Presentation on theme: "Exxon Valdez Presented By: Delaurean Washington Rajesh Manandhar Mary Ngo."— Presentation transcript:
Exxon Valdez Presented By: Delaurean Washington Rajesh Manandhar Mary Ngo
FIVE LEARNING OBJECTIVES Be able to identify how the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill occurred. Know the chemistry behind an oil spill. Be able to identify any laws that were passed after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill occurred. Identify the clean up measures that were used in this incident. Be able to identify some of the effects the oil spill had on marine and human life.
History/Background Info On March 23, 1989 at 9:12 p.m. the oil tanker boat known as the Exxon Valdez was scheduled to transport over 60 million gallons of oil from Prince William Sound to Long Beach, California to be refined over a 5-day time span. Due to some ice fragments that had broken off from the Columbia glacier, Capt. John Hazelwood had decided to take Exxon Valdez off its normal route to steer clear of the glacier pieces.
History/Background Info During this time of steering off course, John Hazelwood, decided to leave from the bridge area and leave the Third mate in charge of the ship. Through a lot of unforeseen mistakes and lack of communication at about 12:04 a.m. on March 24, 1989, Exxon Valdez ran across the Bligh Reef. Within the time span of five hours about 11 million gallons of oil had spilled from the ruptured hull of the tanker and into the Prince William Sound
History/Background Info Over the next few days, the winds were very mild and currents were very minimal which gave hope that the oil spill although large was confined to one area of the Prince William Sound. However, the weather had another plan because on March 27 th, 3 days after the oil was spilled. A storm blew in with about twenty foot waves through the Western region of the Prince William Sound and into the Gulf of Alaska.
History/Background Info All in the span of one night, the already large body of oil went from spanning over 4 miles to an oil slick that measured over 40 miles. After a couple more days, the oil slick was now about 700 miles which oiled the coastline.
Components of Crude Oil The major components of crude oil: Hydrocarbons Paraffins Naphthenes Aromatics Asphaltenes Non hydrocarbon components
Components of Crude Oil Paraffins (Alkanes)Naphthenes (Cycloalkanes)
Components of Crude Oil Aromatics or PAH Non hydrocarbon components
Fate of Oil Spill Shoreline contamination Insoluble contaminants will seep thru the sandy beach and reach the water table. Can not easily degrade and hardest to clean Study by Michael Boufadel of Temple University Results have shown that oil form 1989 spill still persists
Fate of Oil Spill Photooxidation of PAH:
Fate of Oil Spill Autooxidation:
Metabolism of PAH
Ways to Clean up an Oil Spill Containment boom: it is a large float that surrounds the oil slick and as it is pulled into a boat it skims the oil off of the top until the oil slick shrinks Detergent solutions: which can be sprayed onto the oil slick and cause the oil to break up into clumps and sink to the bottom on the ocean Absorbent sand: can be used by pouring sand on the oil slick which also drags the oil to the bottom of ocean in sandy clumps
Ways to Clean up an Oil spill Oil eating bacteria: recently designed to use the oil slick as food. When the bacteria reproduces, the bacteria eats more of the oil slick until it vanishes. When the oil slick is gone, the bacteria die off because the food source is gone so nothing is left in the water Fire: if the oil slick contains highly flammable compounds and is very small, the oil slick can be set on fire. Although this is rarely done because most oil slicks do not contain flammable compounds Absorbent Pads: If the slick is small and in a fresh water setting then the oil slick can be cleaned up by absorbent pads and when they are full they can be cleaned off the surface of the water
Exxon Valdez Cleanup The initial goal was to remove as much as oil as possible The methods that were used in 1989 were the absorbent pads, low and moderate pressure washing with cold and warm water coupled with near shore oil skimmers, mechanical removal of oil sediments and bioremediation. In 1989, the removal of oil and natural cleaning of the oiled shores during the storms of produced a major reduction in the oil remaining in the Prince William Sound so that less intrusive cleanup measures had to be used in the upcoming years.
