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Remediation methods of polluted soils Sakari Halmemies, DSc (Tech) 20 May 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Remediation methods of polluted soils Sakari Halmemies, DSc (Tech) 20 May 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Remediation methods of polluted soils Sakari Halmemies, DSc (Tech) 20 May 2009

2 Classification of remediation methods on base of activities (FRTR 2001)

3 Grouping of remediation methods on base of environment and technologies ( Visitt ) Number of remediation methods and technologies: 371 Environment: 68 % soil, 32 % water Technologies: 39 % biological 21 % physical 21 % thermal 19 % chemical

4 Treatment Technologies Screening Matrix (FRTR 2001) Applicability of different technologies can be checked from this matrix: ble3_2.pdf ble3_2.pdf

5 Treatment technology profiles (FRTR 2001) Soil, Sediment, Bedrock and Sludge Treatment Technologies Biological Treatment Physical/Chemical Treatment Thermal Treatment Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate Treatment Technologies Biological Treatment Physical/Chemical Treatment Containment

6 Soil, Sediment, Bedrock and Sludge Treatment Technologies Biological Treatment (FRTR 2001) Bioventing, In Situ Enhanced Bioremediation, In Situ Phytoremediation, In Situ Biopiles, Ex Situ Composting, Ex Situ Landfarming, Ex Situ Slurry Phase, Ex Situ

7 Bioventing, in situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Oxygen is delivered to contaminated unsaturated soils by forced air movement (either extraction or injection of air) to increase oxygen concentrations and stimulate biodegradation.

8 Typical bioventing system (FRTR 2001)

9 Bioventing Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants petroleum hydrocarbons, nonchlorinated solvents, some pesticides, wood preservatives, and other organic chemicals. Duration Medium to long-term technology. Cleanup ranges from a few months to several years. More detailed data

10 Enhanced Bioremediation, in situ biostimulation, bioaugmentation, enhanced biodegradation (FRTR 2001) Introduction: The activity of naturally occurring microbes is stimulated by circulating water-based solutions through contaminated soils to enhance in situ biological degradation of organic contaminants or immobilization of inorganic contaminants. Nutrients, oxygen, or other amendments may be used to enhance bioremediation and contaminant desorption from subsurface materials.

11 Typical Enhanced Bioremediation system (FRTR 2001)

12 Enhanced Bioremediation Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, wood preservatives, and other organic chemicals Duration Long-term technology which may take several years for cleanup of a plume. More detailed data

13 Phytoremediation, in situ vegetation-enhanced bioremediation (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Phytoremediation is a process that uses plants to remove, transfer, stabilize, and destroy contaminants in soil and sediment. Contaminants may be either organic or inorganic. The mechanisms of phytoremediation include enhanced rhizosphere biodegradation, phyto-extraction (also called phyto-accumulation), phyto-degradation, and phyto- stabilization.

14 Typical In Situ Phytoremediation System (FRTR 2001)

15 Phytoremediation Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, crude oil, PAHs, and landfill leachates Duration Long-term technology which may take even decades for cleanup of a plume. More detailed data

16 Biopiles, ex situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Excavated soils are mixed with soil amendments and placed in aboveground enclosures. It is an aerated static pile composting process in which compost is formed into piles and aerated with blowers or vacuum pumps.

17 Typical Biopile System for Solid Phase Bioremediation (FRTR 2001)

18 Biopile Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants nonhalogenated VOCs and fuel hydrocarbons. Duration Short-term technology. Duration of operation and maintenance may last a few weeks to several months More detailed data

19 Composting, ex situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Contaminated soil is excavated and mixed with bulking agents and organic amendments such as wood chips, hay, manure, and vegetative (e.g., potato) wastes. Proper amendment selection ensure adequate porosity and provides a balance of carbon and nitrogen to promote thermophilic, microbial activity.

