Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service Decreased food consumption Loss of nutrition Internal injury Intestinal blockage Starvation Death Harmful effects: Courtesy UH Sea Grant Wildlife Ingestion
Wildlife Entanglement Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service
Commercial fish & shellfish stocks = up to 30% of landings (Laist 1996) 50% of CA derelict lobster traps actively fishing ( Gilardi, Pers. Comm.) Ghost catch of octopus in Kyushu, Japan = commercial landing (200 - 500K animals) (Matsuoka, Pers. Comm.) Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service Ghost Fishing
Diadumene lineata Introduction of Alien Species Invasive sea anemone found on net at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, 2000 (Zabin et al. 2004, Godwin, Pers. Comm.) Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service
Selected Hawaii Marine Debris Projects Debris removal Waiohinu - Ka Lae Coast, Hawaii Island*Debris removal Waiohinu - Ka Lae Coast, Hawaii Island* Debris removal - main Hawaiian Islands*Debris removal - main Hawaiian Islands* Honolulu port reception & recycling program*Honolulu port reception & recycling program* Get the Drift and Bag It Beach Cleanup** (TOC)Get the Drift and Bag It Beach Cleanup** (TOC) Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Multi-Agency Marine Debris Removal*Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Multi-Agency Marine Debris Removal* *Funded by NOAA ORR Marine Debris Program **The Ocean Conservancy annual beach cleanup
Tow Survey Net Removal Net Haul On-loading Net Analysis Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service
Kure Atoll Survey tracks and debris recovery locations Courtesy National Ocean Service
Debris Recycling *100 tons of derelict fishing net = 552 barrels of oil 323,019 KwH 43 homes/year US $50,000 Schnitzer Steel Hawaii Corporation (formerly Hawaii Metals Recycling), City & County of Honolulu, Covanta Energy; *Wigg, Pers. Comm. Courtesy NOAA Fisheries Service
Challenges Polluters transfer costs Polluters transfer costs Economic and ecological costs Economic and ecological costs International scope International scope MARPOL Annex V MARPOL Annex V Enforcement Enforcement
Recommendations Expand international / industry participation Expand international / industry participation Source identification Source identification Economic analyses of impacts Economic analyses of impacts Scientific studies of impacts Scientific studies of impacts Maintain removal efforts Maintain removal efforts Expand recycling Expand recycling Expand outreach / education Expand outreach / education
Thank you For additional information: UH Sea Grant: www.soest.hawaii.edu/seagrant Mary J. Donohue: email@example.com
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Multi-Agency Marine Debris Cleanup Partners National Marine Fisheries Service Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Pacific Sea Grant College Programs Hawaii Coastal Zone Management Program US Coast Guard US Fish & Wildlife Service Hawaii Metals Recycling/ Schnitzer Steel Hawaii Corporation Horizon Waste Services, Inc. City & County of Honolulu US Navy Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council US State Department Natural Resources Consultants, Inc. Hawaii State DLNR Hawaii Audubon Society Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Hawaii Ocean Safety Team The Ocean Conservancy Ocean Futures Society Hawaii State DBEDT Covanta Energy Any omissions unintended
References Boland, R. and M.J. Donohue. 2003. Marine debris accumulation in the aquatic habitat of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi: an impediment to species recovery? Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(11):1385-1394. Donohue, M.J., 2005. Eastern Pacific source of Northwestern Hawaiian Islands marine debris supported by errant fish aggregating device. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50(6):886-888, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.05.003. Donohue, M.J., 2003. How multi-agency partnerships can address large-scale pollution problems: a Hawaii case study. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(6):700-702. Invited manuscript. Donohue, M.J., R. Boland, C.M. Sramek, and G.A. Antonelis. 2001. Derelict fishing gear in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: diving surveys and debris removal at two atolls confirms threat to coral reef ecosystems. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(12):1301-1312. Donohue, M.J. and D. Foley. In review. Remote sensing links Hawaiian monk seal conservation, pollution and El Niño. Marine Mammal Science. Gilardi, K. Personal Communication. Godwin, S. Personal Communication. Henderson, J.R. 2001. A pre- and post-MARPOL Annex V summary of Hawaiian monk seal entanglements and marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 1982-1988. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(7):584-589.
References Ingraham, W.J. Jr. and Ebbesmeyer, C.C. 2001. Surface current concentration of floating marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean: 12-year OSCURS model experiments. In Proceedings of the Internationl Conference on Derelict Fishing Gear and the Ocean Environment, 2001. Hawaiian Island Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Publication. Kubota, M. 1994. A mechanism for the accumulation of floating marine debris north of Hawaii. Journal of Physical Oceanography 24, 1059-1064. Laist, D.W. 1997. Impacts of marine debris: entanglement of marine life in marine debris including a comprehensive list of species with entanglement and ingestion records. In Marine Debris Sources, Impacts, and Solutions, eds. J.M. Coe and D.B. Rogers. Springer-Verlag, New York, Inc. pp.99-139. Matsuoka, Tatsuro. Personal Communication. Morishige, C. Personal Communication. Timmers, M.A., C.A. Kistner and M.J. Donohue. 2005. Marine debris of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: ghost net identification. University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program publication. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-AR-05-01.
References Timmers, M and M. Donohue, 2003. Identifying putative fisheries from derelict fishing gear recovered in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology International, Sixth Regional Symposium PACON 2003: Ocean Capital Year. Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Jun. 29 – Jul. 2, 2003 Wigg, H. Personal Communication. Zabin, C.J., J.T. Carlton and L.S. Godwin, 2003. First report of the Asian sea anemone Diadumene lineata from the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2003, Part 2: 54-58.