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Marine Debris in Hawaii Capitol Hill Ocean Week 14 June 2006 Mary J. Donohue, Ph.D. University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program

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Presentation on theme: "Marine Debris in Hawaii Capitol Hill Ocean Week 14 June 2006 Mary J. Donohue, Ph.D. University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program"— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine Debris in Hawaii Capitol Hill Ocean Week 14 June 2006 Mary J. Donohue, Ph.D. University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program

2 Outline l The Problem l Impacts l Mitigation l Science l Challenges l Recommendations

3 Oceanic currents & atmospheric winds = North Pacific Subtropical Gyre Subtropical Convergence Zone (Kubota 1994, Ingraham and Ebbesmeyer 2001, Donohue et al. 2001, Timmers et al. 2005) Marine Debris Movement

4 Marine Debris Impacts l Degraded Aesthetics l Navigational Hazard / Vessel Damage l Wildlife Ingestion l Wildlife Entanglement / Ghost Fishing l Habitat Damage l Alien Species Vector

5 Images courtesy NOAA Fisheries Degraded Aesthetic Value

6 Courtesy WESPAC Courtesy Environment Canada Navigational Hazard / Vessel Damage

7 Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service Decreased food consumption Loss of nutrition Internal injury Intestinal blockage Starvation Death Harmful effects: Courtesy UH Sea Grant Wildlife Ingestion

8 Wildlife Entanglement Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service

9 Commercial fish & shellfish stocks = up to 30% of landings (Laist 1996) 50% of CA derelict lobster traps actively fishing ( Gilardi, Pers. Comm.) Ghost catch of octopus in Kyushu, Japan = commercial landing ( K animals) (Matsuoka, Pers. Comm.) Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service Ghost Fishing

10 Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service Habitat Damage

11 Diadumene lineata Introduction of Alien Species Invasive sea anemone found on net at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, 2000 (Zabin et al. 2004, Godwin, Pers. Comm.) Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service

12 Selected Hawaii Marine Debris Projects Debris removal Waiohinu - Ka Lae Coast, Hawaii Island*Debris removal Waiohinu - Ka Lae Coast, Hawaii Island* Debris removal - main Hawaiian Islands*Debris removal - main Hawaiian Islands* Honolulu port reception & recycling program*Honolulu port reception & recycling program* Get the Drift and Bag It Beach Cleanup** (TOC)Get the Drift and Bag It Beach Cleanup** (TOC) Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Multi-Agency Marine Debris Removal*Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Multi-Agency Marine Debris Removal* *Funded by NOAA ORR Marine Debris Program **The Ocean Conservancy annual beach cleanup

13 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Multi-Agency Marine Debris Cleanup Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service

14 Tow Survey Net Removal Net Haul On-loading Net Analysis Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service

15 Kure Atoll Survey tracks and debris recovery locations Courtesy National Ocean Service

16 Debris Recycling *100 tons of derelict fishing net = 552 barrels of oil 323,019 KwH 43 homes/year US $50,000 Schnitzer Steel Hawaii Corporation (formerly Hawaii Metals Recycling), City & County of Honolulu, Covanta Energy; *Wigg, Pers. Comm. Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service

17 Science Informing Policy

18 NWHI Fishing Net Marine Debris, NWHI Fishing Net Marine Debris, N = 3979 (Boland and Donohue 2005, Donohue et al. 2001, Timmers and Donohue 2000, Donohue 2005) EPO Tuna FADs?

19 Twisted Knotted Twisted Knotless Braided Knotted Braided Knotless Double Stranded Multi-panel Trawl Debris Analysis Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service

20

21 N = 198 Debris Analysis – Monofilament Gill Net 80 – 140 mm Mesh Size Salmon Squid (Timmers and Donohue 2000)

22 Oceanography/Remote Sensing (Donohue and Foley, in review)

23 Monk Seal Entanglements (Henderson 2001, Donohue and Foley, in review) EL Niño

24 Biweekly marine debris deposition and El Niño at French Frigate Shoals, (Morishige et al., Pers. Comm.) * * *P < 0.05

25 Debris Accumulation (Boland and Donohue, 2003)

26 Challenges Polluters transfer costs Polluters transfer costs Economic and ecological costs Economic and ecological costs International scope International scope MARPOL Annex V MARPOL Annex V Enforcement Enforcement

27 Recommendations Expand international / industry participation Expand international / industry participation Source identification Source identification Economic analyses of impacts Economic analyses of impacts Scientific studies of impacts Scientific studies of impacts Maintain removal efforts Maintain removal efforts Expand recycling Expand recycling Expand outreach / education Expand outreach / education

28 Thank you For additional information: UH Sea Grant: Mary J. Donohue:

29 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Multi-Agency Marine Debris Cleanup Partners National Marine Fisheries Service Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Pacific Sea Grant College Programs Hawaii Coastal Zone Management Program US Coast Guard US Fish & Wildlife Service Hawaii Metals Recycling/ Schnitzer Steel Hawaii Corporation Horizon Waste Services, Inc. City & County of Honolulu US Navy Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council US State Department Natural Resources Consultants, Inc. Hawaii State DLNR Hawaii Audubon Society Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Hawaii Ocean Safety Team The Ocean Conservancy Ocean Futures Society Hawaii State DBEDT Covanta Energy Any omissions unintended

30 References Boland, R. and M.J. Donohue Marine debris accumulation in the aquatic habitat of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi: an impediment to species recovery? Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(11): Donohue, M.J., Eastern Pacific source of Northwestern Hawaiian Islands marine debris supported by errant fish aggregating device. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50(6): , doi: /j.marpolbul Donohue, M.J., How multi-agency partnerships can address large-scale pollution problems: a Hawaii case study. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(6): Invited manuscript. Donohue, M.J., R. Boland, C.M. Sramek, and G.A. Antonelis Derelict fishing gear in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: diving surveys and debris removal at two atolls confirms threat to coral reef ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(12): Donohue, M.J. and D. Foley. In review. Remote sensing links Hawaiian monk seal conservation, pollution and El Niño. Marine Mammal Science. Gilardi, K. Personal Communication. Godwin, S. Personal Communication. Henderson, J.R A pre- and post-MARPOL Annex V summary of Hawaiian monk seal entanglements and marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(7):

31 References Ingraham, W.J. Jr. and Ebbesmeyer, C.C Surface current concentration of floating marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean: 12-year OSCURS model experiments. In Proceedings of the Internationl Conference on Derelict Fishing Gear and the Ocean Environment, Hawaiian Island Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Publication. Kubota, M A mechanism for the accumulation of floating marine debris north of Hawaii. Journal of Physical Oceanography 24, Laist, D.W Impacts of marine debris: entanglement of marine life in marine debris including a comprehensive list of species with entanglement and ingestion records. In Marine Debris Sources, Impacts, and Solutions, eds. J.M. Coe and D.B. Rogers. Springer-Verlag, New York, Inc. pp Matsuoka, Tatsuro. Personal Communication. Morishige, C. Personal Communication. Timmers, M.A., C.A. Kistner and M.J. Donohue Marine debris of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: ghost net identification. University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program publication. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-AR

32 References Timmers, M and M. Donohue, Identifying putative fisheries from derelict fishing gear recovered in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology International, Sixth Regional Symposium PACON 2003: Ocean Capital Year. Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Jun. 29 – Jul. 2, 2003 Wigg, H. Personal Communication. Zabin, C.J., J.T. Carlton and L.S. Godwin, First report of the Asian sea anemone Diadumene lineata from the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2003, Part 2:


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