Presentation on theme: "Cell Organelles Unit 2: Cells Ch. 7-2"— Presentation transcript:
1Cell Organelles Unit 2: Cells Ch. 7-2 Use this presentation in conjunction with the Cell Organelle note-taking worksheet. Run through the entire presentation before using it in class so that you know what’s coming next! It helps to print the outline and notes to have with you while presenting so that there are no surprises. –JessB.org
4Prokaryotes - Bacteria No NucleusNo Membrane bound organelles.
5EukaryotesHave a nucleusHave membrane bound organellesNucleus
6Two Types of Eukaryotic Cells Animal CellPlant CellBoth cells function similarly
7Cell Organelles Organelle = “little organs” Specialized structures that perform specific jobs in the cellFound only in eukaryotic cellsMany are “membrane-bound” (a membrane surrounds the organelle)All the stuff in between the organelles is cytosolEverything in a cell except the nucleus is cytoplasmYou may or may not wish to distinguish between cytosol and cytoplasm. The correct use of each term is shown here. Most high school textbooks, however, use the word “cytoplasm” to mean “cytosol.”
8Cell Membrane Surrounds the cell and decides what comes in and out Semi-permeable: allows nutrients in and waste products outMade of a phospholipid bilayerAlso called Plasma MembraneEmphasize word parts here:phospho= phosphate head; lipid= fatty acid tailbi= 2
9Factory Part: Found in: Gates or Doors Plant cells Animal cells Prokaryotic cells
10Nucleus Control center of the cell Stores DNA (chromosomes) Surrounded by the nuclear membranePores let material in and outAlso contains the Nucleolus, which makes ribosomesCells with more than one nucleus include muscle cells and liver cells, largely because of the massive volume of cytoplasm and number of organelles that need controlling.
12That looks familiar…what is a polypeptide? RibosomeSmallest organelleNOT surrounded by a membraneMakes proteins according to DNA instructions.Two Types:Free ribosomes: float free in cytosolBound ribosomes: attached to rough ERA polypeptide is a chain of amino acids. In this diagram, you can see the ribosome is making a polypeptide, also known as a protein.That looks familiar…what is a polypeptide?
14Endoplasmic Reticulum Transport system for materials in cellTwo Types:Rough ER: covered with ribosomes; site of protein synthesisSmooth ER: NO ribosomes; it makes hormones & lipidsIt’s not necessary that the students can read the labels here; just point out the black dots are ribosomes.
16Golgi Apparatus Delivery system of the cell Collects, modifies, and packages molecules in the cellDistributes and transports molecules in vesiclesAKA Golgi Complex. It is not necessary that the students read the labels, this diagram gives them a general idea of the Golgi’s shape.
17Factory Part: Found in: Post office or Mail Room Plant cells Animal cells
18Lysosomes Clean-up crew of the cell Contain digestive enzymes that break down macromolecules for the cell to useRemoves waste particlesStudents should recognize the shapes of the Golgi and ER even if they cannot read the captions.
20Mitochondria “Powerhouse” of the cell Site of cellular respiration Converts energy stored in food into energy the cell needs – ATPExplain that this diagram shows the mitochondria cut open to reveal the internal membranes.Sugar + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + ATPATP = Adenosine triphosphate
21Factory Part: Found in: Power Plant / Electrical Room Plant cells Animal cells
22Chloroplast Site of photosynthesis Changes sunlight energy into chemical energy (glucose)Contains green pigment, chlorophyllFound only in plant cells and algaeChloroplasts absorb light, which is the catalyst for photosynthesis.Sunlight + Carbon Dioxide + Water Sugar + Oxygen
23Factory Part:Solar Powered Energy PanelsFound in:Plant cells
24Cell Wall Rigid, protective barrier (maintains cell shape) Found in plant and bacterial cellsLocated outside of the cell membraneMade of cellulose (Carbohydrate fiber)This is an actual microscopic image. Explain that the colors are added digitally to enhance the different parts.
25Factory Part: Found in: Factory Gates Plant cells Some Prokaryote cells
26Vacuoles Storage tank Holds water, food, enzymes, wastes, etc Large central vacuole usually in plant cellsSupports cell shape in plantsMany smaller vacuoles in animal cellsThe image is 2D, so it must have been a light microscope or TEM. If the cell is very tiny, then a TEM was used. Otherwise, a strong light microscope could have captured this image.
28Quick Review Which organelle is the control center of the cell? NucleusWhich organelle holds the cell together?Cell membraneWhich organelles are not found in animal cells?Cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplastsWhich organelle helps plant cells make food?ChloroplastsWhat does E.R. stand for?Endoplasmic reticulumYou may choose to delete the answers from the PowerPoint or change the animation so that they come in after all 5 questions are asked in case you want to quiz students individually at the end.
29Cell City Analogy Cell Organelles City Analogies Cell Membrane City borderCell Wall City WallCytoplasm LawnsEndoplasmic Reticulum Highway or road systemRibosomes Lumber or brick yardGolgi Bodies Post Office or UPSChloroplasts Solar Energy PlantsNuclear Membrane City Hall Fence with security guardMitochondria Energy PlantsNucleus City HallDNA Original Blueprints or the cityRNA Copies of BlueprintsNucleolus Copy MachineLysosomes Waste Disposal/ RecyclersVacuole Warehouses, water towers or garbage dumpsProtoplasm Air or atmosphereChromosomes Rolled up blueprintsProteins Lumber or bricks