Presentation on theme: "Oil Spill Cleanup Initiative"— Presentation transcript:
1 Oil Spill Cleanup Initiative Safety and Health Awareness for Oil Spill Cleanup WorkersTrainers Notes:*These trainers notes may be too specific depending on the audience. Use your judgment and omit sections based on the intended audience.On April 20, 2010 an explosion of a Transocean drilling Rig, Deep Water Horizon, occurred in the US Gulf of Mexico. The Horizon was engaged in drilling activity on behalf of BP at Mississippi Canyon Block 252, about 52 miles southeast of Venice, La.Built in 2001, the Deepwater Horizon was 396 feet (121 m) long and 256 feet (78 m) wide and could accommodate up to 130 people. It was designed for operations in water depths of up to 8,000 feet (2,400 m). Maximum drill depth was 30,000 feet (9,100 m). The rig sank on April 22, 2010.The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration estimated that up to 5,000 barrels a day, or about 210,000 gallons, of oil has recently leaked into the Gulf of Mexico. On April 30, 2010, the oil began washing ashore near the mouth of the Mississippi River on the Louisiana coast. Louisiana is home to 40 percent of the United States' wetlands and the oil threatens some 400 species of animals with the possibility of being the worst environmental disaster to hit the U.S. in two decades.The Transocean Drilling Incidence Response Website contains the most recent information regarding the unified command's response effort. (http://www.deepwaterhorizonresponse.com/go/site/2931/)OSHA (6742)June 2010, v7OSHA
2 PrefaceOil spill cleanup workers can face potential hazards from oil byproducts, dispersants, detergents and degreasers. Drowning, heat illness and falls also pose hazards, as can encounters with insects, snakes and other wild species native to the impacted areas. In these situations, OSHA goals include ensuring that workers receive appropriate training and protective equipment. This training tool was developed by National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, as a health and safety resource for those who will participate in an oil spill response and cleanup. PLEASE NOTE: For information from OSHA on worker safety guidelines during oil spill cleanup, visit These web pages include information from federal and other sources intended to protect the health and safety of workers. Please check back often; we will continue to update the page with the most current information. Material contained in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially, without permission. Source credit is requested but not required. This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) ; teletypewriter (TTY) number:Trainers Notes:NIEHS Oil Spill and Cleanup Response PageOSHA Oil Spill Response Page2
3 Employer Responsibilities and Worker Rights Employers have responsibilities and workers have rights under the OSH Act.The Occupational Safety and Health Act requires that employers provide a safe and healthful workplace free of recognized hazards and follow OSHA standards. Employers must also provide training and required protective equipment.Workers must follow the employer’s safety and health rules that comply with OSHA standards and wear or use all required gear and equipment. Workers are encouraged to report hazardous conditions to a supervisor and report hazardous conditions to OSHA if employers do not fix them.Trainers Notes:Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) ActAn Act to assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women; by authorizing enforcement of the standards developed under the Act; by assisting and encouraging the States in their efforts to assure safe and healthful working conditions; by providing for research, information, education, and training in the field of occupational safety and health; and for other purposes.An “Act” is legislation that has passed both Houses of Congress and has been either approved by the President, or passed over his veto, thus becoming a law.
4 At the end of this awareness-level training you will be able to: Explain what an oil spill isUnderstand the characteristics of oil and the risks associated with oil spillsDescribe the characteristics of a spill responseDescribe how to identify and control hazards during the response and clean-up phases of an oil spillDescribe the role of a first responder awareness level individual in response to an oil spillTrainers Notes:
5 Advanced/Additional Training Required for Those Involved in an Oil Spill This training tool does NOT replace the additional duty specific training or PPE specific training requirements.Regardless of work scope, many topics covered in this awareness training tool have corresponding OSHA standards—such standards must be met in order to safely and legally perform associated job duties.Cleanup workers should always keep in mind that when in doubt about the safety of an activity, stop what you are doing and ask questions. Be sure you are safe before continuing.Contact the NIEHS National Clearinghouse for Worker Safety and Health Training for more informationTrainers Notes:OSHA standards that may apply include1910 Subpart D - Walking-Working Surfaces 1910 Subpart E - Means of Egress 1910 Subpart F - Powered Platforms, Manlifts, and Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms 1910 Subpart G - Occupational Health and Environmental Control 1910 Subpart H - Hazardous Materials 1910 Subpart I - Personal Protective Equipment 1910 Subpart J - General Environmental Controls 1910 Subpart K - Medical and First Aid 1910 Subpart L - Fire Protection 1910 Subpart M - Compressed Gas and Compressed Air Equipment 1910 Subpart N - Materials Handling 1910 Subpart O - Machinery and Machine Guarding 1910 Subpart P - Hand and Portable Powered Tools and Other Hand-Held Equipment 1910 Subpart Q - Welding, Cutting, and Brazing 1910 Subpart S - Electrical 1910 Subpart T - Commercial Diving Operations 1910 Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances
6 Be sure you are safe before continuing. When in doubt about the safety of an activity, stop what you are doing!Trainers Notes:Be sure you are safe before continuing.
7 Introduction to Oil Spill Cleanup MODULE 1Introduction to Oil Spill CleanupTrainers Notes:
8 National Contingency Plan The federal government's blueprint for responding to both oil spills and hazardous substance releases. The National Contingency Plan is the result of the country's efforts to develop a national response capability and promote overall coordination among the hierarchy of responders and contingency plans.Trainers Notes:The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency PlanOil Removals§ Establishes national priorities for responding to a release.§ Establishes the general pattern of response to be executed by the On-Scene Coordinator (OSC), including determination of threat, classification of the size and type of the release, notification of the RRT and the NRC, and supervision of thorough removal actions.§ Authorizes the OSC to determine whether a release poses a substantial threat to the public health or welfare of the United States based on several factors, including the size and character of the discharge and its proximity to human populations and sensitive environments. In such cases, the OSC is authorized to direct all federal, state, or private response and recovery actions. The OSC may enlist the support of other federal agencies or special teams.§ Provides special consideration to discharges which have been classified as a spill of national significance. In such cases, senior federal officials direct nationally-coordinated response efforts.§ Requires the OSC to notify the National Strike Force Coordination Center (NSFCC) in the event of a worst case discharges, defined as the largest foreseeable discharge in adverse weather conditions. The NSFCC coordinates the acquisition of needed response personnel and equipment. The OSC also must require implementation of the worst case portion of the tank vessel and Facility Response Plans and the Area Contingency Plan.§ Provides funding for responses to oil releases under the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, provided certain criteria are met. The responsible party is liable for federal removal costs and damages as detailed in section 1002 of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA). Federal agencies assisting in a response action may be reimbursed. Several other federal agencies may provide financial support for removal actions.Subpart J Establishes the NCP Product Schedule, which contains dispersants and other chemical or biological products that may be used in carrying out the NCP. Authorization for the use of these products is conducted by Regional Response Teams and Area Committees, or by the OSC in consultation with EPA representatives.
