Presentation on theme: "Pyrolytic Heat Recovery with Enhanced Gasification Sustainable Value Recovery Solutions for Your Organic Waste Sustainable Value Recovery Solutions for."— Presentation transcript:
Pyrolytic Heat Recovery with Enhanced Gasification Sustainable Value Recovery Solutions for Your Organic Waste Sustainable Value Recovery Solutions for Your Organic Waste
Value Recovery Solutions for Organic Waste Disposal Pyrolytic Gasification yields a high quality Synthesis Gas from Waste Materials such as: –Municipal Solid Waste (Landfill after resource recovery at $25 -$150/ton) –Biomass and Agricultural Wastes (Burn on Site – emissions problems) –Sewer Plant Sludge (Limited landfill availability - Landfill at $50 -$150/ton) –Medical & Hospital Waste (Hazardous Landfill at $250 - $500/ton) –Refinery & Oil Processing Wastes (Hazardous Landfill at $250- $1500/ton) –Used Tires (Hazardous Landfill, Local Nuisance, Fire Danger – equiv fuel to coal) –Food, Beverage, & Cosmetic Manufacturing Waste (Very High BOD to Sewer, Landfill Disposal at $25 - $150/ton) –Construction & Demolition Wastes (Landfill after resource recovery at $25 - $150/ton) If it contains organics…it’s a fuel to us and a disposal problem solved for you !
Why Pyrolysis ? Incineration inherently emits oxidized hazardous pollutants (NOx, SOx, ClOx, FlOx, dioxins, furans, aldehydes, ketones, others) promoted by direct combustion of waste material Incineration inherently emits oxidized hazardous pollutants (NOx, SOx, ClOx, FlOx, dioxins, furans, aldehydes, ketones, others) promoted by direct combustion of waste material Pyrolysis in PHREG unit occurs in a reducing atmosphere. Hazardous components of off-gas are NH 3, H 2 S, HCl, HF, HCN, amines, etc. easily and economically scrubbed with existing technology. Cleanup equipment capital costs are 20-40% less for PHREG than for incineration processes. PHREG process avoids conditions favorable to the production of dioxins via the deNovo synthesis reaction. Low nitrogen in Syngas Product reduces NOx formation tendencies during combustion. Air combustion of waste makes NOx formation a recurring problem for incinerators. Impossible to make a true low NOx solids burner.
Why Pyrolysis ? Incineration is pretty much limited to Combined Cycle CoGen units. PHREG product gas can be used in a number of ways. Incineration is pretty much limited to Combined Cycle CoGen units. PHREG product gas can be used in a number of ways. Incinerators generate large amounts of ash difficult to handle typically must be treated and disposed of as a hazardous waste. Greater flue gas and ash cleanup Inherently higher cost of a steam power system net cost per ton of equivalent feed is 20-25% greater than pyrolysis net cost per ton of equivalent feed is 20-25% greater than pyrolysis Grate efficiency of burn is at best 30% - more likely below 25%. PHREG net efficiency is 22% of feed LHV capital cost 20% below that of “Trash burn “ plant eliminates ash disposal headaches.
