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Cell Organelles Unit 2: Cells Ch. 7-2. Let’s Review! vTwo cell types Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Organelles Unit 2: Cells Ch. 7-2. Let’s Review! vTwo cell types Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Organelles Unit 2: Cells Ch. 7-2

2 Let’s Review! vTwo cell types Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Prokaryotes (Prokaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells) Eukaryotes (Eukaryotic Cells)

3

4 Prokaryotes - Bacteria No Nucleus No Membrane bound organelles.

5 Eukaryotes Have a nucleus Have membrane bound organelles Nucleus

6 Two Types of Eukaryotic Cells 1.Animal Cell 2.Plant Cell vBoth cells function similarly

7 Cell Organelles Organelle = “little organs” Specialized structures that perform specific jobs in the cell Specialized structures that perform specific jobs in the cell Found only in eukaryotic cells Many are “membrane- bound” (a membrane surrounds the organelle) All the stuff in between the organelles is cytosol Everything in a cell except the nucleus is cytoplasm

8 Cell Membrane Surrounds the cell and decides what comes in and out Semi-permeable: allows nutrients in and waste products out Made of a phospholipid bilayer Also called Plasma Membrane

9 Factory Part: Gates or Doors Gates or Doors Found in: Plant cells Plant cells Animal cells Animal cells Prokaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells

10 Nucleus Control center of the cell Stores DNA (chromosomes) Surrounded by the nuclear membrane Pores let material in and out Pores let material in and out Also contains the Nucleolus, which makes ribosomes

11 Factory Part: Manager’s Office Manager’s Office Found in: Plant cells Plant cells Animal cells Animal cells

12 Ribosome Smallest organelle NOT surrounded by a membrane Makes proteins according to DNA instructions. Two Types: Two Types: Free ribosomes: float free in cytosol Free ribosomes: float free in cytosol Bound ribosomes: attached to rough ER Bound ribosomes: attached to rough ER That looks familiar…what is a polypeptide?

13 Factory Part: Machines Machines Found in: Plant cells Plant cells Animal cells Animal cells Prokaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells

14 Endoplasmic Reticulum Transport system for materials in cell Two Types: Rough ER: covered with ribosomes; site of protein synthesis Smooth ER: NO ribosomes; it makes hormones & lipids

15 Factory Part: Conveyor Belts Conveyor Belts Found in: Plant cells Plant cells Animal cells Animal cells

16 Golgi Apparatus Delivery system of the cell Collects, modifies, and packages molecules in the cell Distributes and transports molecules in vesicles

17 Factory Part: Post office or Mail Room Post office or Mail Room Found in: Plant cells Plant cells Animal cells Animal cells

18 Lysosomes Clean-up crew of the cell Contain digestive enzymes that break down macromolecules for the cell to use Removes waste particles

19 Factory Part: Janitors Janitors Found in: Plant cells Plant cells Animal cells Animal cells

20 Mitochondria “Powerhouse” of the cell Site of cellular respiration Converts energy stored in food into energy the cell needs – ATP Sugar + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + ATP ATP = Adenosine triphosphate ATP = Adenosine triphosphate

21 Factory Part: Power Plant / Electrical Room Power Plant / Electrical Room Found in: Plant cells Plant cells Animal cells Animal cells

22 Chloroplast Site of photosynthesis Changes sunlight energy into chemical energy (glucose) Contains green pigment, chlorophyll Found only in plant cells and algae Sunlight + Carbon Dioxide + Water Sugar + Oxygen

23 Factory Part: Solar Powered Energy Panels Solar Powered Energy Panels Found in: Plant cells Plant cells

24 Cell Wall Rigid, protective barrier (maintains cell shape) Found in plant and bacterial cells Located outside of the cell membrane Made of cellulose (Carbohydrate fiber)

25 Factory Part: Factory Gates Factory Gates Found in: Plant cells Plant cells Some Prokaryote cells Some Prokaryote cells

26 Vacuoles Storage tank Holds water, food, enzymes, wastes, etc Large central vacuole usually in plant cells Supports cell shape in plants Supports cell shape in plants Many smaller vacuoles in animal cells

27 Factory Part: Storage room Storage room Found in: Plant cells Plant cells Animal cells (smaller) Animal cells (smaller)

28 Quick Review Which organelle is the control center of the cell? Nucleus Which organelle holds the cell together? Cell membrane Which organelles are not found in animal cells? Cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplasts Which organelle helps plant cells make food? Chloroplasts What does E.R. stand for? Endoplasmic reticulum

29 Cell City Analogy Cell OrganellesCity Analogies Cell Membrane City border Cell Wall City Wall Cytoplasm Lawns Endoplasmic Reticulum Highway or road system Ribosomes Lumber or brick yard Golgi Bodies Post Office or UP S Chloroplasts Solar Energy Plants Nuclear Membrane City Hall Fence with security guard Mitochondria Energy Plants Nucleus City Hall DNA Original Blueprints or the city RNA Copies of Blueprints Nucleolus Copy Machine Lysosomes Waste Disposal/ Recyclers Vacuole Warehouses, water towers or garbage dumps Protoplasm Air or atmosphere Chromosomes Rolled up blueprints Proteins Lumber or bricks


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