9 Unified Command FOSC: Federal On Scene Coordinator Trainers Notes:*Work with your supervisor and safety managerFOSC: Federal On Scene CoordinatorSOSC: State On Scene CoordinatorRPIC: Incident Commander for the responsible partySpan of control - 5 is the optimal number of people to have under one supervisorLife safety code is:Protect selfControl incidentProtect property and environmentFOSC: Federal On Scene CoordinatorSOSC: State On Scene CoordinatorRPIC: Incident Commander for the responsible party
10 Health and Safety Plans OSHA has regulations that require employers to have detailed Health and Safety Plans (HASP) to protect workers involved in cleanup operations.* The HASP serves as a guide for employers and workers to follow during their daily operations to prevent the spread of contamination, injury, and death.Review your employer’s HASP before you start work!*OSHA, 29 CFR (b)(4)(ii)Trainers Notes:OSHA, 29 CFR , HAZWOPERNavy and Marine Corps Public Health Center: Site-Specific Health and Safety Plan Review
11 HASP (continued)This document covers some HASP sections that may be used during an oil spill response. The site safety section includes general information from several of the HASP sections listed below. All HASPs must cover all of the following:Trainers Notes:OSHA Model HASP (for Anthrax cleanup)- Introduction- Key Personnel- Hazard Assessment- Training- PPE- Temperature Extremes- Medical Surveillance- Exposure Monitoring and Air Sampling- Site Control- Decontamination- Emergency Response/ Contingency Plan- Emergency Action Plan- Confined Space Entry- Spill Containment
12 OSHA's Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard (HAZWOPER) Activities related to stopping the oil spill or containing the spilled oil are considered "emergency response" activities under OSHA’s Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) standard, 29 CFR andIn addition, cleanup sites may be considered or may become hazardous waste sites and should follow the requirements for hazardous waste sites under HAZWOPER, requiring specific training and control measures, if certain criteria apply. Shoreline cleanup is considered “post-emergency clean-up operations.”Furthermore, if HAZWOPER conflicts or overlaps with any other OSHA standard, the provision more protective of employee safety and health must be followed.Trainers Notes:Training Marine Oil Spill Response Workers Under OSHA's Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standardhttps://www.osha.gov/Publications/3172/3172.htmlContents Introduction How Marine Oil Spill Responses Are Organized and Managed Applying the HAZWOPER Standard to Marine Oil Spills Hazards to Marine Oil Spill Responders Training Requirements Oil Spill Scenario Other Sources of OSHA Assistance Appendix A: Related OSHA Standards and Directives Appendix B: Related OSHA Publications Appendix C. OSHA Offices Directory Footnote Figures and Tables Figure 1. Training Decisions Flowchart for Emergency Response Workers Figure 2. Training Decisions Flowchart for Post-Emergency Response Cleanup Workers Figure 3. Sample Certifications Figure 4. Illustration of Incident Table 1. Hazardous Chemicals and Their Effects Table 2. Training for Workers Who Perform Emergency Response Table 3. Training for Workers Who Perform Only Post-Emergency Response Table 4. Training Topics and Competency Areas
13 HAZWOPER Requirements that Apply to Marine Oil Spills Marine oil spill cleanup is organized and managed according to the regulations found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) at 40 CFR 300.Response actions conducted under the NCP must comply with the provisions of HAZWOPER.See specifically the HAZWOPER provisions in paragraph (q) (Emergency response operations) and paragraph (q) (11) Post-emergency response cleanup operations.Trainers Notes:How Marine Oil Spill Responses Are Organized and Managed Marine oil spill response is organized and managed according to the regulations found in 40 CFR 300, the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). These regulations describe procedures for responding to hazardous substance releases and oil discharges. Appendix E of the regulation specifically addresses oil spill response. The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly led the development of the NCP.HAZWOPER Requirements that Apply to Marine Oil Spills The NCP defines oil as any kind of oil in any form, including petroleum, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse, and oil mixed with wastes but not dredged spoil (dirt or rock). Response actions conducted under the NCP must comply with the provisions of HAZWOPER. You'll find this requirement in 40 CFR Therefore, if your workers are participating in a response action under the NCP, you must have an occupational safety and health program consistent with HAZWOPER and you must train your workers according to HAZWOPER's training requirements. This applies whether the responsible party or a government agency is directing the cleanup. For marine oil spill emergency response, the HAZWOPER provisions that most directly apply include: Emergency response operations in HAZWOPER paragraph (q), andPost-emergency response cleanup operations in paragraph (q)(11).See also emergency response training provisions in paragraph (q)(6), and post-emergency response training requirements in paragraph (q)(11).Workers will also need to be trained in HAZWOPER paragraph (e) and comply with (b)- (o)
14 Proper Instruction for Cleanup Workers Personnel should be given:An initial briefing utilizing the Site Safety Plan or NIMS assignment form at the site prior to their participationA briefing on emergency procedures under the site-specific HASPInstruction in the wearing of appropriate personal protective equipmentInformation on what health hazards from oil and other chemicals might be encounteredExplanation of what duties are to be performedChain of commandInstruction on the decontamination procedures to be followedAll other appropriate safety and health precautionsTrainers Notes:The Application of HAZWOPER to Worksite Response and Cleanup ActivitiesEMERGENCY RESPONSE If OSHA considers a worksite response activity a "HAZWOPER Emergency Response," then employers with employees at the site performing emergency response must comply with HAZWOPER paragraph (q) and all other General Industry (1910) or Construction Industry (1926) standards. The term "emergency response has a very specific meaning and application under HAZWOPER. Employers often apply this term to any activity requiring immediate attention. However, under HAZWOPER this term applies specifically to response activities where there is an uncontrolled release of a hazardous substance, as defined by HAZWOPER in paragraph (a)(3), or where an uncontrolled release is likely.
15 Hazardous Materials and Hazard Communication Do not handle unmarked, unlabeled, or damaged containers—report these to your supervisor.Specific Hazard Communication training is required on the hazards from the oil and from any hazardous materials being used or use that you may come in contact with.Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) must be available for all hazardous materials. Review them and follow as appropriate.Warning labels, such as NFPA 704M may be found on chemical containers being used.Trainers Notes:Information regarding the NFPA 704M:OSHA Hazard Communications Rule:
16 Emergency in the FieldNotify your supervisor, safety officer or incident commander about all injuries and hazardous material exposures sustained at your site. Your Employer’s HASP will describe the emergency procedures to be followed.Ask what first aid support is available during your briefing; be sure you understand where it is located.For minor injuries or health concerns go to:First AidLocal hospitals or clinicsEMT or nurse stationFor serious emergencies call your direct supervisor or 911.Know your exact location.Keep injured worker in safe location until assistance arrives.Don’t move unless safety of worker is at risk.Use the buddy system to aid and help each other.Trainers Notes:OSHA Subpart D contains specific requirements for the provision of first aid, medical attention, and emergency facilities.Additional OSHA requirements:Names of employees to contact for further informationAlarm system in compliance with (e) (fire Alarms) or (Emergency Action Plans)Training of sufficient employees to assist in evacuation before program is implementedThe Plan must be reviewed whenever a change has taken place and upon initial assignmentIf the employer has 10 or fewer employees, the program can be communicated verbally
17 The FIRST Priority is to Protect Yourself Watch for lacerations, slips, falls, and trips, especially while working on oil-slick rocks.Be careful walking over and handling debris that is covered with water due to increased risk of slips, trips and falls.Remain current with tetanus vaccination.Get the Hepatitis B vaccine series if you will be performing direct patient care or otherwise expect to have contact with bodily fluids.Avoid contact with stagnant water.Trainers Notes:Check with the medical station at FEMA Base camp(s)Key items to haveInsect repellant with Deet or PicaridinWater life vestEarplugsBottled waterSun screenRain Gear29 CFR Part 1926 Subpart EPersonal Protective and Life Saving Equipment ( to )See Personal Protective Equipment Fact Sheet, also in Spanish, at --See Publications:-- OSHA 3077, Personal Protective Equipment-- OSHA 3151, Assessing the Need for Personal Protective Equipment: A Guide for Small Business Employers
18 Protect Yourself (continued) Be sure to use the decontamination procedures set by your employer before eating or drinking, using the toilet during the workday, and do a full decontamination, including a shower if available, at the end of shift.Wash and sanitize immediately if exposed to toxic substances.Rubber type steel toe/shank footwear will protect your feet from injury and from oil exposure.Wear oil resistant gloves when in contact with oil and oil waste and outer durable gloves when handling debris.Use hearing protection in noisy environments.Know your medicines, allergies, and blood type.If in doubt, contact your supervisor!Do not stand or come in contact with unknown liquids or substances.Trainers Notes:(c)(5) Personal protective equipment. Personal protective equipment (PPE) shall be provided and used during initial site entry in accordance with the following requirements: (c)(5)(i) Based upon the results of the preliminary site evaluation, an ensemble of PPE shall be selected and used during initial site entry which will provide protection to a level of exposure below permissible exposure limits and published exposure levels for known or suspected hazardous substances and health hazards and which will provide protection against other known and suspected hazards identified during the preliminary site evaluation. If there is no permissible exposure limit or published exposure level, the employer may use other published studies and information as a guide to appropriate personal protective equipment.Once the hazards of the site have been identified, the appropriate PPE shall be selected and used in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section.
