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Refuelling. ABM 661-668, 738, SSM 323 NSCV Part C 5A Small vessel fuel systems Components Tank (Day, wing, portable) Pick up line, Cut off, Primary Filter,

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Presentation on theme: "Refuelling. ABM 661-668, 738, SSM 323 NSCV Part C 5A Small vessel fuel systems Components Tank (Day, wing, portable) Pick up line, Cut off, Primary Filter,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Refuelling

2 ABM , 738, SSM 323 NSCV Part C 5A Small vessel fuel systems Components Tank (Day, wing, portable) Pick up line, Cut off, Primary Filter, Water seperator Filler pipe, Sight glass Filler cap, sounding pipe cap Inspection plate, Baffles Fuel return line Vent, Spark arrester gauze Earth, drain plug Sounding pipe, striker plate, dipstick

3 Fuel System Components

4 SSM 325, ABM Tank Volume Trapezoidal Tank Volume = Length x (Width top + width bottom) / 2 x Height Cylindrical Tank Volume = Length x x Radius² Triangular Tank Volume = Length x Width x Height / 2 More complex shapes – break the shape down into sections with regular shapes then use above formulae

5 Tank Volume Never fill to the top. Always allow at least 5% for expansion Density of diesel fuel is about 0.8 tons per m³ 1 cubic metre = 1,000 litres

6 How much is in the tank? Methods to measure fuel level include:- Dipstick Sight glass Electronic Gauge Pressure Gauge Sounding line Where the horizontal profile of the tank changes with depth, calibration of the equipment or calculation will be required to determine the volume of fuel in the tank. The vessel’s stability book may provide tables to assist with the calculation

7 How much fuel is on board? Sound each fuel tank For each tank calculate fuel remaining using tables if required. Add up each tank Fill tanks in sequence per stability requirements

8 Glossary Flash Point The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient gas to forma flammable gas mixture near the surface of the liquid. Self ignition point. Auto-ignition The temperature at which a liquid/gas ignites without ignition by a spark or flame Flammable Range The range of hydrocarbon gas concentrations in air between the lower and upper flammable (explosive) limits. Mixtures within this range are capable of being ignited and of burning.

9 ABM 668 SSM 317 Physical Properties of Fuel Diesel Flash point = 72°C to 80°C Specific Gravity = 0.8 Self ignition point 350°C Flammable Range ??% to ??% Petrol Flash point = -40°C Specific Gravity = 0.?? Self ignition point 390°C Flammable Range 1.4% to 7.6%

10 Causes of explosions Ignition while refuelling Smoking, radio transmission, static (filler not earthed) Overfilling - Fuel in bilges Leaks, cracks & splits in fuel lines (HMAS Westralia, Jetcats) Poor ventilation Hot work

11 SSM 35, , Hazards and Controls Fire & Explosion Remove ignition sources. Take precautions against static electricity Ventilate Have fire fighting equipment ready Spillage Monitor tank levels, breathers and filler Plug scuppers etc. Have spill control equipment ready Skin and Eye irritation Wear PPE – eye/face, gloves, overalls, boots

12 Planning Procedures and checklists ready MSDS and SMS reviewed Crew trained Remaining capacity in each tank known and stability info available Spill control, fire control and personal equipment ready Bookings and notifications made Communication ready and tested

13 Refuelling Procedure – Plan Notify authorities if required Ensure vessel securely moored Locate emergency shut off Stop engines and machinery Shut off all sources of ignition (LPR, Electrical, Radio, Mobile phones, Hot Work etc) Eliminate smoking and naked flames Set safety zone and place signage Display Code flag “B” Foam or dry chemical extinguishers ready

14 ULP MSDS

15 Marine Diesel MSDS

16 Refuelling Procedure – Prepare Close and tag tank transfer valves Seal off scuppers etc. to contain any spill. Buckets under breathers. All personnel ashore and ship closed up Pollution prevention equipment (Absorbents) ready Inspect lines and pipes for leaks

17 Refuelling Procedure - Perform Check tank correct – don’t put ULP in Diesel tank or Diesel in the water tank Earth filler Ensure filling point, tank gauges and shut off attended at all times Monitor tank levels Container ready to catch spillage Clean up and render safe Ventilate all lower compartments and engine room Add anti-biological additive per instruction Check bilge before starting engine Check required tank transfer valves and fuel cocks open

18 NSCV part E The refuelling procedure should address the following: a)Person in charge. b)Communications procedures from fuel deliverer to the vessel. c)Testing of communication procedures prior to fuelling. d)Precautions to prevent spillage of fuel overboard. e)Emergency shut down procedures for the fuelling f)Testing of emergency shut down procedures prior to fuelling. g)Monitoring of fuel hoses and fuel tank levels during fuelling. h)Clean-up procedures for fuel spilled on deck. i) Measurement and recording of fuel in tanks before and after taking on fuel. j)Essential safety rules such as no smoking is permitted on the vessel or in its immediate vicinity during bunkering.

