2 Cell Organelles Animal Cell You may or may not wish to distinguish between cytosol and cytoplasm. The correct use of each term is shown here. Most high school textbooks, however, use the word “cytoplasm” to mean “cytosol.”
3 Organelle= “little organ” Found only inside eukaryotic cellsAll the stuff in between the organelles is cytosolEverything in a cell except the nucleus is cytoplasm
5 Cell (Plasma) Membrane Emphasize word parts here:phospho= phosphate head; lipid= fatty acid tailbi= 2Nickname: Security GuardBoundary of the cellLets some material in, waste out, and blocks harmful materials
7 Nucleus Nickname: The Boss Control center of the cell Nucleolus contains DNA, the cells instruction manualSurrounded by a double membraneUsually the easiest organelle to see under a microscopeUsually one per cellCells with more than one nucleus include muscle cells and liver cells, largely because of the massive volume of cytoplasm and number of organelles that need controlling.
8 Cytoskeleton Acts as skeleton and muscle Provides shape and structure Helps move organelles around the cellMade of three types of filamentsActin, also found in muscle cells, mainly help maintain cell shape in their cytoskeletal role. Microtubules mostly move organelles around the cell. Intermediate filaments also provide structural support.
9 Centriole Aids in cell division Usually found only in animal cells Made of microtubulesPart of the CytoplasmMicrotubules are also part of the cytoskeleton.
11 Ribosome Nickname: Worker Makes protein Found attached to rough ER or floating freeProduced in a part of the nucleus called the nucleolusA polypeptide is a chain of amino acids. In this diagram, you can see the ribosome is making a polypeptide, also known as a protein.
12 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Nickname: RoadsConnected to nuclear membraneHighway of the cellRough ER:Rough appearance because it has ribosomesHelps make proteins, that’s why it has ribosomesIt’s not necessary that the students can read the labels here; just point out the black dots are ribosomes.
13 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Smooth ER:No ribosomes;It makes fats or lipidsBreaks down toxic material that could damage the cellSac of materialIt’s not necessary that the students can read the labels here; just point out the black dots are ribosomes.
15 Golgi Apparatus Nickname: The Shippers Looks like a stack of pancakes Packages, modifies, and transports materials todifferent locationsMaterials transported to and from the Golgi by means of vesiclesCells that make saliva or mucus have lots of Golgi bodiesAKA Golgi Complex. It is not necessary that the students read the labels, this diagram gives them a general idea of the Golgi’s shape.
17 Lysosomes Nickname: Clean-up Crew Circular but bigger than ribosomes Small bubbles filled with digestive materialBreaks down ‘food’ into particles the rest of the cell can useFound mainly in animal cellsStudents should recognize the shapes of the Golgi and ER even if they cannot read the captions.
18 LysosomesNickname: Clean-up CrewGarbage disposal of the cellGets rid of wasteDestroys damaged organellesHelps white blood cells destroy bacteriaSometimes called the Suicide Sac because it ‘kills’ worn out cellsLysosomes will rupture releasing enzymes that dissolve everything inside the cell. This allows a body to quickly break down worn out cells.Students should recognize the shapes of the Golgi and ER even if they cannot read the captions.
20 Mitochondria Nickname: Powerhouse of the cell Converts ‘food’ into energy the cell can useNeeds oxygen like a furnace to convert energyMany mitochondria found in muscle cellsExplain that this diagram shows the mitochondria cut open to reveal the internal membranes.
22 Cytoplasm Nickname: Factory Floor Clear jelly-like fluid that contains all the organellesMade mostly of waterMoves materials throughout the cellsChloroplasts absorb light, which is the catalyst for photosynthesis.
23 Plant Cells Have most of the same organelles as animal cells Chloroplasts absorb light, which is the catalyst for photosynthesis.
25 Vacuoles Function: Storage container for water, food, etc. Large central vacuoleusually in plant cellsMany smaller vacuoles inanimal cellsStores water in plantsThis is what makes lettuce crispWhen there is no water, the plant wiltsThe image is 2D, so it must have been a light microscope or TEM. If the cell is very tiny, then a TEM was used. Otherwise, a strong light microscope could have captured this image.
27 ChloroplastFunction: traps energy from the sun to produce food for the plant cellFound only in plant cellsGreen in color because of chlorophyll, which is a green pigmentChloroplasts absorb light, which is the catalyst for photosynthesis.
29 Cell WallFunction: provides support and protection to the cell membraneFound in plant and bacterial cellsRigid, protective barrierLocated outside of the cell membraneMade of cellulose (fiber)That’s what makes celery crunchyThis is an actual microscopic image. Explain that the colors are added digitally to enhance the different parts.
30 Quick Review Which organelle is the control center of the cell? NucleusWhich organelle holds the cell together?Cell membraneWhich organelles are not found in animal cells?Cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplastsWhich organelle helps plant cells make food?ChloroplastsWhat does E.R. stand for?Endoplasmic reticulumYou may choose to delete the answers from the PowerPoint or change the animation so that they come in after all 5 questions are asked in case you want to quiz students individually at the end.