19 Physical Environment Atchafalaya Basin Scene The land and near shore: Mostly flat, some gradual sloping, coastal, some areas at or below sea level.Water-saturated coastal and swamp regions with marshes.Eastern LA shoreline created by silt deposits from the Mississippi River.The Climate (May – November):High HumidityHigh TemperaturesUV exposure – sunburns can be seriousPotential for storms and lightningHigh and Low TidesTrainers Notes:The wetlands of Louisiana are water-saturated coastal and swamp regions of southern Louisiana. The Environmental Protection Agency defines wetlands as "an area that is regularly saturated by surface water or groundwater and is characterized by a prevalence of vegetation that is adapted for life in saturated soil conditions (e.g. swamps, bogs, fens, marshes, and estuaries." Although these areas make up a very small percentage of the total land found in the United States, Southern Louisiana contains % of the wetlands found in the lower 48 states. This is because Louisiana is the drainage basin to the Gulf of Mexico for the Lower Mississippi River Delta, which drains more than 24 million acres (97,000 km²) in seven states from southern Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico. The eastern coastline of Louisiana is much more susceptible to erosion than the western coastline because much of the eastern coastline was created by silt deposits from the Mississippi River. The western coastline is marshy, but the marshes only extend inland by 30 miles at the most, then the elevation begins to increase and the marshes fade into upland prairies.Atchafalaya Basin Scene
21 The Hazards of Heat Exposure Heat rash - most commonKeep skin dry, use powders, not creams or ointmentsHeat injury is caused when the body’s ability to deal with heat is overwhelmed. Ranges in severity but is common, serious, can be deadly. It can be prevented. Three main phases of heat injury are:Heat StressHeat ExhaustionHeat Stroke
22 Factors Increasing the Hazard High temperature and humidityDirect sun exposure (with no shade) or extreme heatLimited air movement (no breeze or wind)Physical exertion (generates heat)Wearing protective clothing and equipment
23 Recognizing Heat Injury Heat Stress: feeling very hot, sweating, may be thirsty, headaches.Heat Exhaustion: moist skin and sweating profusely; headaches, weakness, nausea, thirst, muscle cramps, feeling faint and dizzy.Heat Stroke - a killer!: dizziness, confusion, hallucinations, or coma; flushed; hot and dry skin is always heat stroke, but skin may be moist from previous sweating and some people continue to sweat even with heat stroke: you don’t need to be dry to die!
24 Respond Rapidly to All Heat Injury Always move the worker to a cooler area, remove outer clothing, seek medical care.If the person is alert, offer sips of cool water.If the person is not alert, suspect heat stroke and call 911 (or other emergency number) immediately. While waiting for help, fan the person and cool as rapidly as possible by pouring on ice and water.
25 Preventing Heat Injury Know signs/symptoms of heat illnesses; monitor yourself; watch out for your co-workers.Wear a hat to block out direct sun.Use cooling fans/air-conditioning for rest breaks and rest regularly in shaded areas.Wear lightweight, light colored, loose-fitting clothes.Protective clothing that actively cools the body may be required in some circumstances.
26 Work and Rest Cycles Your employer must set work and rest cycles. Work itself generates heat.Beach cleanup workers are currently working 20 minutes and resting for 40 minutes.When possible, work during the cooler parts of the day and rest mid-day.
27 Adjust to the HeatIf you are new to hot environments, begin work gradually.Start at about half of what you would usually do.Gradually increase how long you work and how hard you work over the first five workdays.If you are away from the heat for more than a week, start over.You will still need rest breaks every hour in hot weather, even when you are fully adjusted.
28 Fluid IntakeDrink plenty of cool water – drink before you are thirsty. Sports drinks are ok, but not necessary.Drink small amounts often – a 6-ounce cup every 20 minutes, more depending on work load and heat.BUT - don’t drink more than a quart (32 ounces) in an hour (you can also get sick from too much water). In general, don’t drink more than 12 quarts a day.Eat a normal diet. Frequent small meals are best. Sports drinks contain salts (which you lose as you sweat), so if you’re not able to eat regularly, they are a good alternative.Avoid alcohol or caffeinated drinks.
29 Take Extra Care if You have Any Additional Risk Factors: Diabetes, heart disease, obesity, pregnancy, any acute viral illness.Lack of recent exposure to heat.Some medications (including antihistamines, diuretics, some other medications – ask your health care provider or pharmacist).Fatigue.Avoid drugs, especially cocaine and amphetamines.
30 Urine Output ColorThe color of your urine can help you tell if you are drinking enough water.Body has plenty of fluids.ClearBody has adequate fluids.Light yellowBody is low on water.Drink more now!Darkyellow
31 Oil Spill Cleanup and Health Concerns MODULE 3Oil Spill Cleanup and Health Concerns
32 What is an Oil Spill?An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The April 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill involves crude oil released from the explosion of an off-shore drilling rig.During an oil spill cleanup, workers may encounter many types of crude oil, including fresh and weathered, which contain carcinogenic volatile aromatic compounds like benzene, toluene and naphthalene.Trainers Notes:EPA Response to BP Spill in the Gulf of MexicoOil Spill2010 Gulf Coast Oil Spill
33 What is Crude Oil?Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons and consists of light, medium and heavy chemicals.The hydrocarbons in crude oil are mostly alkanes, cycloalkanes and various aromatic hydrocarbons while the other organic compounds contain nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, and trace amounts of metals such as iron, nickel, copper and vanadium. The exact molecular composition varies widely.The light parts, such as benzene, xylene, toluene and ethyl benzene generally evaporate into the air in the first 24 hours of a spill (usually before reaching the shore).The medium and heavy parts (consistency much like motor oil) is what cleanup operations on the land and near shore areas focus on.Trainers Notes:Be cautious during cleanup operations. If you are unsure, ask your supervisor before proceeding!
34 What is in the Crude Oil from this Spill? You will be dealing with highly weathered oil and other environmental conditions.The crude oil changes over time as the volatile part evaporates and the oil weathers and rots (degrades) and mixes with sea water, seaweed and other vegetation and debris.Weathering of oil occurs rapidly at first and slows down over time as light and medium hydrocarbon chains are evaporated or dissolved away by sunlight, waves, and winds.Inside of storage containers and bags, oily waste will degrade over time, especially in high temps and give off foul smelling and possibly toxic gases and vapors.Trainers Notes:
35 Occupational Exposure Limits (OEL) Cleanup workers typically work > 8 hours/day for 7-14 days in a row.NOTE: Workers should be informed that OELs based on standard times are not appropriate for monitoring.NOTE: OELs don’t include skin contact, absorption and ingestion which are common in cleanups.Check with your site supervisor for additional guidance!Trainers Notes:Petroleum Hydrocarbons (PetH) General Facts and InformationThis fact sheet answers some of the more common health questions about PetH (Petroleum Hydrocarbons), with special emphasis on natural crude oil.
36 Crude Oil Complex mixture of carcinogenic substances. Includes hydrocarbon compounds (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, polynuclear aromatic compounds) and hydrocarbon compounds (sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, oxygen compounds, traces of organo-metallic compounds).Health hazards generally associated with crude oils:Inhalation of the toxic volatile hydrocarbon components, such as benzene, and dermatitis from repeated or prolonged skin contact can cause dermatitis or skin cancer.Trainers Notes:
37 Weathered Crude OilWeathered crude or "mousse" is crude petroleum that has lost much of its more volatile components and has mixed with sea water and organic matter.Weathering is a series of chemical and physical changes that cause spilled oil to break down and become heavier than water. Winds, waves, and currents may result in natural dispersion, breaking a slick into droplets which are then distributed throughout the water. These droplets may also result in the creation of a secondary slick or thin film on the surface of the water.Trainers Notes:NOAA’s Office of Response and Restoration Emergency Response DivisionCrude blends vary tremendously in their chemical composition, depending on the geographical location of their origin and the particular compounds mixed with the petroleum products. Surfactants, often added to aid transport, will affect physical properties when spilled. Hydrocarbons are by far the most abundant compounds in crude oils, accounting for 50-98% volume. All crude blends contain lighter “fractions” (similar to gasoline) of hydrocarbons as well as heavier tars and wax-like hydrocarbons.
38 Health Risks of Weathered Crude Oil Potential dermatitis hazard from skin contact.Inhaling oil droplets/ oily particles put into the air during cleanup operations can be irritating to eyes, nose, throat and lungs.Evaporation that occurs during the first 24 to 48 hours after the spill may reduce inhalation hazards from the toxic volatile components, such as benzene. (CDC)NOTE: Even if air sampling shows no detectable levels or very low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), there still may be health effects.Trainers Notes:The viscosity of the oil-in-water mixture increases rapidly and the color usually turns from a dark brown/black to lighter browns and rust colors. As the water content of the emulsion increases, weathering processes (e.g., dissolution and evaporation) slow down.• The “sticky” mousse behaves differently from a fluid and may react to additional weathering forces by forming a surface skin, creating a non-homogenous material with a crust of slightly more weathered mousse surrounding a less weathered core.• As the mousse is subject to increased mixing from energetic wave action, the crusts can be torn or ruptured and the less weathered mousse released. The continued exposure of weathered mousse to wave action continues to stretch and tear patches of mousse into smaller bits, resulting in a field of streaks, streamers, small patches and eventually small tarballs.• Oxidation occurs when oil contacts the water and oxygen combines with the oil to produce water-soluble compounds. This process affects oil slicks mostly around their edges. Thick slicks may only partially oxidize, forming tar balls. These dense, sticky, black spheres may linger in the environment, and can collect in the sediments of slow moving streams or lakes or wash up on shorelines long after a spill.• Biodegradation occurs when micro-organisms such as bacteria feed on oil. A wide range of micro-organisms is required for a significant reduction of the oil. To sustain biodegradation, nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are sometimes added to the water to encourage the micro-organisms to grow and reproduce. Biodegradation tends to work best in warm water environments.• Emulsification is a process that forms emulsions consisting of a mixture of small droplets of oil and water. Emulsions are formed by wave action, and greatly hamper weathering and cleanup processes. Two types of emulsions exist: water-in-oil and oil-in-water. Water-in-oil emulsions are frequently called "chocolate mousse," and they are formed when strong currents or wave action causes water to become trapped inside viscous oil. Chocolate mousse emulsions may linger in the environment for months or even years. Oil and water emulsions cause oil to sink and disappear from the surface, which give the false impression that it is gone and the threat to the environment has ended.
