESSES

122 A The Prestige disaster: “The Black Tide of the Prestige” José Manuel López Abuin l.abuin@medynet.coml.abuin@medynet.com


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