4 Tank Volume Trapezoidal Tank Cylindrical Tank Triangular Tank Volume = Length x (Width top + width bottom) / 2 x HeightCylindrical TankVolume = Length x x Radius²Triangular TankVolume = Length x Width x Height / 2More complex shapes – break the shape down into sections with regular shapes then use above formulaeSSM 325, ABM
5 Tank VolumeNever fill to the top. Always allow at least 5% for expansionDensity of diesel fuel is about 0.8 tons per m³1 cubic metre = 1,000 litres
6 How much is in the tank? Methods to measure fuel level include:- DipstickSight glassElectronic GaugePressure GaugeSounding lineWhere the horizontal profile of the tank changes with depth, calibration of the equipment or calculation will be required to determine the volume of fuel in the tank.The vessel’s stability book may provide tables to assist with the calculation
7 How much fuel is on board? Sound each fuel tankFor each tank calculate fuel remaining using tables if required.Add up each tankFill tanks in sequence per stability requirements
8 Glossary Flash Point Self ignition point. Auto-ignition The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient gas to forma flammable gas mixture near the surface of the liquid.Self ignition point. Auto-ignitionThe temperature at which a liquid/gas ignites without ignition by a spark or flameFlammable RangeThe range of hydrocarbon gas concentrations in air between the lower and upper flammable (explosive) limits. Mixtures within this range are capable of being ignited and of burning.
9 Physical Properties of Fuel DieselFlash point = 72°C to 80°CSpecific Gravity = 0.8Self ignition point 350°CFlammable Range ??% to ??%PetrolFlash point = -40°CSpecific Gravity = 0.??Self ignition point 390°CFlammable Range 1.4% to 7.6%ABM 668 SSM 317
10 Causes of explosions Ignition while refuelling Smoking, radio transmission, static (filler not earthed)Overfilling - Fuel in bilgesLeaks, cracks & splits in fuel lines (HMAS Westralia, Jetcats)Poor ventilationHot work
11 Hazards and Controls Fire & Explosion Spillage Skin and Eye irritation Remove ignition sources. Take precautions against static electricityVentilateHave fire fighting equipment readySpillageMonitor tank levels, breathers and fillerPlug scuppers etc.Have spill control equipment readySkin and Eye irritationWear PPE – eye/face, gloves, overalls, bootsSSM 35, ,
12 Planning Procedures and checklists ready MSDS and SMS reviewed Crew trainedRemaining capacity in each tank known and stability info availableSpill control, fire control and personal equipment readyBookings and notifications madeCommunication ready and tested
13 Refuelling Procedure – Plan Notify authorities if requiredEnsure vessel securely mooredLocate emergency shut offStop engines and machineryShut off all sources of ignition (LPR, Electrical, Radio, Mobile phones, Hot Work etc)Eliminate smoking and naked flamesSet safety zone and place signageDisplay Code flag “B”Foam or dry chemical extinguishers ready
16 Refuelling Procedure – Prepare Close and tag tank transfer valvesSeal off scuppers etc. to contain any spill. Buckets under breathers.All personnel ashore and ship closed upPollution prevention equipment (Absorbents) readyInspect lines and pipes for leaks
17 Refuelling Procedure - Perform Check tank correct – don’t put ULP in Diesel tank or Diesel in the water tankEarth fillerEnsure filling point, tank gauges and shut off attended at all timesMonitor tank levelsContainer ready to catch spillageClean up and render safeVentilate all lower compartments and engine roomAdd anti-biological additive per instructionCheck bilge before starting engineCheck required tank transfer valves and fuel cocks open
18 NSCV part E The refuelling procedure should address the following: a) Person in charge.b) Communications procedures from fuel deliverer to the vessel.c) Testing of communication procedures prior to fuelling.d) Precautions to prevent spillage of fuel overboard.e) Emergency shut down procedures for the fuellingf) Testing of emergency shut down procedures prior to fuelling.g) Monitoring of fuel hoses and fuel tank levels during fuelling.h) Clean-up procedures for fuel spilled on deck.i) Measurement and recording of fuel in tanks before and after taking on fuel.j) Essential safety rules such as no smoking is permitted on the vessel or in its immediate vicinity during bunkering.
19 NSCV part Ek) Identify and observe safety requirements of the port/harbour authority, the fuel supplier and or berth operator.l) Procedures in the event of spillage. These could include:i) Stop the flow of fuel or pollution to the sea.ii) Inform personnel and vessels in the immediate vicinity that a spill has occurred and a fire hazard may exist.iii) Establish a zone wherein a fire watch can be maintained and fire-igniting activities prevented.iv) Inform the harbour authority and or berth operator to enable them to initiate the appropriate response.v) Minimise the effect and spread of the spillage.vi) Dispersants should not be used without the permission of the harbour authority.vii) Record all spillage, and the action taken with their times.