39 Weathered Crude Oil Trainers Notes: The oil-in-water emulsion is very sticky and makes cleanup and removal more difficult. When stranded on the shoreline, the degree of adhesion varies depending on the substrate type, e.g., this mousse will not penetrate far in finer sediments.
40 TarballsWeathering processes eventually create a tarball that is hard and crusty on the outside and soft and gooey on the inside. Turbulence in the water or beach activity from people or animals may break open tarballs, exposing their softer, more fluid centers.Trainers Notes:More information on tarballs can be found at
41 Health Risks of Tarballs The most common reaction to the chemicals in tarballs is an allergic reaction or developing rashes. This can happen even from brief contact with oil.In general, contact with oil should be avoided. If contact occurs, wash the area with soap and water, baby oil, or a widely used, safe cleaning compound such as the cleaning paste sold at auto parts stores.Little is known about longer term exposure to tarballs. Use PPE when you come into contact with tarballs.Trainers Notes:NOAA fact sheet at
42 Patchy Coverage of Tarballs on South Padre Island Beach 2009 Trainers Notes:
43 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Gas with a distinctive reddish-brown color. Health Risks of Nitrogen DioxideRespiratory irritant and is capable of causing pulmonary edema.A concentration of 50 ppm is moderately irritating to the eyes and nose and may cause pulmonary edema and possibly subacute or chronic lesions in the lungs.Odor of NO2 is first perceptible to most people in the range of 0.11 to 0.22 ppm.May be a hazard during burning operations!Trainers Notes:OtherLimoneneone of a general class of chemicals known as terpenes (cyclic olefins).highly fragrant smell of fruits and flowersHealth Risks of Limonenelow acute toxicity, both orally and dermallyodor is detectable in water at a concentration of 10 parts per billion.There are no occupational exposure criteria for limonene.
44 Occupational Exposure Limits for NO2 The NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit for NO2 is 1 ppm for a 15 minute period, the same as the OSHA ceiling limit for this compound. There is no full shift TWA exposure criteria set by either NIOSH or OSHA for this compound. The ACGIH TLV for NO2 is 3 ppm for an 8-hour TWA, with a STEL of 5 ppm for 15 minutes.NOTE: Workers should be informed that OELs based on standard times are not appropriate for monitoring.NOTE: OELs do not include skin contact, absorption and ingestion which are common in cleanups.Check with your site supervisor for additional guidance!Trainers Notes:
45 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) SO2 Plume SO2 is released when burning crude oil and during degradationHealth RisksShort-term exposures to SO2, ranging from 5 minutes to 24 hours, can cause adverse respiratory effects including bronchoconstriction and increased asthma symptoms.When reacting with other compounds in the atmosphere to form small particles, they can penetrate deeply into sensitive parts of the lungs and can cause or worsen respiratory disease, such as emphysema and bronchitis, and can aggravate existing heart disease, leading to increased hospital admissions and premature death. EPA set a 24-hour primary standard at 140 ppb and an annual average standard at 30 ppb, and set a 3-hour average secondary standard at 500 ppb.Sulfur dioxide emissions are also a precursor to acid rain and atmospheric particulates.SO2 PlumeTrainers Notes:OSHA Sulfur Dioxide Chemical Sampling InformationNIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical HazardsInternational Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO)National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 2 ppm, 5 mg/m3 TWA; 5 ppm, 13 mg/m3 STEL
46 Gasoline and Diesel Fuels Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture which is primarily used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. Diesel fuel is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines. These and other fuels will be used on the cleanup and can add to worker hazards.Many of the non-aliphatic hydrocarbons naturally present in gasoline and diesel fuels are carcinogenic. Brief inhalation of these and similar substances can also produce many of the effects of alcohol intoxication and, sometimes, a hallucinogen-like "trip."Diesel combustion exhaust contains hazardous gases and particles which can be harmful if inhaled.Trainers Notes:
47 Diesel Combustion Exhaust The largest components of most combustion gases is nitrogen (N2), water vapor (H2O), and carbon dioxide(CO2).Relatively small components of it are noxious or toxic substances, such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx), Ozone(O3), partly unburnt fuel, and particulate matter.Workers may be exposed to diesel combustion exhaust from working near diesel powered generators.Trainers Notes:Health and Safety Executive (UK)WHAT ARE DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST EMISSIONS? Diesel engine exhaust emissions (commonly known as 'diesel fumes') are a mixture of gases, vapours, liquid aerosols and substances made up of particles. They contain the products of combustion including:carbon (soot);nitrogen;water;carbon monoxide;aldehydes;nitrogen dioxide;sulphur dioxide;polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
48 Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Carbon dioxide is colorless. At low concentrations, the gas is odorless. At higher concentrations it has a sharp, acidic odor.CO2 is an asphyxiant and an irritant. When inhaled it can produce a sour taste in the mouth and a stinging sensation in the nose and throat.Amounts above 5,000 ppm are considered very unhealthy, and those above about 50,000 ppm (equal to 5% by volume) are considered dangerous.Trainers Notes:OSHA Chemical Sampling Information Carbon DioxideExposure Limits OSHA GENERAL INDUSTRY PEL: 5000 ppm; 9000 mg/m3 OSHA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY PEL: 5000 ppm, 9000 mg/m3 TWA ACGIH TLV: 5000 ppm, 9000 mg/m3 TWA; 30,000 ppm, 54,000 mg/m3 STEL NIOSH REL: 5000 ppm TWA; 30,000 ppm STEL
49 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Exposure Carbon Monoxide has no warning properties; it is a colorless odorless gasCO may be present with:Any activity using gasoline, diesel or propane-powered machineryWork near operating equipmentDebris reduction sitesWork near hot work (cutting, welding) especially in confined spacesTo control CO exposures:Wear CO monitoring equipmentDo not use gas/diesel powered equipment indoors or in enclosed areasUse forced air ventilationTrainer Notes:Symptoms: Headache, dizziness, drowsiness, or nausea progressing to vomiting, loss of consciousness. Prolonged or highexposure can lead to coma or death.General Recommendations:Use CO warning sensors when using or working around combustion sources.Shut off engine immediately if symptoms of exposure appear.Warning! Do not use gasoline generators or portable fuel driven tools in confined spaces or poorly ventilated areas.Warning! Do not work in areas near exhaust (CO poisoning occurs even outdoors if engines generate high concentrations of CO and worker is in the area of the exhaust gases). With symptoms of exposure, shut off the engine.OSHA (c)If using a fuel powered tool in an enclosed area such as a trench, be aware that carbon monoxide generated can displace or deplete oxygen. Mechanical ventilation and testing needs to be done.Note: CO poisoning can occur in small spaces, such as a crawl space or large areas, such as a big parking garage.For more information on CO, go toSymptoms: Headache, dizziness, drowsiness, or nauseaprogressing to vomiting, loss of consciousness. Prolonged or high exposure can lead to coma or death. If you experience any of these symptoms where CO may be present - LEAVE AREA IMMEDIATELY.
