# Refuelling.

## Presentation on theme: "Refuelling."— Presentation transcript:

Refuelling

Small vessel fuel systems
Components Tank (Day, wing, portable) Pick up line, Cut off, Primary Filter, Water seperator Filler pipe, Sight glass Filler cap, sounding pipe cap Inspection plate, Baffles Fuel return line Vent, Spark arrester gauze Earth, drain plug Sounding pipe, striker plate, dipstick ABM , 738, SSM 323 NSCV Part C 5A

Fuel System Components

Tank Volume Trapezoidal Tank Cylindrical Tank Triangular Tank
Volume = Length x (Width top + width bottom) / 2 x Height Cylindrical Tank Volume = Length x x Radius² Triangular Tank Volume = Length x Width x Height / 2 More complex shapes – break the shape down into sections with regular shapes then use above formulae SSM 325, ABM

Tank Volume Never fill to the top. Always allow at least 5% for expansion Density of diesel fuel is about 0.8 tons per m³ 1 cubic metre = 1,000 litres

How much is in the tank? Methods to measure fuel level include:-
Dipstick Sight glass Electronic Gauge Pressure Gauge Sounding line Where the horizontal profile of the tank changes with depth, calibration of the equipment or calculation will be required to determine the volume of fuel in the tank. The vessel’s stability book may provide tables to assist with the calculation

How much fuel is on board?
Sound each fuel tank For each tank calculate fuel remaining using tables if required. Add up each tank Fill tanks in sequence per stability requirements

Glossary Flash Point Self ignition point. Auto-ignition
The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient gas to forma flammable gas mixture near the surface of the liquid. Self ignition point. Auto-ignition The temperature at which a liquid/gas ignites without ignition by a spark or flame Flammable Range The range of hydrocarbon gas concentrations in air between the lower and upper flammable (explosive) limits. Mixtures within this range are capable of being ignited and of burning.

Physical Properties of Fuel
Diesel Flash point = 72°C to 80°C Specific Gravity = 0.8 Self ignition point 350°C Flammable Range ??% to ??% Petrol Flash point = -40°C Specific Gravity = 0.?? Self ignition point 390°C Flammable Range 1.4% to 7.6% ABM 668 SSM 317

Causes of explosions Ignition while refuelling
Smoking, radio transmission, static (filler not earthed) Overfilling - Fuel in bilges Leaks, cracks & splits in fuel lines (HMAS Westralia, Jetcats) Poor ventilation Hot work

Hazards and Controls Fire & Explosion Spillage Skin and Eye irritation
Remove ignition sources. Take precautions against static electricity Ventilate Have fire fighting equipment ready Spillage Monitor tank levels, breathers and filler Plug scuppers etc. Have spill control equipment ready Skin and Eye irritation Wear PPE – eye/face, gloves, overalls, boots SSM 35, ,

Planning Procedures and checklists ready MSDS and SMS reviewed
Crew trained Remaining capacity in each tank known and stability info available Spill control, fire control and personal equipment ready Bookings and notifications made Communication ready and tested

Refuelling Procedure – Plan
Notify authorities if required Ensure vessel securely moored Locate emergency shut off Stop engines and machinery Shut off all sources of ignition (LPR, Electrical, Radio, Mobile phones, Hot Work etc) Eliminate smoking and naked flames Set safety zone and place signage Display Code flag “B” Foam or dry chemical extinguishers ready

ULP MSDS

Marine Diesel MSDS

Refuelling Procedure – Prepare
Close and tag tank transfer valves Seal off scuppers etc. to contain any spill. Buckets under breathers. All personnel ashore and ship closed up Pollution prevention equipment (Absorbents) ready Inspect lines and pipes for leaks

Refuelling Procedure - Perform
Check tank correct – don’t put ULP in Diesel tank or Diesel in the water tank Earth filler Ensure filling point, tank gauges and shut off attended at all times Monitor tank levels Container ready to catch spillage Clean up and render safe Ventilate all lower compartments and engine room Add anti-biological additive per instruction Check bilge before starting engine Check required tank transfer valves and fuel cocks open

NSCV part E The refuelling procedure should address the following:
a) Person in charge. b) Communications procedures from fuel deliverer to the vessel. c) Testing of communication procedures prior to fuelling. d) Precautions to prevent spillage of fuel overboard. e) Emergency shut down procedures for the fuelling f) Testing of emergency shut down procedures prior to fuelling. g) Monitoring of fuel hoses and fuel tank levels during fuelling. h) Clean-up procedures for fuel spilled on deck. i) Measurement and recording of fuel in tanks before and after taking on fuel. j) Essential safety rules such as no smoking is permitted on the vessel or in its immediate vicinity during bunkering.

