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Exxon Valdez Presented By: Delaurean Washington Rajesh Manandhar Mary Ngo.

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1 Exxon Valdez Presented By: Delaurean Washington Rajesh Manandhar Mary Ngo

2 FIVE LEARNING OBJECTIVES  Be able to identify how the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill occurred.  Know the chemistry behind an oil spill.  Be able to identify any laws that were passed after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill occurred.  Identify the clean up measures that were used in this incident.  Be able to identify some of the effects the oil spill had on marine and human life.

3 History/Background Info  On March 23, 1989 at 9:12 p.m. the oil tanker boat known as the Exxon Valdez was scheduled to transport over 60 million gallons of oil from Prince William Sound to Long Beach, California to be refined over a 5-day time span.  Due to some ice fragments that had broken off from the Columbia glacier, Capt. John Hazelwood had decided to take Exxon Valdez off its normal route to steer clear of the glacier pieces.

4 History/Background Info  During this time of steering off course, John Hazelwood, decided to leave from the bridge area and leave the Third mate in charge of the ship.  Through a lot of unforeseen mistakes and lack of communication at about 12:04 a.m. on March 24, 1989, Exxon Valdez ran across the Bligh Reef.  Within the time span of five hours about 11 million gallons of oil had spilled from the ruptured hull of the tanker and into the Prince William Sound

5 History/Background Info  Over the next few days, the winds were very mild and currents were very minimal which gave hope that the oil spill although large was confined to one area of the Prince William Sound.  However, the weather had another plan because on March 27 th, 3 days after the oil was spilled. A storm blew in with about twenty foot waves through the Western region of the Prince William Sound and into the Gulf of Alaska.

6 History/Background Info  All in the span of one night, the already large body of oil went from spanning over 4 miles to an oil slick that measured over 40 miles.  After a couple more days, the oil slick was now about 700 miles which oiled the coastline.

7 History/Background Info

8 Components of Crude Oil  The major components of crude oil:  Hydrocarbons  Paraffins  Naphthenes  Aromatics  Asphaltenes  Non hydrocarbon components

9 Components of Crude Oil Paraffins (Alkanes)Naphthenes (Cycloalkanes)

10 Components of Crude Oil Aromatics or PAH Non hydrocarbon components

11 Components of Crude Oil Asphaltene

12 Fate of Oil Spill in Sea  Advective and spreading processes  Physical processes  Evaporation  Dissolution  Vertical Dispersion  Emulsification  Sedimentation  Chemical processes  Photooxidation  Autooxidation  Biological transformation  Metabolism  Storage  Discharge

13 Fate of Oil Spill in Sea


15 Fate of Oil Spill  Shoreline contamination  Insoluble contaminants will seep thru the sandy beach and reach the water table.  Can not easily degrade and hardest to clean  Study by Michael Boufadel of Temple University  Results have shown that oil form 1989 spill still persists

16 Fate of Oil Spill  Photooxidation of PAH:

17 Fate of Oil Spill  Autooxidation:

18 Metabolism of PAH

19 Ways to Clean up an Oil Spill  Containment boom: it is a large float that surrounds the oil slick and as it is pulled into a boat it skims the oil off of the top until the oil slick shrinks  Detergent solutions: which can be sprayed onto the oil slick and cause the oil to break up into clumps and sink to the bottom on the ocean  Absorbent sand: can be used by pouring sand on the oil slick which also drags the oil to the bottom of ocean in sandy clumps

20 Ways to Clean up an Oil spill  Oil eating bacteria: recently designed to use the oil slick as food. When the bacteria reproduces, the bacteria eats more of the oil slick until it vanishes. When the oil slick is gone, the bacteria die off because the food source is gone so nothing is left in the water  Fire: if the oil slick contains highly flammable compounds and is very small, the oil slick can be set on fire. Although this is rarely done because most oil slicks do not contain flammable compounds  Absorbent Pads: If the slick is small and in a fresh water setting then the oil slick can be cleaned up by absorbent pads and when they are full they can be cleaned off the surface of the water

21 Exxon Valdez Cleanup  The initial goal was to remove as much as oil as possible  The methods that were used in 1989 were the absorbent pads, low and moderate pressure washing with cold and warm water coupled with near shore oil skimmers, mechanical removal of oil sediments and bioremediation.  In 1989, the removal of oil and natural cleaning of the oiled shores during the storms of 1989-1990 produced a major reduction in the oil remaining in the Prince William Sound so that less intrusive cleanup measures had to be used in the upcoming years.