50 What Happens When the Oil Reaches Shore? Oil exposure to the shoreline depends on wave energy and tides, substrate type, and slope of the shoreline.Shoreline type is classified by rank depending on how easy the oil would be to clean up, how long the oil would persist, and how sensitive the shoreline is.Oil may persist longer than expected based on microclimates. Some of the weathered crude may develop a thin “skin” which when disturbed during cleanup, releases fresher oil.Oil may not weather into a semisolid tar because of the water emulsification and organic matter, vegetation mixed into the mousse.Trainers Notes:
52 Environmental DamageWorkers should expect to encounter dead and bloated animal carcasses, struggling and dying wildlife, and crude oil impacts to the shoreline.The various element groups affected are: Birds, Reptiles and Amphibians, Fish, Invertebrates, Habitats and Plants, Wetlands, and Marine Mammals and Terrestrial Mammals.Thousands of animals die immediately from being inundated with the oil.Higher death rates follow in subsequent years, partially because animals ingest prey from contaminated soil and from ingestion of oil residues on hair due to grooming.Trainers Notes:Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are used to identify sensitive shoreline resources prior to an oil spill event in order to set priorities for protection and plan cleanup strategies. (NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration).ESI follow three categories:Shoreline typeBiologicalHuman-use resources
53 Habitat Affected Birds The oil penetrates up the structure of the plumage of birds, reducing insulating ability.Birds typically ingest oil that covers their feathers as they attempt to preen, causing kidney damage, and altered liver function.RocksOil that washes up on the shoreline typically collects on rocks. Oil slick rocks cause increased slip, trip and fall hazards to emergency responders and cleanup workers.Trainers Notes:
54 Equipment Used Containment Boom A flexible, fence-type, water-borne pollutant containment barrier that floats on the water.Used to contain oil slicks and lift the oil off the water.Boom is reusable and must be decontaminated after use.It is very heavy to carry and difficult to work with.Trainers Notes:PROCEDURES FOR REPORTING TESTS OF OIL SPILL CONTAINMENT BOOMS AND SKIMMERS
55 Containment BoomTrainers Notes:Photo courtesy of FEMA
56 Oil Skimmer Machine that separates oil floating on water. Three common types:Weir skimmers function by allowing the oil floating on the surface of the water to flow over a weir. The height of the weir may be adjustable.Drum skimmers function by using a rotating element such as a drum, to which the oil adheres. The oil is wiped from the surface of the drum and collected.Oleophilic skimmers use ropes, discs, or drums that are treated with a substance or otherwise manufactured to adhere to oil.Trainers Notes:Training Marine Oil Spill Response Workers under OSHA's Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response StandardBP Gulf of Mexico Response
57 Texas General Land Office Deploying DESMI Terminator Skimmer* Trainers Notes:Picture is of a DESMI Terminator skimmer, a type of high efficiency weir oil skimmerAccording to the US Coast Guard: The Terminator is a high efficiency weir skimmer that will recover all types of oil, from diesel and light grade of oil to the most heavy weathered crude and emulsions. The desmi is a positive displacement screw pump installed in the skimmer can pump water and high viscosity oil at the same high capacity and will not emulsify the two during pumping, making separation and decanting possible. The skimmer pump is fitted with cutting knives to process debris, including vegetation, seaweed, kelp, garbage, plastics, synthetic and natural fiber line, aluminum cans, bottles, drift wood, dead fish, birds, and small mammals. The pump will pass solids up to 2.0 inches in diameter. If the pump is clogged by debris, the operator can reverse the pump to expel the blockage using the Spilled Oil Recovery System (SORS) control stand.* DESMI terminator skimmer is a type of weir skimmer.
58 Other Equipment Vacuums remove oil from beaches and water surface Shovels used to clean up oil on beachesOil Absorbent socks, pompoms, and other equipment are also used alongside boom and are not reused.Trainers Notes:
59 Methods of Cleanup Bioremediation, including use of dispersants Controlled burningShovelingHigh-pressure hot waterTrainers Notes:
60 BioremediationUse of microorganisms or biological agents to break down or remove oil.Bioremediation AcceleratorChemically and physically bonds to both soluble and insoluble hydrocarbons.Acts as a herding agent in water and on the surface, floating molecules to the surface of the water, including solubles such as phenols and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), forming gel-like agglomerations.These are usually chemical products with hazardous properties. Workers need additional training in their safe use and perhaps additional PPE. Check with your site supervisor for MSDSs.Trainers Notes:BioremediationBTEX is an acronym that stands for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. These compounds are some of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in petroleum derivatives such as petrol (gasoline). Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes have harmful effects on the central nervous system.BTEX compounds are notorious due to the contamination of soil and groundwater with these compounds. This typically occurs near petroleum and natural gas production sites, and petrol stations and other areas with Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) or Above-ground Storage Tanks (ASTs) containing gasoline or other petroleum-related products.
61 Chemical DispersantsChemical dispersants such as COREXIT (Nalco) EC9500A and EC9527A may be used for beach cleanup operations.Aerial and boat spraying are the most common delivery systems.Aerial Spraying - Aircraft provide the most rapid method of applying dispersants to an oil spill. For aerial spraying, the dispersant is applied undiluted. Careful selection of spray nozzles is critical to achieve desired dose levels, since droplet size must be controlled.Boat Spraying – Dispersant may also be applied by workboats equipped with spray booms mounted ahead of the bow wake. The preferred and most effective method of application from a workboat is to use a low-volume, low-pressure pump so the chemical can be applied undiluted.Trainers Notes:LA Oil Spill - so far 9500, 9527, and 9583 have been used for hand spray beach cleanup operationsCOREXIT® EC9500A (formerly COREXIT 9500)TECHNICAL PRODUCT BULLETIN #D-4 USEPA, OIL PROGRAM CENTERCOREXIT® EC9527A (formerly COREXIT 9527)TECHNICAL PRODUCT BULLETIN #D-1 USEPA, OIL PROGRAM CENTER
62 COREXIT (Nalco) EC9500A, EC9527A Exposure:Avoid eye contact. In case of eye contact, immediately flush eyes with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes.In case of skin contact, immediately flush with large amounts of water, and soap if available. Remove contaminated clothing, including shoes, after flushing has begun. If irritation persists, seek medical attention.Avoid prolonged breathing of vapors. Use with ventilation equal to unobstructed outdoors in moderate breeze.Trainers Notes:Skin ContactAvoid eye contact. In case of eye contact, immediately flush eyes with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Get prompt medical attention. Avoid contact with skin and clothing. In case of skin contact, immediately flush with large amounts of water, and soap if available. Remove contaminated clothing, including shoes, after flushing has begun. If irritation persists, seek medical attention. For open systems where contact is likely, wear long sleeve shirt, chemical resistant gloves, and chemical protective goggles.Avoid prolonged breathing of vapors. Use with ventilation equal to unobstructed outdoors in moderate breeze.
63 COREXIT (Nalco) 9500COREXIT (Nalco) 9500 contains between 10-30% of petroleum distillates (solvent).Petroleum Distillates Exposure:Upon skin contact, petroleum distillates can produce local skin irritation and sensitivity to light in some individuals.When swallowed, the lighter, more volatile distillate products can be sucked into the lungs interfering with the lung's functions and may result in chemical pneumonia. Aspiration of fluid into the lungs can occur both during swallowing and vomiting of the product.Trainers Notes:PetroleumAliphatics and aromatics pose a special health risk if ingested and vomited. When swallowed, the lighter, more volatile distillate products can be sucked into the lungs interfering with the lung's functions and chemical pneumonia may result. Aspiration of fluid into the lungs can occur both during swallowing and vomiting of the product. Upon skin contact, petroleum distillates can produce local skin irritation and sensitivity to light in some individuals. Environmentally, many of the petroleum distillate products add to smog and water pollution due to improper disposal or during their manufacture and use.Aromatic hydrocarbons are the most toxic compounds found in petroleum products. Most aromatic hydrocarbons are long-term toxins and known cancer causing agents. These aromatic compounds are found in all crude oils and most petroleum products. Many aromatic hydrocarbons have a pleasant odor and include such substances as naphthalene, xylene, toluene, and benzene. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are flammable and may be explosively flammable. Aliphatic hydrocarbons include methane, propane, and kerosene.Products which contain petroleum distillates should be used carefully. Wear gloves to avoid skin contact and avoid breathing vapors of volatile compounds.
64 COREXIT (Nalco) EC9527ACOREXIT EC9527A contains between 30-60% of 2-butoxyethanol (solvent).2-butoxyethanol is a clear, colorless liquid that smells somewhat like ether. 2-Butoxyethanol can be inhaled in your lungs or ingested through your stomach and intestines when you eat food or drink water that contains the chemical. Exposure Limits:Effects – exposure of 100 ppm or more of 2-butoxyethanol vapors in air for 4 or 8 hours has caused irritation of the nose and eyes, headache, a metallic taste, or vomiting. 2-Butoxyethanol (from 2-butoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol acetate exposure) can be measured in blood and urine. Trainers Notes:Toxicological Profile for 2-Butoxyethanol and 2-Butoxyethanol AcetateHealth EffectsCDC Oil Spill ResponseReducing Occupational Exposures while Working with Dispersants During the Gulf Oil Spill ResponseOSHA requires employers of workers who are occupationally exposed to 2-butoxyethanol to institute engineering controls and work practices to reduce and maintain employee exposure at or below the permissible exposure limit (PEL). The PEL for 2-butoxyethanol is 50 ppm. This regulation means that the workroom air should not contain no more than an average of 50 ppm of 2-butoxyethanol over an 8-hour working shift of a 40-hour work week. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended an average concentration limit value of 25 ppm for occupational exposure (8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek) to 2-butoxyethanol. The recommended exposure limit (REL) for occupational exposure by NIOSH is 5 ppm for both 2-butoxyethanol and 2-butoxyethanol acetate. Both products contain 10-30% sulfonic acid salt (detergent) and 1-5% propylene glycol, which are regarded as non-hazardous substances.