20 Typical Windrow Composting Process (FRTR 2001)

21 Composting Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants biodegradable organic compounds (incl. PAH) Pilot and full-scale projects have demonstrated explosives Duration Duration of operation and maintenance may last to several months More detailed data

22 Landfarming, ex situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge is excavated, applied into lined beds, and periodically turned over or tilled to aerate the waste.

23 Typical Landfarming Treatment Unit (FRTR 2001)

24 Landfarming Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants petroleum hydrocarbons, diesel fuel, No. 2 and No. 6 fuel oils, JP-5, oily sludge, wood-preserving wastes (PCP and creosote), coke wastes, and certain pesticides. Duration Duration of operation and maintenance may last to many years More detailed data

25 Slurry Phase Biological Treatment, ex situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: An aqueous slurry is created by combining soil, sediment, or sludge with water and other additives. The slurry is mixed to keep solids suspended and microorganisms in contact with the soil contaminants. Upon completion of the process, the slurry is dewatered and the treated soil is disposed of.

26 Typical Bioreactor Process (FRTR 2001)

27 Slurry Phase Biological Treatment Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants explosives, petroleum hydrocarbons, petrochemicals, solvents, pesticides, wood preservatives, and other organic chemicals Duration Short- to medium-term technology. More detailed data

28 Soil, Sediment, Bedrock and Sludge Treatment Technologies Physical/Chemical Treatment (FRTR 2001) Chemical Oxidation, In Situ Electrokinetic Separation, In Situ Fracturing, In and Ex Situ Soil Flushing, In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction, In Situ Solidification/Stabilization, In and Ex Situ Chemical Extraction, Ex Situ Chemical Reduction/Oxidation, Ex Situ Dehalogenation, Ex Situ Separation, Ex Situ Soil Washing, Ex Situ

29 Chemical Oxidation, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Oxidation chemically converts hazardous contaminants to non-hazardous or less toxic compounds that are more stable, less mobile, and/or inert. The oxidizing agents most commonly used are ozone, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide.

30 Typical Chemical oxidation system (FRTR 2001)

31 Chemical oxidation Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants many toxic organic chemicals, unsaturated aliphatic (e.g., trichloroethylene,TCE) and aromatic compounds (e.g., benzene) Duration Medium to long-term technology. Cleanup ranges from a few months to several years. More detailed data

32 Electrokinetic Separation, in situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: The Electrokinetic Remediation (ER) process removes metals and organic contaminants from low permeability soil, mud, sludge, and marine dredging. ER uses electrochemical and electrokinetic processes to desorb, and then remove, metals and polar organics. This in situ soil processing technology is primarily a separation and removal technique for extracting contaminants from soils.

33 Typical In Situ Electrokinetic Separation System (FRTR 2001)

34 Electrokinetic Separation Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants heavy metals, anions, and polar organics in soil, mud, sledge, and marine dredging Duration Short to medium-term technology. Cleanup ranges from a few weeks to several months. More detailed data

35 Fracturing, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Cracks are developed by fracturing beneath the surface in low permeability and over-consolidated sediments to open new passageways that increase the effectiveness of many in situ processes and enhance extraction efficiencies.

36 Typical Pneumatic Fracturing Process (FRTR 2001)

37 Fracturing Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants Fracturing is applicable to the complete range of contaminant groups with no particular target group. The technology is used primarily to fracture silts, clays, shale, and bedrock. Duration Normal operation employs a two-person crew, making 15 to 25 fractures per day with a fracture radius of 4 to 6 meters to a depth of 15 to 30 meters. For longer remediation programs, refracturing efforts may be required at 6- to 12-month intervals. More detailed data

38 Soil Flushing, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Water, or water containing an additive to enhance contaminant solubility, is applied to the soil or injected into the ground water to raise the water table into the contaminated soil zone. Contaminants are leached into the ground water, which is then extracted and treated.

39 Typical Soil Flushing System (FRTR 2001)

40 Soil Flushing Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants inorganics including radioactive contaminants. The technology can be used to treat VOCs, SVOCs, fuels, and pesticides. Duration Short to medium-term technology. Cleanup ranges from a few weeks to several months. More detailed data

41 Soil Vapor Extraction, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Vacuum is applied through extraction wells to create a pressure/concentration gradient that induces gas-phase volatiles to be removed from soil through extraction wells. This technology also is known as in situ soil venting, in situ volatilization, enhanced volatilization, or soil vacuum extraction.

42 Typical In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction System (FRTR 2001)

43 Soil Vapor Extraction, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants The target contaminant groups for in situ SVE are VOCs and some fuels Duration The duration of operation and maintenance for in situ SVE is typically medium- to long-term. More detailed data

44 Solidification/Stabilization, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Contaminants are physically bound or enclosed within a stabilized mass (solidification), or chemical reactions are induced between the stabilizing agent and contaminants to reduce their mobility (stabilization).

45 Typical In Situ Vitrification System (FRTR 2001)

46 Solidification/Stabilization, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants The target contaminant group for in situ S/S is generally inorganics (including radionuclides). Duration The timeframe for in situ S/S is short- to medium-term, while in situ ISV process is typically short-term. More detailed data

47 Chemical Extraction, Ex Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Waste contaminated soil and extractant are mixed in an extractor, thereby dissolving the contaminants. The extracted solution is then placed in a separator, where the contaminants and extractant are separated for treatment and further use. Two main types of extraction are Acid Extraction, Solvent Extraction

48 Typical Chemical extraction System (FRTR 2001)

49 Chemical extraction, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants primarily organic contaminants such as PCBs, VOCs, halogenated solvents, and petroleum wastes. Duration The duration of operations and maintenance for chemical extraction is medium-term. More detailed data

50 Chemical Reduction/Oxidation, Ex Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Reduction/oxidation chemically converts hazardous contaminants to non-hazardous or less toxic compounds that are more stable, less mobile, and/or inert. The oxidizing agents most commonly used are ozone, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide.

51 Typical Chemical Reduction/Oxidation Process (FRTR 2001)

52 Chemical Reduction/Oxidation, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants Mainly for inorganics, but also effect against nonhalogenated VOCs and SVOCs, fuel hydrocarbons, and pesticides. Duration a short- to medium-term technology. More detailed data

53 Dehalogenation, Ex Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Reagents are added to soils contaminated with halogenated organics. The dehalogenation process is achieved by either the replacement of the halogen molecules or the decomposition and partial volatilization of the contaminants.

54 Typical BCD Dehalogenation Process (FRTR 2001)

55 Dehalogenation, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants halogenated SVOCs and pesticides Duration a short- to medium-term process More detailed data 17.html 17.html

56 Separation, Ex Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Separation techniques concentrate contaminated solids through physical and chemical means. These processes seek to detach contaminants from their medium (i.e., the soil, sand, and/or binding material that contains them).

57 Typical Gravity Separation System (FRTR 2001)

58 Separation, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants SVOCs, fuels, and inorganics (including radionuclides) Duration a short-term process More detailed data

59 Soil Washing, Ex Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Contaminants sorbed onto fine soil particles are separated from bulk soil in an aqueous-based system on the basis of particle size. The wash water may be augmented with a basic leaching agent, surfactant, pH adjustment, or chelating agent to help remove organics and heavy metals.

60 Typical Soil Washing Process (FRTR 2001)

61 Soil Washing, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants SVOCs, fuels, and heavy metals Duration typically short- to medium-term More detailed data 19.html 19.html

62 Solidification/Stabilization, Ex Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Contaminants are physically bound or enclosed within a stabilized mass (solidification), or chemical reactions are induced between the stabilizing agent and contaminants to reduce their mobility (stabilization).