Organic Feed Solutions for Scrubbing Particulate Solids / Liquids Removal Aux. Boiler (Optional) Scrubber Soln. Regeneration Air Acid Gas Absorber Oxygen Plant (Optional) Slag Collection Disposal/Recycle Scrubber Salt To Disposal Burner (Typ. 4-8) Fresh Fuel (As Needed) Steam & Condensor Product Gas Recycle Fuel Dirty Gas O2 (As Needed) Water Clean Pyrogas Pyrolysis/ Gasification Reactor W/ Jacketing PHREG PYRO & GASIFICATION PROCESS DETAILS Water Recycle
Equipment Needed Receiving Pad Sorting Table Shredder Pan conveyors Airlock Solids/Droplets Removal Acid Gas Treatment Oxygen Supply Sulfur Recovery Unit –tire / refinery waste disposal only
Waste Sorting & Conveying One Supplier’s solution for recycling and destruction of solid wastes
Shredder with Feed Conveyor A commercially available unit for shredding tires for shredding tires
Shredder Options Other commercially available solutions
Airlock Feeder Commercially available from multiple suppliers Dual Flap-valve construction is less likely to experience damaged seals – easier to clean and repair than rotary valves
CLOSE (OPEN) OPEN (CLOSE) Segmental Flange Injector/Burner Ring Wet Feed Solids Hopper Solids Pyrolysis Zone II Solids Drying Zone I Char Gasification Zone III Ash/Slag Liquefaction Zone IV Slag / Glass/ Metals Collection Pit Pyrogas & Steam Vent Air Lock Feeder Reactor Fuel Air/O2/Steam To each burner Pyroliquids Recycle(optional) Liquid Organic Feed (optional) Slag/Glass recovery Metals recovery 100- 120 C 350- 400 C 850- 900 C 1200- 1600 C 1700- 2000 C Insulation &/or Jacketing Feed Flow Controller Figure 2 Pyroliquids Draw (optional) PHREG REACTOR CONCEPT
PHREG Reactor Derived from Blast Furnace Technology –more than 800 years of technological history! –High Temp, Low Pressure, Cost Effective design –Chemical Engineers call this a “counter-current falling bed reactor” Gas injection is through Tuyeres –No elemental oxygen in contact with feed material –Complete flow and temperature control of driver gas outside of reaction zone Slag collection is from the hearth –No char handling ! Air Separation Unit needed for max Syngas Production –95% purity membrane or PSA Use Natural gas to start, switch to completely autothermal recycle ops in minimal time Net SynGas product proportional to organic content in feed Cold Gas Efficiency of 75-80% on feed LHV
Exhaust Gas Treatment Separate out dust and condensable mists Condenser Cyclone Scrubber Dryer / Desiccator Salt Recovery & Removal Sulfur Recovery Unit –tires/refinery waste only
Dust / Mist Collectors Wet Scrubber useful for Acid Gas removal as well
SynGas Utilization Several commercially viable options available Clean SynGas Power From Gas Turbine Generator Power & Steam from Combined cycle Cogen Unit Alt Fuels & Chemicals (H2, CH3OH, (H2, CH3OH, CH 4, Hydrocarbons)
What’s Left to Dispose of ? Maybe Nothing !! Scrubber Salts (which may be recyclable to chemical manufacturer) – 0.2-1.0% of original feed wt Non-hazardous Vitreous slag ( which may be used as construction fill or primary material ) – 0.5-2.5 % of original feed weight The rest is all revenue streams - $$$$
1. Lowest capital, quickest implementation 2. Lots of equipment “optimized” for low-Btu gas feed to GTG 3. Net Feed Gas Efficiency of 33-45% 4. Baseload operations with waste feed 5. Support peaker ops with supplemental import gas for minimal extra (5-10%) capital cost SynGas Utilization Option 1 Power from Gas Turbine-Generator Set
FEED LHV FEED RATE NET POWER CAPITAL COST CAPITAL RECOVERY REMARKS BTU/LB TONS/DAY GEN MW APPROX $MM APPROX YRS 4500 500 0 50 6 MSW MINIMUM SELF SUSTAINING 8500 500 20 75 7 BASELOAD MSW 8500 2500 100 250 5 BASELOAD MSW 12500 50 4 15 2 MED WASTE TYP 15000 100 11 28 24 OLD TIRES TYP. 15000 500 55 85 5 OLD TIRES TYP. BASIS: GIVEN TONS/DAY OF TRASH @ LHV 7500 HRS/YR UTILIZATION ANNUAL OP COSTS @ 10% OF CAPITAL BASELOAD POWER REVENUE @ $200/MWH FEED TIPPING FEE AT $ 100 /TON MSW AT $ 500 /TON MED WASTE AT $ 100 /TON TIRES SynGas Utilization Option 1 Power from Gas Turbine-Generator Set