65 Controlled Burning Burns the oil off of the water. Can effectively reduce the amount of oil in water.Can only be done in low wind.Can cause air pollution and respiratory ailments.A controlled burn to clear marsh grasses can also be used BEFORE the oil reaches the shore.Trainers Notes:Coast Guard NewsControlled burn of Deepwater Horizon oil spill
67 Shoveling Removal of contaminated material Use buddy system – one worker holds a disposable bag and the other shovels.Sand is removed and taken to a facility for processing to remove the crude oil.Can be done on sandy beaches or saltwater marshes.Trainers Notes:
68 High-pressure Hot Water Process of spraying oil-stricken beaches with hot water.Initial step is to spray the rockyshore with high pressure jets of water from hoses.After the oil is sprayed off the surface of the rocks on the beach, the oil drains into areas that have booms in place.Not used to date in Gulf Coast cleanupTrainers Notes:Picture of oil spill cleanup workers using high-pressure, hot-water washing to clean an oiled shoreline.
69 High-pressure Hot Water (continued) Occupational HazardsThe spray uses hot water at temperatures near 180 degrees Fahrenheit or 60 degrees Celsius from a type of wand nozzle which can cause first and second degree burns.High-pressure water typically is released at 690 kPa and flows at a rate around 1,890 liters per minute. High-pressure water contact can cause skin swelling and small abrasions. Longer term exposure can cause extremely painful, swollen and pale skin because of vascular compromise and tissue necrosi.May cause inhalation of weathered oil!Trainers Notes:
70 High-pressure Hot Water (continued) Environmental HazardsAreas that were cleaned with this technique need to be repeatedly cleaned, because the oil remains after each cleaning.May push the oil deeper into the soil and rock along the beach.Microbial populations on the shoreline may become displaced and destroyed. Many of these organisms (e.g. plankton) are the basis of the coastal marine food chain, and others (e.g. certain bacteria and fungi) are capable of facilitating the biodegradation of oil.Additional training and safety precautions must be provided if you are working on this type of operation.Trainers Notes:
71 How Do Chemicals Enter Your Body? Skin contact/ absorptionInhalationIngestionInjectionTrainers Notes:
72 Contact/AbsorptionSome chemicals can cause irritation or rashes (dermatitis) if they touch your skin.For certain chemicals, once they touch the skin, they are absorbed and go into the bloodstream, sometimes without causing any visible damage to your skin (e.g., a rash).If chemicals get inside of your body they may be able to pass through to your bloodstream and be carried to other organs and parts of your body.Some areas are more at risk than others (e.g., eye, groin, wrists, forehead). Proper PPE use prevents this.Open wounds can increase absorption.Trainers Notes:NY Department of Labor Toxic Substances in the WorkplaceAbsorption Absorption involves hazardous chemicals that are absorbed through direct contact with the skin or eyes. These chemicals can include particulates (dust, smoke), liquids, gases and vapors. Prevention Absorption through the skin and eyes can be prevented with the use of appropriately selected gowns, gloves, work clothing, personal protective equipment that covers the eyes, such as full face masks, safety glasses with side shields, and face shields, appropriate for the specific contaminants. In some instances a hazard suit with full head mask is appropriate.
73 InhalationWhen airborne chemicals enter your lungs, they can be absorbed into your bloodstream.Airborne chemicals are breathed in through the mouth or nose.Gases and vapors can reach the deep lungs.Particle and droplet size affects where the chemical settles in the respiratory tract.Where the chemical settles in the respiratory tract influences symptoms and diseases.Trainers Notes:NY Department of Labor Hazard Communication
74 IngestionChemical is swallowed through your mouth and is absorbed through the digestive tract.To minimize the ingestion route, good hygiene practices need to be observed. Follow your employer’s decontamination procedures in the HASP, which should include a way to wash before eating, drinking, using toilet (NOTE: This can be difficult in very remote locations).Oil can rub off dirty hands and contaminate food, drinks or tobacco products.Chemicals in the air can settle on food or drink and be swallowed.Swallowed chemicals are absorbed in the digestive tract.Chemicals can be caught in mucus and swallowed.Trainers Notes:NY Department of Labor Hazard CommunicationIngestion Ingestion involves hazardous chemicals that enter the body through the mouth. These include chemical dusts, particles and mists that are inhaled through the mouth and swallowed or which have contaminated objects, such as hands, food and cigarettes, that come in contact with the mouth. Prevention Good hygiene practices are important in preventing products from being ingested. In areas where harmful chemicals are handled, eating and smoking should not be allowed. In this situation careful and thorough hand and face washing is required before eating and at the end of every shift. Inhaled toxic dusts can also be ingested in amounts that may cause trouble. In these situations, appropriate barriers, such as dust masks, are necessary.
75 InjectionThe chemical enters the body through a sharp object like a needle.Injection may occur when a worker is cut or their skin is punctured by a sharp, contaminated object such as metal, glass or a needle.Cleanup workers may encounter random debris (including medical waste) and come into contact with products containing asbestos debris, PCB and pesticide containers.Disaster response and cleanup frequently requires handling of debris containing sharp objects.When handling sharp objects and debris that may be contaminated, wear a protective, durable work glove over your chemical protective glove.Trainers Notes:Toxic Substances in the WorkplaceInjection Injection may occur through the misuse of syringe needles or through accidents with broken glass or other sharp objects that have been contaminated with chemicals. Injections can also occur through high pressure streams of liquids or gases.Injection is not a common route of entry.Prevention Cautious use of any sharp object is important. Know proper storage, handling and disposal procedures when using syringe needles, glassware or other potentially sharp objects. Wearing gloves and other protective clothing may also reduce the possibility of injection.
76 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Protection Depending upon your work site’s PPE program and assigned job task, any of the following PPE may be required:Level D modified clothing is the most common - Protective pants, boots, disposable gloves, life jackets and duct tape. Protective pants are typically tied off at the waist. Boots are duct taped to pants in order to form a seal.Disposable gloves need to be replaced as they will fill up with water/sweat.NOTE: More conventional hazmat gear will likely not be used. Rarely, respirators ranging from an N-95 to a Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) will be used.Trainers Notes:Level D modified clothing is the most common - Protective pants, boots, disposable gloves, life jackets and duct tape. Protective pants are typically tied off at the waist. Boots are duct taped to pants in order to form a seal.higher levels of liquid resistance can be obtain with disposable garments made of light weight Tychem®-like materials with taped seams
77 Working Near the WaterThere is a potential for drowning when working in this environment. Make sure life jackets or personal flotation devices (PFDs) are available and used when working in/near the water.NOTE: Make sure the site safety plan addresses these issues.Trainers Notes:Personal flotation deviceA personal flotation device (abbreviated as PFD; also referred to as, lifejacket, life preserver, Mae West, life vest, life saver, cork jacket, life belt, flotation suit, etc.) is a device designed to assist a wearer, either conscious or unconscious, to keep afloat with his or her mouth and nose (airway) of his or her head's face above the water surface when in or on water.
78 PPE Protection for Shoreline Cleanup Operations Four and ½ levels of PPELevel ALevel B and B+Level C (will focus on these)Level D and D modified (will focus on these)Trainers Notes:
79 PPE Examples N-95 respirator Safety glasses Trainers Notes:Level C PPE with Coated Protective splash suit and APR respirators½ face APRSafety GogglesExample of Leather glovesCourtesy KirkwoodExample of Nitrile glovesCourtesy KirkwoodFace Shield
80 Level C Air Purified Respirator (APR) (full or ½ face) or PAPR Splash suitChoice of fabric, seam and design should be based on expected level of liquid oil exposureInner and outer glovesEye Protection if ½ face APR is wornBootsMay have head protectionTrainers Notes:Level C definition as given by the EPA (general guideline):Level C protection is required when the concentration and type of airborne substances is known and the criteria for using air purifying respirators is met. Typical Level C equipment includes full-face air purifying respirators, inner and outer chemical-resistant gloves, hard hat, escape mask, and disposable chemical-resistant outer boots. The difference between Level C and Level B protection is the type of equipment used to protect the respiratory system, assuming the same type of chemical-resistant clothing is used. The main criterion for Level C is that atmospheric concentrations and other selection criteria permit wearing an air-purifying respirator.
81 Level D Apron Gloves Hard hat Eye protection Boots (Basic work PPE) Could include:ApronGlovesHard hatEye protectionBoots(Basic work PPE)Liquid-resistant sleevesTrainers Notes:Level D definition as given by the EPA (general guideline):Level D protection is the minimum protection required. Level D protection may be sufficient when no contaminants are present or work operations preclude splashes, immersion, or the potential for unexpected inhalation or contact with hazardous levels of chemicals. Appropriate Level D protective equipment may include gloves, coveralls, safety glasses, face shield, and chemical-resistant, steel-toe boots or shoes.