63 Typical Ex Situ Solidification/ stabilization Process Flow Diagram (FRTR 2001)

64 Solidification/ stabilization, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants The target contaminant group for ex situ S/S is inorganics, including radionuclides Duration Typical ex situ S/S is a short- to medium-term technology More detailed data

65 Soil, Sediment, Bedrock and Sludge Treatment Technologies Thermal Treatment (FRTR 2001) Thermal Treatment, In Situ Hot Gas Decontamination, Ex Situ Incineration, Ex Situ Pyrolysis, Ex Situ Thermal Desorption, Ex Situ

66 Thermal Treatment, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Steam/hot air injection or electrical resistance/electromagnetic/fiber optic/radio frequency heating is used to increase the volatilization rate of semi-volatiles and facilitate extraction.

67 Typical Six-Phase Soil Heating System. (FRTR 2001)

68 Soil Heating, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants SVOCs and VOCs Duration Thermally enhanced SVE is normally a short- to medium-term technology More detailed data

69 Hot Gas Decontamination, Ex Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: The process involves raising the temperature of the contaminated equipment or material for a specified period of time. The gas effluent from the material is treated in an afterburner system to destroy all volatilized contaminants.

70 Typical Process Flow Diagram for Hot Gas Decontamination of Explosives Contaminated Equipment (FRTR 2001)

71 Hot Gas Decontamination, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants explosive items, such as mines and shells, being demilitarized (after removal of explosives) or scrap material contaminated with explosives. Duration a short-term technology More detailed data

72 Incineration, Ex Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: High temperatures, 870-1,200 °C, are used to combust (in the presence of oxygen) organic constituents in hazardous wastes. Different types of combustion processes Circulating Bed Combustor (CBC) Fluidized Bed Infrared Combustion Rotary Kilns

73 Typical Mobile/Transportable Incineration Process (FRTR 2001)

74 Incineration, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants explosives and hazardous wastes, particularly chlorinated hydrocarbons, PCBs, and dioxins. Duration incineration technology ranges from short- to long-term More detailed data

75 Pyrolysis, Ex Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Chemical decomposition is induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. Organic materials are transformed into gaseous components and a solid residue (coke) containing fixed carbon and ash.

76 Typical Pyrolysis Process (FRTR 2001)

77 Pyrolysis, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants SVOCs and pesticides Duration incineration technology ranges from short- to long-term More detailed data

78 Thermal Desorption, Ex Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Wastes are heated to volatilize water and organic contaminants. A carrier gas or vacuum system transports volatilized water and organics to the gas treatment system. High Temperature Thermal Desorption (HTTD) 320 – 560 °C Low Temperature Thermal Desorption (LTTD) 90 – 320 °C

79 Typical High Temperature Thermal desorption Process (FRTR 2001)

80 Thermal desorption, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants SVOCs, PAHs, PCBs, and pesticides Duration short-term technolgy More detailed data 26.html 26.html

81 Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate Biological Treatment (FRTR 2001) Enhanced Bioremediation, In Situ Monitored Natural Attenuation, In Situ Phytoremediation, In Situ Bioreactors, Ex Situ Constructed Wetlands, Ex Situ

82 Enhanced Bioremediation, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: The rate of bioremediation of organic contaminants by microbes is enhanced by increasing the concentration of electron acceptors and nutrients in ground water, surface water, and leachate. Oxygen is the main electron acceptor for aerobic bioremediation. Nitrate serves as an alternative electron acceptor under anoxic conditions

83 Typical Oxygen-Enhanced Bioremediation System for Contaminated Ground water with Air Sparging (FRTR 2001)

84 Enhanced Bioremediation, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants nonhalogenated VOCs, nonhalogenated SVOCs, and fuels Duration long-term technologies, which may take several years for plume clean-up More detailed data

85 Monitored Natural Attenuation, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Natural subsurface processes—such as dilution, volatilization, biodegradation, adsorption, and chemical reactions with subsurface materials—are allowed to reduce contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels.