22 Exxon Valdez Cleanup  The less intrusive cleanup measures were tilling, removal of tar mats physically, and the spreading of oil-soluble fertilizer to promote microbial degradation of petroleum residues (bioremediation).  These cleanup measures coupled with natural oil degradation processes were very successful in reducing the amount of remaining residues of the spill and in June of 1992, representatives of the federal and state governments determined that no additional cleanup of shoreline was warranted, and the cleanup was terminated.

23 Exxon Valdez Cleanup



26 Still Remaining  After 3 decades  More than 21,000 gallons remain from 11 million gallons  Oil decreases at rate of 0-4% a year  In isolated coves and underneath Sand  Death Marsh

27 Still remaining  Intensive cleanup ended in 1994  Naturally breakdown of oil has slowed  Oil-coated beaches isolated from regular water flow  Inspired 1990 U.S. Oil Pollution Act  By 2020, all oil tanks have double hulls

28 Still Remaining  11,000-person crew removed much of oil until 1994

29 1990 Oil Pollution Act  George H. Bush signed in 1990  Oil spill prevention measures  New requirements for oil transportation, cleanups, and response capabilities

30 Section 311  Section 311 of Clean water Act and Federal Water Pollution Control Act  Amendments included:  Changes to federal response authority  Penalty increases for oil spills  Establishment of U.S. Coast Guard response organization  Mandated tank vessel and facility response plants  Formulation of area contingency plans for selected areas

31 Section 311  Enhancing federal response capability  Creating new research and development programs  Increasing potential liabilities

32 Exxon ordered to pay interest  2009, $470 million in interest on the $507.5 million in punitive damage  Interest started in 1996, at 5.9%  $70 million in court fee left!  Originally was $5 billion settlement for victims  $15,000 per victim, 33,000 plaintiffs

33 Exxon ordered to pay interest

34 Animals affected?  Thousands of animals died  250,000 -- 350,000 sea birds  2,800 sea otters  300 harbor seals  250 bald eagles  22 orcas  7 whales  Billions of salmon and herring eggs perished

35 Impact on Marine Life  Billions of fish killed  Eating oil contaminated food  Starved to death  Thick layer of oil on surface disrupted marine life beneath  No sunlight

36 Impact on Fishing  Fishing ban  4,000 jobs on fishing industry were affected  Risk of cancer connected to consumption of sea produce  $286.8 million to 10, 000 Alaskan commercial fisherman

37 Impact on Humans  Psychiatric symptoms and association with level of exposure to oil spill and clean up operation  Anxiety  Post-traumatic stress syndrome  Depression

38 Many Workers

39 Lots of workers

40 Still more workers……  Floating booms and skimmers barges  1,4000 vessels and 85 save animals

41 Exxon Restoration Plan  1994 – 5 fold plan of action  Surveillance of main resources and species affected  Restoration of sites  Protection of habitats  Management of long term reserve fund  Scientific coordination, administration and communication



44 References 1. 2. 3. 4.Speight, J. G. The chemistry and technology of petroleum; Marcel Dekker: New York, 1999. 5.Simanzhenkov, V.,Idem, R., Crude oil chemistry - Technology and Engineering, 2003 6.Bluemink, E. Persistence of Exxon Valdez oil may be explained by study. Web article available at may.html#ixzz0jauol3Re, 2010. 7.Larson, R. A., Weber, E. J. Reaction mechanisms in environmental organic chemistry. 1994. 221-224 8.Pictures obtained from: 1. 4. 5. 6. 7.Video Obtained fro,m:

45 References          

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