82 Level D Modified PPE Doffed to Waist Trainers Notes:
83 How Can You Protect Yourself from Hazardous Chemicals? When dealing with health and safety hazards try to control them by using the hierarchy of controlsTrainers Notes:In order of preference:Elimination or substitution of hazardEngineering controls: Designs or modifications to plants, equipment, ventilation systems, and processes that reduce the source of exposure.Administrative controls: Controls that alter the way the work is done, including timing of work, policies and other rules, and work practices.PPE: Equipment worn by individuals to reduce exposure such as contact with chemicals or exposure.
84 Respirators If in doubt about respirators, see your Supervisor! Wear NIOSH-approved respirators with the proper cartridges for the hazards in your work area (which may include organic vapor types). This should be included in your employer’s HASP:Dust masks do not provide adequate protection against vapors, gases, and some toxic materials.Cartridges must be changed based on change-out schedule determined by employer.If a full respirator is used, there is a need for training, fit testing, medical approval and change-out schedule, cleaning and maintenance procedures. Disposable half face with OV cartridges may be used.Users must be fit tested for any air purified respirator (APR) regardless of face type.Trainers Notes:Respirator IssuesProtect yourself from breathing dust, it can contain toxic material.An N-95 or greater respirator is acceptable for most activities, including silica and portland cement dustIf asbestos is present, use a half-mask elastomeric respirator with N,R, or P-100 series filtersIf airborne contaminants are causing eye irritation, full-face respirators with P-100 OV/AG combination cartridges should be usedMake sure you are fit-tested for a respirator, it must fit properly to protect youSurgical masks should not be used because they do not provide adequate protection If in doubt about respirators, see your supervisor!Special rules for respiratorsMake sure you are medically cleared to wear your chosen respirator.Make sure you received the required training.Make sure you are fit tested for your respirator.Inspect your respirator each time you put it on and take it off.Perform a user seal check each time you put it on.Clean your elastomeric respirator at least once a day in accordance with manufacturers recommendations.Store elastomeric respirators in a clean bag.If your respirator becomes damaged or fails to function, stop work and retrieve a new one.To properly select a respirator you must know:Know what the chemical isIf there is already an applicable standard (i.e. asbestos standard)Know oxygen levelsKnow contaminant concentrationKnow if there is an approved cartridge (if APR)½ face respirator with P-100/OV/AG cartridgesIf in doubtabout respirators,see yourSupervisor!See: OSHA Respiratory Protection standard, 29 CFR
86 Tips for Using PPE NEVER use damaged PPE. Only use PPE that has been properly selected for the given hazard and that fits correctly.Make sure you have had training before donning PPE in the hazard zone.Always inspect PPE before use.PPE should be properly cleaned and inspected before use.Only use PPE as a last resort to control hazards!Trainers Notes:
87 Basics of Decontamination: Types of Contamination All workers leaving the Exclusion Zone whether contaminated or not should be considered exposed and be decontaminated.This is because: -Contamination cannot always be seen -Contamination may be located on the surface of PPE or on the inside (permeation) -We never assume anything is 100% cleanDecontamination Protection LevelsSpecified on the site specific plan (SSP)Decon personnel same level as entry team or one level downBased on:Degree of hazardAmount of contaminationLength of exposureTrainers Notes:Personnel DecontaminationThe objective of this section is to protect worker safety and health and prevent the spread of contamination. This section provides guidance to be used in establishing minimum standards for decontamination by properly trained oil spill response workers. Safety is always the first objective of any response.Mass decon: Photo courtesy IUOE
88 Decontamination (Decon) Process of removing, destroying, or reducing the activity of materials such as toxic chemicals that could endanger a person or the environment.Prevents spreading contamination to other locations (like your vehicle or home).Site workers who use the site’s Standard Operating Procedures/Guidelines (SOP/SOG) are less likely to be contaminated than site workers who do not use these practices.All HASPs must cover decontamination procedures.Trainers Notes:A decontamination plan should include:TrainingLocation and layout of decontamination stations and areasDecontamination methodsRequired decontamination equipmentStandard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to minimize worker contact with contamination during decontaminationSOPs for decontamination line personnelProcedures for collection, storage and disposal of clothing equipment and any other materials that have not beencompletely decontaminatedDisposal of PPE and decon solutions as contaminated wasteAdequate personal washing stationsDepending on your job task, you may come in contact with hazardous materials which will require you to be decontaminated.
89 Decontamination Sequence Remove all tape firstRemove boots and outer glovesRemove suit by only touching insideRemove APR (if applicable)Remove inner glovesWash hands and faceavoid inadvertent ingestionremember nothing is 100% cleanAvoid handling contaminated equipment, PPEKnow water source before usingNo water present - bring towelettes or waterless hand cleanerTrainers Notes:
90 Types of Decontamination PrimaryPerformed on-scene in the Contamination Reduction Zone (CRZ)SecondaryIf necessary (tool, respirator cleaning)Performed post incident not in CRZEmergencyNormally performed by first respondersMay not be formal decon proceduresTrainers Notes:
91 Decontamination Primary Located immediately outside the hot zone May include full wash/rinse routine or may be dry deconFull wash/rinse involves large amounts of waterConcentrate on most heavily contaminated areas firstPPE removed in proper sequenceSecondaryUsually involves tools & equipmentImportant to wear glovesSome equipment difficult to deconTrainers Notes:
92 Emergency Decontamination Rapid removal of contaminated clothingUsually involves rinsing and removalDone anywhereDone if danger to life/healthCertain substances (corrosives) may require emergency decontaminationTrainers Notes:
94 Other Cleanup Health and Safety Issues MODULE 4Other Cleanup Health and Safety IssuesTrainers Notes:
95 Sunburn Prevent overexposing skin and eyes to sunlight and wind. Use sunscreen and lip balm.Use protective eyewear.Limit exposure as much as possible. Take frequent breaks in shaded areas, if possible.Sunburn reduces responder readiness and increases the likelihood of skin cancer.Trainers Notes:U.S. Army recommendations:Using sunscreen which contains para amino benzoic acid (PABA) or other chemicals capable of blocking ultraviolet radiation (at least 15 Sun Protection Factor) and covering exposed skin will prevent most sunburns. In cold weather, use alcohol-free sunscreen lotion (Sunscreen Prep, NSN ).The use of protective eyewear (Sunglasses, Polarized, NSN ) or goggles that block at least 90% of ultraviolet radiation helps to prevent snow blindness. Not all commercially available sunglasses block enough solar radiation to protect against snow blindness.Chapped lips and skin can be prevented through the use of lip balm (Cold Climate Lipstick, Antichap, NSN ) and limiting exposure of skin to the environment. Skin moisturizing lotion may help the skin retain water.