Exxon Valdez Cleanup The less intrusive cleanup measures were tilling, removal of tar mats physically, and the spreading of oil-soluble fertilizer to promote microbial degradation of petroleum residues (bioremediation). These cleanup measures coupled with natural oil degradation processes were very successful in reducing the amount of remaining residues of the spill and in June of 1992, representatives of the federal and state governments determined that no additional cleanup of shoreline was warranted, and the cleanup was terminated.
Exxon Valdez Cleanup
Still Remaining After 3 decades More than 21,000 gallons remain from 11 million gallons Oil decreases at rate of 0-4% a year In isolated coves and underneath Sand Death Marsh
Still remaining Intensive cleanup ended in 1994 Naturally breakdown of oil has slowed Oil-coated beaches isolated from regular water flow Inspired 1990 U.S. Oil Pollution Act By 2020, all oil tanks have double hulls
Still Remaining 11,000-person crew removed much of oil until 1994
1990 Oil Pollution Act George H. Bush signed in 1990 Oil spill prevention measures New requirements for oil transportation, cleanups, and response capabilities
Section 311 Section 311 of Clean water Act and Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments included: Changes to federal response authority Penalty increases for oil spills Establishment of U.S. Coast Guard response organization Mandated tank vessel and facility response plants Formulation of area contingency plans for selected areas
Section 311 Enhancing federal response capability Creating new research and development programs Increasing potential liabilities
Exxon ordered to pay interest 2009, $470 million in interest on the $507.5 million in punitive damage Interest started in 1996, at 5.9% $70 million in court fee left! Originally was $5 billion settlement for victims $15,000 per victim, 33,000 plaintiffs
Exxon ordered to pay interest
Animals affected? Thousands of animals died 250, ,000 sea birds 2,800 sea otters 300 harbor seals 250 bald eagles 22 orcas 7 whales Billions of salmon and herring eggs perished
Impact on Marine Life Billions of fish killed Eating oil contaminated food Starved to death Thick layer of oil on surface disrupted marine life beneath No sunlight
Impact on Fishing Fishing ban 4,000 jobs on fishing industry were affected Risk of cancer connected to consumption of sea produce $286.8 million to 10, 000 Alaskan commercial fisherman
Impact on Humans Psychiatric symptoms and association with level of exposure to oil spill and clean up operation Anxiety Post-traumatic stress syndrome Depression
Lots of workers
Still more workers…… Floating booms and skimmers barges 1,4000 vessels and 85 save animals
Exxon Restoration Plan 1994 – 5 fold plan of action Surveillance of main resources and species affected Restoration of sites Protection of habitats Management of long term reserve fund Scientific coordination, administration and communication
References 1.http://fiesta.bren.ucsb.edu/~vbroje/images/oilspillab.pdf 2.http://archive.greenpeace.org/climate/arctic/reports/exxon2.pdf 3.http://www.bowdoin.edu/faculty/d/dpage/html/evos10yr.shtml 4.Speight, J. G. The chemistry and technology of petroleum; Marcel Dekker: New York, Simanzhenkov, V.,Idem, R., Crude oil chemistry - Technology and Engineering, Bluemink, E. Persistence of Exxon Valdez oil may be explained by study. Web article available at may.html#ixzz0jauol3Re, Larson, R. A., Weber, E. J. Reaction mechanisms in environmental organic chemistry Pictures obtained from: 1.http://www.bowdoin.edu/faculty/d/dpage/html/evos10yr.shtml 2.www.bestsynthetic.com/volatility.shtml 3.www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2004/Bioremediation... 4.http://www.oneinchpunch.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/crude-oil-spill-clear-up.jpg 5.http://img5.imageshack.us/img5/388/ valdeztankerbig.jpg 6.http://www.maritimequest.com/freighters/exxon_valdez/exxon_valdez_02.jpg 7.Video Obtained fro,m: