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Weiss Associates P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. Electro Petroleum Inc. presentation at “Breaking the Mercury Cycle” Conference Boston, Massachusetts May 1–3,

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Presentation on theme: "Weiss Associates P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. Electro Petroleum Inc. presentation at “Breaking the Mercury Cycle” Conference Boston, Massachusetts May 1–3,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Weiss Associates P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. Electro Petroleum Inc. presentation at “Breaking the Mercury Cycle” Conference Boston, Massachusetts May 1–3, 2002 prepared by Falk Doering, Ph.D., & Niels Doering—P2 Soil Remediation, Inc. Joe L. Iovenitti, Donald J. Hill, Ph.D., & William A. McIlvride— Weiss Associates J. Kenneth Wittle—ElectroPetroleum, Inc. Weiss Associates is skilled and experienced in areas essential to Environmental Industry geoscience problem solving. Staff members include geologists; hydrogeologists; civil, environmental, chemical and mechanical engineers; environmental scientists; regulatory specialists and technicians. We recognize that each individual's intelligence, creativity and perseverance are essential ingredients to create a superior work product. These individual human traits are cultivated and encouraged at WA. WA's staff uses the most advanced field equipment, techniques and computer technology. Quality is maintained through communication with staff and careful recruiting, training and supervision. The result is work that consistently satisfies or exceeds the require- ments of our clients and local, state and federal regulators. Expertise in Geology, Engineering and Environmental Science At Weiss Associates, outstanding people produce outstanding results. For additional information, please contact Joe L. Iovenitti Telephone (510) Fax (510) MERCURY CLEANUP THROUGH THE USE OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

2 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 2 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt DIRECT CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES Direct Current Technologies (DCTs) Electro-Kinetic Aided Remediation (EKAR) Carbon Dioxide Vacuum Stripping Wells with Electrolytic Destruction (CVS-II) Induced Complexation (IC) Geotechnical Applications ElectroKinetics ElectroChemicalGeoOxidation (ECGO) ElectroChemical Remediation

3 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 3 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt INDUCED REDOX REACTIONS o How Do They Occur? l Electrodes are placed in the sediment where a low voltage and low amperage coupled DC/AC field is imposed l An Induced Polarization (IP) field is created ý the soil acts as a capacitor, discharging and charging electricity T electrical discharge cycle causes reduction T electrical charging cycle causes oxidation ý REDOX reactions occur at a high frequency throughout the matrix

4 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 4 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt INDUCED REDOX REACTIONS o Where Do They Occur? l In the soil under Ex-Situ or In-Situ conditions ý Reactions take longer in gravel than fine sand, fine sand takes longer than clay T Reaction rate is inversely proportional to grain size l At the Pore Scale ý Theory = Reactions occur at any and all interfaces within the soil-water-contaminant system No pumping or addition of chemicals required during ECRTs-ECGO or ECRTs-IC.

5 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 5 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt ELECTRICAL ENERGY INPUT

6 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 6 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt ECRTs—ECGO ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES

7 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 7 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt Soil Particle or Colloid Sorbed water molecule Hydrated Anion Capacitor Structure Outer Helmholtz Plane Inner Helmholtz Plane Diffuse layer Hygroscopic Water— serves as a dielectric A zone of redox reaction Hydrated Cation REDOX reactions occur at any and all interfaces and are believed to result from electrolysis of water. ECRTs PORE SCALE REDOX MODEL

8 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 8 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt o Water TDS: ~ 3.5 g/l mainly sodium chloride o Main Pollutants: Elemental and methyl Hg o Electrodes: Steel pipes 192 mm OD, each 8 m long o Power input: 5.6 kW o Sediment: silts UNION CANAL, SCOTLAND o Initial Average Total Hg Concentration: 243 mg\kg

9 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 9 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt UNION CANAL, SCOTLAND 220 m 3

10 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 10 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt Results (all figures in mg Hg/kg dm) UNION CANAL, SCOTLAND o After 26 days of remediation 168 lbs of mostly mercury was deposited on both electrodes o Post-remediation average total Hg Concentration = 6 mg/kg; cleanup objective was 20 mg/kg

11 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 11 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt MONTLUÇON, FRANCE o 350 T of Sewage Treatment Plant Sludge Contaminated with Hg from Dental Amalgams o Pretreatment Hg Concentration = 15 mg\kg to 54 mg/kg; Cleanup Level =  5 mg/kg o Ex-Situ Treatment with 2.3 kW Power Input over 7 Days; Total Project Electrical Cost $0.10 \ kW-hr o Final Hg concentrations = 0.02 to 0.35 mg/kg, Significantly Below the Cleanup Level.

12 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 12 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt Y-12 PLANT, OAK RIDGE ECRTs Mercury Remediation Laboratory Test o Soil box: 90 cm x 50 cm x 45 cm with 150 L of saturated (fresh water) Y-12 contaminated clay loam o Plate electrodes: 80 cm x 32 cm o Initial Hg concentration: 252 mg/kg

13 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 13 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt Y-12 PLANT, OAK RIDGE o Typically ECRTs Can Not Be Tested in the Laboratory Due to the Electrical System Resistance o Y-12 Plant Soil Contains 12,000 mg\kg Iron Making It Highly Electrically Conductive Allowing the ECRTs-IC Phenomena to Occur o Evidence for the ECRTs-IC Phenomena Is Indicated by the Migration of Mercury to the Anode which Can Only Occur Through the Formation of Negative Hg Complexes l Hg concentration increase is >100% at anode l Hg concentration decrease is  60% at cathode ECRTs Laboratory Test

14 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 14 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt Y-12 PLANT, OAK RIDGE Sampling the Test Array o Sampling after 81, 450, and 741 hrs of operation at sites between anode and cathode electrodes o Sampling Locations at the Anode Face, Quarter Point, Mid-Point, Three Quarter Point, and Cathode Face Approximate Plate Electrode Positions

15 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 15 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt Y-12 PLANT, OAK RIDGE TEST DATA

16 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 16 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt Y-12 PLANT, OAK RIDGE TEST DATA

17 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 17 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt Y-12 PLANT, OAK RIDGE TEST DATA

18 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 18 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt Y-12 PLANT, OAK RIDGE o Hg Contaminated Soils Saturated with Fresh Water Were Successfully Treated to below the DOE Site Imposed TCLP Cleanup Level l Mercury species reported by DOE Site to be present include: T mercury chloride, mercury nitrate, mercury sulfide, elemental mercury, and methyl mercury T No detailed Hg speciation conducted during test reported herein o Laboratory Results Corroborate Fresh and Brackish Water Field Remediation Results LABORATORY TEST RESULTS

19 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 19 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt Y-12 PLANT, OAK RIDGE o Work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Technology Laboratory (NETL) in cooperation with DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Bechtel Jacobs, LLC, the DOE Oak Ridge environmental site contractor. o Work completed with assistance from TPG Applied Technology, ADA Technologies, Inc., and Hazen Research. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

20 © Weiss Associates, Reproduction or transmittal in any form or by any means, with prior written permission only. Page 20 K:\mrktng\presenta\technolo\direct current\ECRT\presentations\oral\NEWMOA_Hg\ECRT-IC Hg8.ppt FUNDED ECRTs PROJECTS o PCBs in Soils/Sediment at an Upland Site, New York o Hg, Phenols, PCBs and PAH in Marine Sediments, Puget Sound, Washington (USEPA SITE Program Project) o Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds in Soil and Ground Water, NAS Dallas, Texas o PAHs in Lake Superior Fresh Water Sediments, Minnesota


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