86 Typical Monitoring Well Construction Diagram (FRTR 2001)

87 Monitored Natural Attenuation, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants VOCs and SVOCs and fuel hydrocarbons, maybe also halogenated VOCs Duration long-term technologies, which may take several years More detailed data

88 Phytoremediation, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Phytoremediation is a set of processes that uses plants to remove, transfer, stabilize and destroy organic/inorganic contamination in ground water, surface water, and leachate.

89 Typical In Situ Phytoremediation System (FRTR 2001)

90 Phytoremediation, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants organic contaminants from surface water, ground water, leachate, and municipal and industrial wastewater Duration Long-term technology which may take even decades for cleanup of a plume. More detailed data

91 Bioreactors, Ex Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Contaminants in extracted ground water are put into contact with microorganisms in attached or suspended growth biological reactors. In suspended systems, such as activated sludge, contaminated ground water is circulated in an aeration basin. In attached systems, such as rotating biological contractors and trickling filters, microorganisms are established on an inert support matrix.

92 Typical Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) (FRTR 2001)

93 Bioreactors, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants SVOCs, fuel hydrocarbons, and any biodegradable organic material Duration Bioreactors are a long-term technology. The process may take up to several years. More detailed data

94 Constructed Wetland, Ex Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: The constructed wetlands-based treatment technology uses natural geochemical and biological processes inherent in an artificial wetland ecosystem to accumulate and remove metals, explosives, and other contaminants from influent waters. The process can use a filtration or degradation process.

95 Typical Constructed Wetlands System (FRTR 2001)

96 Constructed Wetland, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants organic matter; nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus; and suspended sediments Duration Wetland treatment is a long-term technology intended to operate continously for years. More detailed data

97 Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate Physical/Chemical Treatment (FRTR 2001) Air Sparging, In Situ Bioslurping, In Situ Chemical Oxidation, In Situ Directional Wells, In Situ Dual Phase Extraction, In Situ Thermal Treatment, In Situ Hydrofracturing, In Situ In-Well Air Stripping, In Situ Passive/Reactive Treatment Walls, In Situ

98 Air Sparging, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Air is injected into saturated matrices to remove contaminants through volatilization.

99 Typical Air Sparging System (FRTR 2001)

100 Air Sparging, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants VOCs and fuels Duration a medium to long duration which may last, generally, up to a few years More detailed data

101 Bioslurping, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Deep well injection is a liquid waste disposal technology. This alternative uses injection wells to place treated or untreated liquid waste into geologic formations that have no potential to allow migration of contaminants into potential potable water aquifers.

102 Typical Deep Well Injection System (FRTR 2001)

103 Bioslurping, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants VOCs, SVOCs, fuels, explosives, and pesticides Duration no data More detailed data 54.html 54.html

104 Chemical Oxidation, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Oxidation chemically converts hazardous contaminants to non-hazardous or less toxic compounds that are more stable, less mobile, and/or inert. The oxidizing agents most commonly used are ozone, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorites, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide.

105 Typical Chemical Oxidation System (FRTR 2001)

106 Chemical Oxidation, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants many toxic organic chemicals, unsaturated aliphatic (e.g., trichloroethylene,TCE) and aromatic compounds (e.g., benzene) Duration Medium to long-term technology. Cleanup ranges from a few months to several years. More detailed data

107 Directional Wells, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Drilling techniques are used to position wells horizontally, or at an angle, to reach contaminants not accessible by direct vertical drilling. Directional drilling may be used to enhance other in-situ or in-well technologies such as ground water pumping, bioventing, SVE, soil flushing, and in-well air stripping.

108 Typical Diagram of In Situ Air Stripping with Horizontal Wells (FRTR 2001)

109 Directional Wells, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants no particular target group Duration no data More detailed data 36.html 36.html

110 Dual Phase Extraction, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: A high vacuum system is applied to simultaneously remove various combinations of contaminated ground water, separate-phase petroleum product, and hydrocarbon vapor from the subsurface.