19 NSCV part E k)Identify and observe safety requirements of the port/harbour authority, the fuel supplier and or berth operator. l)Procedures in the event of spillage. These could include: i)Stop the flow of fuel or pollution to the sea. ii)Inform personnel and vessels in the immediate vicinity that a spill has occurred and a fire hazard may exist. iii)Establish a zone wherein a fire watch can be maintained and fire-igniting activities prevented. iv)Inform the harbour authority and or berth operator to enable them to initiate the appropriate response. v)Minimise the effect and spread of the spillage. vi)Dispersants should not be used without the permission of the harbour authority. vii)Record all spillage, and the action taken with their times.

20 Conditions Change- What now? Communication break down – stop refuelling Wash from other vessels – postpone refuelling Noise from breather changes – stop refuelling Fuel discharge from breather – stop refuelling – commence spill response Filler cuts out before expected – check calculations while waiting for any air block to clear

21 Fuel Spill response Position yourself upwind of spill or containers. Leave the area if you are aware of leaks, stains, vapour, odour, etc. Do not smoke or allow others to smoke near the spill or containers. Contain spill and distribute absorbents Ring the relevant NSW Port Corporation

22

23 Internal inspection of fuel tank Enclosed space procedure Gas free preparation

24 Enclosed space escape procedure NSCV Part E procedure should address the following: a)Identify spaces that could be considered.enclosed. both in operational and maintenance conditions and during periods where the vessel may have been laid up. b)Identify and address hazards with fumes and/or explosions from working with paint, chemicals, cleaners etc below deck. c)Approval process for entry into enclosed spaces. d)Safety precautions required in enclosed spaces. e)Provision of appropriate safety equipment. f)Appropriate supervision at all stages and particularly when persons are in the enclosed space. g)Training so that the crew are aware of the identity of enclosed spaces, dangers of enclosed spaces, precautions and approvals before entering, procedures for entering and working in those spaces and rescue techniques. h)Training in rescue situations with and without external medical and rescue back up.

25 Impact on stability Loading fuel to tanks below the centre of gravity may improve stability Loading fuel to tanks above the centre of gravity may reduce stability Unloading fuel from tanks below the centre of gravity may reduce stability Unloading fuel from tanks above the centre of gravity may improve stability Loading fuel to press up a tank and reduce free surface effect may improve stability.

26 Safety Equipment PPE Eye/Face protection, Gloves, Boots, overalls Fire extinguishers and hoses Plugs for scuppers Tags Checklists Absorbents and containers Rags and containers Communication equipment

27 Checklists and Training Planning and Preparation Crew and shore personnel functions during refuelling evolution Refuelling Checklist – agreed with shore personnel Post refuelling checklist Spill response procedure

28 Communication Clear unambiguous signals and phrases for each step Pumps on Pump Stop Emergency stop and pumps off Test communication prior to commencement of transfer

29 Spill Response Equipment PPE Rags and buckets Absorbent pads Bulk absorbent Booms Skimmers Incident report forms

30 Safety Boundary Larger the vessel larger the exclusion area Tankers – say 400m Marina – say 50m Absolutely no ignition sources within safety boundary – this means no smoking, lighters, no mobile phones no radios, no fans etc.

31 Spill Response Emergency Stop – valves and pumps Notify everyone in the safety zone Close safety zone Take fire precautions Notify authorities (Harbour Control) Contain and clean up Do not use dispersants unless advised by authorities

32 Training Record New crew New master New shore facility New vessel for transfer Regular drills

33 Regulations – Pollution Prevention International Standard – MARPOL Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plans Federal - Protection of the Sea (Prevention of Pollution from Ships) (Orders) Regulations Federal – Marine Orders Part 91 NSW - Marine Pollution Act 1987 NSW – Passenger Transport Safety Act Safety Management System

34 Regulations – Spill Response International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation 1990 (OPRC 90) International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage 1992 The International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage 2001

35 Refuelling & fuel transfer for a 10 – 35m commercial vessel Plan Prepare Perform

36 Refuelling Procedure – Plan Notify authorities if required Ensure vessel securely moored Locate emergency shut off Stop engines and machinery Shut off all sources of ignition (LPR, Electrical, Radio, Mobile phones, Hot Work etc) Eliminate smoking and naked flames Set safety zone and place signage Display Code flag “B” Foam or dry chemical extinguishers ready

37 Refuelling Procedure – Prepare Close and tag tank transfer valves Seal off scuppers etc. to contain any spill. Buckets under breathers. All personnel ashore and ship closed up Pollution prevention equipment (Absorbents) ready Inspect lines and pipes for leaks

38 Refuelling Procedure - Perform Earth filler Ensure filling point, tank gauges and shut off attended at all times Monitor tank levels Container ready to catch spillage Clean up and render safe Ventilate all lower compartments and engine room Check bilge before starting engine Check required tank transfer valves and fuel cocks open

39 Spill Response Emergency Stop – valves and pumps Notify everyone in the safety zone Close safety zone Take fire precautions Notify authorities (Harbour Control) Contain and clean up Do not use dispersants unless advised by authorities

40 Fire Response Emergency Stop – valves and pumps Raise alarm Size up Notify authorities (Harbour Control, Mayday, 000) Contain and extinguish (foam, dry chemical) Isolate high voltage before using hoses on spray Mop up Report


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