NSCV part E k) Identify and observe safety requirements of the port/harbour authority, the fuel supplier and or berth operator. l) Procedures in the event of spillage. These could include: i) Stop the flow of fuel or pollution to the sea. ii) Inform personnel and vessels in the immediate vicinity that a spill has occurred and a fire hazard may exist. iii) Establish a zone wherein a fire watch can be maintained and fire-igniting activities prevented. iv) Inform the harbour authority and or berth operator to enable them to initiate the appropriate response. v) Minimise the effect and spread of the spillage. vi) Dispersants should not be used without the permission of the harbour authority. vii) Record all spillage, and the action taken with their times.

Conditions Change- What now?
Communication break down – stop refuelling Wash from other vessels – postpone refuelling Noise from breather changes – stop refuelling Fuel discharge from breather – stop refuelling – commence spill response Filler cuts out before expected – check calculations while waiting for any air block to clear

Fuel Spill response Position yourself upwind of spill or containers.
Leave the area if you are aware of leaks, stains, vapour, odour, etc. Do not smoke or allow others to smoke near the spill or containers. Contain spill and distribute absorbents Ring the relevant NSW Port Corporation

Internal inspection of fuel tank
Enclosed space procedure Gas free preparation

Enclosed space escape procedure
NSCV Part E procedure should address the following: a) Identify spaces that could be considered .enclosed. both in operational and maintenance conditions and during periods where the vessel may have been laid up. b) Identify and address hazards with fumes and/or explosions from working with paint, chemicals, cleaners etc below deck. c) Approval process for entry into enclosed spaces. d) Safety precautions required in enclosed spaces. e) Provision of appropriate safety equipment. f) Appropriate supervision at all stages and particularly when persons are in the enclosed space. g) Training so that the crew are aware of the identity of enclosed spaces, dangers of enclosed spaces, precautions and approvals before entering, procedures for entering and working in those spaces and rescue techniques. h) Training in rescue situations with and without external medical and rescue back up.

Impact on stability Loading fuel to tanks below the centre of gravity may improve stability Loading fuel to tanks above the centre of gravity may reduce stability Unloading fuel from tanks below the centre of gravity may reduce stability Unloading fuel from tanks above the centre of gravity may improve stability Loading fuel to press up a tank and reduce free surface effect may improve stability.

Safety Equipment PPE Fire extinguishers and hoses Plugs for scuppers
Eye/Face protection, Gloves, Boots, overalls Fire extinguishers and hoses Plugs for scuppers Tags Checklists Absorbents and containers Rags and containers Communication equipment

Checklists and Training
Planning and Preparation Crew and shore personnel functions during refuelling evolution Refuelling Checklist – agreed with shore personnel Post refuelling checklist Spill response procedure

Communication Clear unambiguous signals and phrases for each step
Pumps on Pump Stop Emergency stop and pumps off Test communication prior to commencement of transfer

Spill Response Equipment
PPE Rags and buckets Absorbent pads Bulk absorbent Booms Skimmers Incident report forms

Safety Boundary Larger the vessel larger the exclusion area
Tankers – say 400m Marina – say 50m Absolutely no ignition sources within safety boundary – this means no smoking, lighters, no mobile phones no radios, no fans etc.

Spill Response Emergency Stop – valves and pumps
Notify everyone in the safety zone Close safety zone Take fire precautions Notify authorities (Harbour Control) Contain and clean up Do not use dispersants unless advised by authorities

Training Record New crew New master New shore facility
New vessel for transfer Regular drills

Regulations – Pollution Prevention
International Standard – MARPOL Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plans Federal - • Protection of the Sea (Prevention of Pollution from Ships) (Orders) Regulations Federal – Marine Orders Part 91 NSW - Marine Pollution Act 1987 NSW – Passenger Transport Safety Act Safety Management System

Regulations – Spill Response
International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation 1990 (OPRC 90) International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage 1992 The International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage 2001

Refuelling & fuel transfer for a 10 – 35m commercial vessel
Plan Prepare Perform

Refuelling Procedure – Plan
Notify authorities if required Ensure vessel securely moored Locate emergency shut off Stop engines and machinery Shut off all sources of ignition (LPR, Electrical, Radio, Mobile phones, Hot Work etc) Eliminate smoking and naked flames Set safety zone and place signage Display Code flag “B” Foam or dry chemical extinguishers ready

Refuelling Procedure – Prepare
Close and tag tank transfer valves Seal off scuppers etc. to contain any spill. Buckets under breathers. All personnel ashore and ship closed up Pollution prevention equipment (Absorbents) ready Inspect lines and pipes for leaks

Refuelling Procedure - Perform
Earth filler Ensure filling point, tank gauges and shut off attended at all times Monitor tank levels Container ready to catch spillage Clean up and render safe Ventilate all lower compartments and engine room Check bilge before starting engine Check required tank transfer valves and fuel cocks open

Spill Response Emergency Stop – valves and pumps
Notify everyone in the safety zone Close safety zone Take fire precautions Notify authorities (Harbour Control) Contain and clean up Do not use dispersants unless advised by authorities

Fire Response Emergency Stop – valves and pumps Raise alarm Size up
Notify authorities (Harbour Control, Mayday, 000) Contain and extinguish (foam, dry chemical) Isolate high voltage before using hoses on spray Mop up Report