20 Conditions Change- What now? Communication break down – stop refuellingWash from other vessels – postpone refuellingNoise from breather changes – stop refuellingFuel discharge from breather – stop refuelling – commence spill responseFiller cuts out before expected – check calculations while waiting for any air block to clear
21 Fuel Spill response Position yourself upwind of spill or containers. Leave the area if you are aware of leaks, stains, vapour, odour, etc.Do not smoke or allow others to smoke near the spill or containers.Contain spill and distribute absorbentsRing the relevant NSW Port Corporation
23 Internal inspection of fuel tank Enclosed space procedureGas free preparation
24 Enclosed space escape procedure NSCV Part Eprocedure should address the following:a) Identify spaces that could be considered .enclosed. both in operational and maintenance conditions and during periods where the vessel may have been laid up.b) Identify and address hazards with fumes and/or explosions from working with paint, chemicals, cleaners etc below deck.c) Approval process for entry into enclosed spaces.d) Safety precautions required in enclosed spaces.e) Provision of appropriate safety equipment.f) Appropriate supervision at all stages and particularly when persons are in the enclosed space.g) Training so that the crew are aware of the identity of enclosed spaces, dangers of enclosed spaces, precautions and approvals before entering, procedures for entering and working in those spaces and rescue techniques.h) Training in rescue situations with and without external medical and rescue back up.
25 Impact on stabilityLoading fuel to tanks below the centre of gravity may improve stabilityLoading fuel to tanks above the centre of gravity may reduce stabilityUnloading fuel from tanks below the centre of gravity may reduce stabilityUnloading fuel from tanks above the centre of gravity may improve stabilityLoading fuel to press up a tank and reduce free surface effect may improve stability.
26 Safety Equipment PPE Fire extinguishers and hoses Plugs for scuppers Eye/Face protection, Gloves, Boots, overallsFire extinguishers and hosesPlugs for scuppersTagsChecklistsAbsorbents and containersRags and containersCommunication equipment
27 Checklists and Training Planning and PreparationCrew and shore personnel functions during refuelling evolutionRefuelling Checklist – agreed with shore personnelPost refuelling checklistSpill response procedure
28 Communication Clear unambiguous signals and phrases for each step Pumps onPumpStopEmergency stop and pumps offTest communication prior to commencement of transfer
29 Spill Response Equipment PPERags and bucketsAbsorbent padsBulk absorbentBoomsSkimmersIncident report forms
30 Safety Boundary Larger the vessel larger the exclusion area Tankers – say 400mMarina – say 50mAbsolutely no ignition sources within safety boundary – this means no smoking, lighters, no mobile phones no radios, no fans etc.
31 Spill Response Emergency Stop – valves and pumps Notify everyone in the safety zoneClose safety zoneTake fire precautionsNotify authorities (Harbour Control)Contain and clean upDo not use dispersants unless advised by authorities
32 Training Record New crew New master New shore facility New vessel for transferRegular drills
33 Regulations – Pollution Prevention International Standard – MARPOLShipboard Oil Pollution Emergency PlansFederal - • Protection of the Sea (Prevention of Pollution from Ships) (Orders) RegulationsFederal – Marine Orders Part 91NSW - Marine Pollution Act 1987NSW – Passenger Transport Safety ActSafety Management System
34 Regulations – Spill Response International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation 1990 (OPRC 90)International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage 1992The International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage 2001
35 Refuelling & fuel transfer for a 10 – 35m commercial vessel PlanPreparePerform
36 Refuelling Procedure – Plan Notify authorities if requiredEnsure vessel securely mooredLocate emergency shut offStop engines and machineryShut off all sources of ignition (LPR, Electrical, Radio, Mobile phones, Hot Work etc)Eliminate smoking and naked flamesSet safety zone and place signageDisplay Code flag “B”Foam or dry chemical extinguishers ready
37 Refuelling Procedure – Prepare Close and tag tank transfer valvesSeal off scuppers etc. to contain any spill. Buckets under breathers.All personnel ashore and ship closed upPollution prevention equipment (Absorbents) readyInspect lines and pipes for leaks
38 Refuelling Procedure - Perform Earth fillerEnsure filling point, tank gauges and shut off attended at all timesMonitor tank levelsContainer ready to catch spillageClean up and render safeVentilate all lower compartments and engine roomCheck bilge before starting engineCheck required tank transfer valves and fuel cocks open
39 Spill Response Emergency Stop – valves and pumps Notify everyone in the safety zoneClose safety zoneTake fire precautionsNotify authorities (Harbour Control)Contain and clean upDo not use dispersants unless advised by authorities
40 Fire Response Emergency Stop – valves and pumps Raise alarm Size up Notify authorities (Harbour Control, Mayday, 000)Contain and extinguish (foam, dry chemical)Isolate high voltage before using hoses on sprayMop upReport