111 Typical Dual Phase Extraction Schematic (EPA 1996)

112 Dual Phase Extraction, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants VOCs and fuels (e.g., LNAPLs) Duration Medium to long-term technology. More detailed data 37.html 37.html

113 Thermal Treatment, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Steam is forced into an aquifer through injection wells to vaporize volatile and semivolatile contaminants. Vaporized components rise to the unsaturated zone where they are removed by vacuum extraction and then treated.

114 Subsurface Development Process (FRTR 2001)

115 Thermal Treatment, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants SVOCs and fuels Duration typically short to medium duration, lasting a few weeks to several months More detailed data

116 Hydrofracturing, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Injection of pressurized water through wells cracks low permeability and over- consolidated sediments. Cracks are filled with porous media that serve as substrates for bioremediation or to improve pumping efficiency.

117 Typical Sequence of Operations for Creating Hydraulic Fractures (FRTR 2001)

118 Hydrofracturing, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants a wide range of contaminant groups with no particular target group Duration no data More detailed data 39.html 39.html

119 In-Well Air Stripping, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Air is injected into a double screened well, lifting the water in the well and forcing it out the upper screen. Simultaneously, additional water is drawn in the lower screen. Once in the well, some of the VOCs in the contaminated ground water are transferred from the dissolved phase to the vapor phase by air bubbles. The contaminated air rises in the well to the water surface where vapors are drawn off and treated by a soil vapor extraction system.

120 Typical UVB Vacuum Vapor Extraction Diagram (FRTR 2001)

121 In-Well Air Stripping, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants halogenated VOCs, SVOCs, and fuels Duration no data More detailed data 40.html 40.html

122 Passive/Reactive Treatment Walls, In Situ (FRTR 2001) Introduction: These barriers allow the passage of water while causing the degradation or removal of contaminants. Different types of walls: Funnel and Gate Iron Treatment Wall

123 Typical Passive Treatment Wall (Cross-Section) (FRTR 2001)

124 Passive/Reactive Treatment Walls, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants VOCs, SVOCs, and inorganics Duration generally intended for long-term operation to control migration of contaminants in ground water. More detailed data

125 Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate Containment (FRTR 2001) Physical Barriers Deep Well Injection

126 Physical Barriers, (FRTR 2001) Introduction: These subsurface barriers consist of vertically excavated trenches filled with slurry. The slurry, usually a mixture of bentonite and water, hydraulically shores the trench to prevent collapse and retards ground water flow.

127 Typical Keyed-In Slurry Wall (Cross-Section) (FRTR 2001)

128 Physical Barriers, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants Slurry walls contain the ground water itself, thus treating no particular target group of contaminants Duration no data More detailed data

129 Deep Well Injection, (FRTR 2001) Introduction: Deep well injection is a liquid waste disposal technology. This alternative uses injection wells to place treated or untreated liquid waste into geologic formations that have no potential to allow migration of contaminants into potential potable water aquifers.

130 Typical Deep Well Injection System (FRTR 2001)

131 Deep Well Injection, Applicability, duration, limitations, costs (FRTR 2001) Applicability for pollutants VOCs, SVOCs, fuels, explosives, and pesticides Duration no data More detailed data 54.html 54.html

132 Sources EPA Decision-Support Software for Soil Vapor Extraction Technology Application: HyperVentilate. Cincinnati, OH: Office of Research and Development. EPA/600/R-93/028. EPA Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide. Second Edition. DOD Environmental Technology Transfer Committee. EPA/542/B-94/013. EPA A Citizen’s Guide to Soil Vapor Extraction and Air Sparging. Solid Waste and Emergency Response (5102G). EPA 542- F April FRTR 2001, Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix and Reference Guide, Version Navvac, Naval Facilities Engineering Command https://portal.navfac.navy.mil/portal/page?_pageid=181, &_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL#slide3_start Visitt , Vendor Information System for Innovative Treatment Technologies, EPA Form 542-R


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