96 Eye InjuriesEye injuries can be caused by dust, flying debris, oil droplets, and other chemicals.Use safety glasses with side shields as a minimum. An eyewear retainer strap is suggested.Consider safety goggles for protection from chemicals or for use over regular prescription eyeglasses.Only use protective eyewear that has an ANSI Z87 mark on the lenses or frames.Trainers Notes:
97 Noise ExposureUse hearing protection whenever noisy equipment is used.If you can’t have a normal conversation with someone 3 feet away or closer you probably need hearing protection!Hearing protectors don’t work unless they fit snugly. You may need to try different sizes or types to find protectors that fit properly.Hearing protection must be part of a hearing conservation program.Trainers Notes:
98 Slips, Trips and FallsWatch for slips, falls, and trips, especially while walking and working on oil slick surfaces. In a cleanup, many surfaces, including steps, ladder rungs, and boat decks may be slippery from oil.Be careful walking over debris that is covered with water or oil due to increased risk of slips, trips and falls. Be extra careful if you are handling or carrying anything.Trainers Notes:Check with the medical station at FEMA Base camp(s)Key items to haveInsect repellant with Deet or PicaridinWater life vestEarplugsBottled waterSun screenRain Gear29 CFR Part 1926 Subpart EPersonal Protective and Life Saving Equipment ( to )See Personal Protective Equipment Fact Sheet, also in Spanish, at --See Publications:-- OSHA 3077, Personal Protective Equipment-- OSHA 3151, Assessing the Need for Personal Protective Equipment: A Guide for Small Business Employers
99 Vehicle and Boat UseMake sure your vehicle or boat is working properly.Obey all traffic laws.Drive defensively.Be prepared for delays.Watch for vehicles, flaggers, and overloaded vehicles.BOATING – be careful when working over and near the water. Wear a life jacket or personal floatation device when working near water.Trainers Notes:
100 Avoid Using Large Vehicles on Populated Beaches Trainers Notes:
101 Heavy EquipmentOSHA requires machinery to be inspected by a qualified worker before each use.Be alert to the activities around you.Do not use equipment unless trained to do so.Do not walk under or through areas where heavy equipment is lifting objects or behind equipment.Do not climb onto or ride loads being lifted or moved. Do not ride on equipment or in bucket.Trainers Notes:
102 Trench Foot (Immersion Foot) Trench foot, also known as immersion foot, occurs when the feet are wet for long periods of time. It can be quite painful.Symptoms include a tingling and/or itching sensation, pain, swelling, cold and blotchy skin, numbness, and a prickly or heavy feeling in the foot. The foot may be red, dry, and painful after it becomes warm. Blisters may form, followed by skin and tissue dying and falling off. Obtain medical assistance as soon as possible.To prevent trench foot, when possible, air-dry and elevate your feet, and exchange wet shoes and socks for dry ones.Trainers Notes:
103 Poisonous PlantsLearn to recognize poisonous plants:Poison IvyPoison OakPoison SumacUse gloves and wear long pants when contact with poisonous plants is possible.Rubbing alcohol, if used immediately upon exposure, may remove the oily resin that causes the allergic reaction.Clothes, shoes, and tools may become contaminated from contact with poisonous plants.The allergens from burning poisonous plants can be inhaled, causing lung irritation!Trainers Notes:CDCOverviewMany native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if there is skin contact with plant chemicals. However, the most common problems with poisonous plants arise from contact with the sap oil of several ever-present native plants that cause an allergic skin reaction—poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac.Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac release an oil, urushiol, when the leaf or other plant parts are bruised, damaged, or burned. When the oil gets on the skin an allergic reaction, referred to as contact dermatitis, occurs in most exposed people as an itchy red rash with bumps or blisters. When exposed to 50 micrograms of urushiol, an amount that is less than one grain of table salt, 80 to 90 percent of adults will develop a rash. The rash, depending upon where it occurs and how broadly it is spread, may significantly impede or prevent a person from working. Although over-the-counter topical medications may relieve symptoms for most people, immediate medical attention may be required for severe reactions, particularly when exposed to the smoke from burning these poisonous plants. Burning these poisonous plants can be very dangerous because the allergens can be inhaled, causing lung irritation.Outdoor workers may be exposed to poisonous plants. Outdoor workers at risk include farmers, foresters, landscapers, groundskeepers, gardeners, painters, roofers, pavers, construction workers, laborers, mechanics, and any other workers who spend time outside. Forestry workers and firefighters who battle forest fires are at additional risk because they could potentially develop rashes and lung irritation from contact with damaged or burning poisonous plants. It is important for employers to train their workers about their risk of exposure to poisonous plants, how they can prevent exposures and protect themselves, and what they should do if they come in contact with these plants.
104 Insects and Insect-borne Diseases Mosquitoes – Mosquitoes can carry diseases such as West Nile virus. Use screens on dwellings, and wear long pants, socks, and long-sleeved shirts. Use insect repellents that contain DEET or Picaridin. (Make sure you follow the directions written on the label.)Chiggers or Trombiculidae - is a family of mites (also called berry bugs; harvest mites; red bugs; scrub-itch mites) attach to the host, pierce the skin, inject enzymes into the bite wound that digest cellular contents, and then suck up the digested tissue through a tube formed by hardened skin cells called a stylostome. They do not burrow into the skin or suck blood. Itching from a chigger bite may not develop until 24–48 hours after the bite, where a red welt/bump on the skin may appear. The larva remains attached to a suitable host for 3 to 5 days before dropping off to begin its nymph stage. Use insect repellents that contain DEET or Picaridin. (Make sure you follow the directions written on the label.)Trainers Notes:
105 Insects and Insect-borne Diseases (continued) Spiders – Depending on the area of the country, black widow and brown recluse spiders may be present. If you suspect being bitten by a venomous spider seek medical attention and bring in the spider, if available, for identification.Ticks – Ticks can carry diseases such as Lyme, Ehrlichiosis, and Babesia. Use insect repellent with DEET and wear long sleeves, long pants and socks. Check your body for ticks after being outdoors. If you notice a tick on your skin, remove promptly. To remove, use tweezers, if available, pulling straight up in a steady, slow motion.Trainers Notes:
106 Animals and Animal-borne Diseases Beware of wild or stray animals. Avoid wild or stray animals. Call local authorities to handle animals.Many animals will die due to exposure with the crude oil. Get rid of dead animals according to local guidelines. Wear proper protective clothing when handling carcasses.If you do get bitten or scratched by an animal, seek medical attention immediately, even if it is a domestic animal.Trainers Notes:
107 Beware of Alligators and Snakes Trainers Notes:
108 AlligatorsAmerican alligators live in freshwater environments, such as marshes, wetlands, and swamps, as well as brackish environments (between salt and fresh waters).Large male alligators are solitary, territorial animals and will defend prime territory.Be aware of your surroundings. Try to stay at least fifteen feet away.Avoid surprising the reptiles.Fight back if you're attacked.Go for the head.Get medical attention promptly!Trainers Notes:Go for the eyes, nostrils, ears, or palatal valve.Go to for picture of the palatal valve.
109 Snakes and Other Reptiles Be on the alert for snakes swimming in the water to get to higher ground and hiding under debris or other objects. If you see a snake, back away from it slowly and do not touch it.If you or someone else is bitten by a snake:Remember the color and shape of the snake, which can help with treatment of the snake bite.Keep the bitten person still and calm; this can slow down the spread of venom if the snake is poisonous.Seek medical attention as soon as possible; dial 911 or call local Emergency Medical Services (EMS).Apply first aid if you can not get the person to the hospital right away Lay or sit the person down with the bite below the level of the heart; tell him/her to stay calm and still.Cover the bite with a clean, dry dressing.Use appropriate tools to move debris and to probe areas that may harbor snakes or other threats.Trainers Notes:
110 Other Protective Measures Insect repellent with Deet or PicaridinPPE – For information on what equipment you need for protection, contact your local OSHA office or NIOSHPersonal floatation deviceEarplugsBottled waterSunscreenRain gearPocket Knife (put in your checked luggage)Trainers Notes:
111 Fatigue and StressPace yourself, especially when working long shifts and many days in a row and take frequent rest breaks.Watch out for each other. Use the buddy system on your crews, especially in remote locations. Co-workers may not notice a hazard nearby or behind.Be conscious of those around you. Responders who are exhausted, feeling stressed or even temporarily distracted may place themselves and others at risk.Maintain as normal a schedule as possible: regular eating and sleeping are crucial.Make sure that you drink plenty of fluids such as water or sports drinks.Decon prior to eating, drinking, or smokingTrainers Notes:
112 Fatigue and Stress (continued) Whenever possible, take breaks away from the cleanup area. Eat and drink in the cleanest area available.Recognize and accept what you cannot change—the chain of command, organizational structure, waiting, equipment failures, etc.Many cleanup workers will be from the affected communities. Give yourself permission to feel rotten: You are in a difficult situation.Recurring thoughts, dreams, or flashbacks are normal—do not try to fight them. Seek counseling as needed.Communicate with your loved ones at home as frequently as possible.Trainers Notes:
113 Fatigue and Stress (continued) What you can do at home:Reconnect with family, spiritual, and community supports.Consider keeping a journal.Do not make any big life decisions.Spend time with others or alone doing the things you enjoy to refresh and recharge yourself.Be aware that you may feel particularly fearful for your family. This is normal and will pass in time.Trainers Notes:
114 Fatigue and Stress (continued) What you can do at home:Remember that “getting back to normal” takes time. Gradually work back into your routine. Let others carry more weight for a while at home and at work.Be aware that recovery is not a straight path but a matter of two steps forward and one back. You will make progress.Your family will experience the disaster along with you. You need to support each other. This is a time for patience, understanding, and communication.Avoid overuse of drugs or alcohol. You do not need to complicate your situation with a substance abuse problem.Refer to counseling if needed.Trainers Notes:
115 SummaryProper training is a key component of a safe response and cleanup.The oil and hazardous materials associated with the cleanup can be hazardous to human health.The hazards and issues covered in this training tool are dynamic and require vigilance and flexibility.The key to a safe response is attention to the safety issues of your work environment.REMEMBER – if you are unsure about an activity or operation, stop what you are doing and consult with a supervisor!Trainers Notes:
116 Information SourcesThis training tool is based on recommendations from:National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)Factsheets from these agencies and other oil spill response resources are available on the NIEHS National Clearinghouse for Worker Safety and Health Training website, andTrainers Notes:This training tool is based on recommendations from:National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)