# Flight lesson #17 AERODROME CIRCUIT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To adapt the flight path around the aerodrome in accordance with weather conditions, traffic.

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Flight lesson #17 AERODROME CIRCUIT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To adapt the flight path around the aerodrome in accordance with weather conditions, traffic and environment. To join the final approach flight path. © Arnaud MARNAT 2005

FEEDBACK: What is the sequence of actions of an approach at 1.3Vs? Of a go around procedure?

Skip RECAP: Aim of aerodrome circuitAim Aerodrome circuit geometry.geometry

Aim of aerodrome circuit The 3°/ 5% slope is a height/distance ratio. It represents 300 ft loss for each travelled nautical mile. Thus it is easy to figure the overflying height above given landmarks along the final approach course for which the distance from the aiming point is known. To be established on a 5% glide path, the aircraft must be established on final at h=500ft and 1,6NM (3 km) away from the aiming point. 5OO ft 1,7 NM 5%3° The visualisation of the outbound leg can be confirmed by a outbound time calculated from the groundspeed At 75kt T=80 sec ± wind (kt) To allow the pilot to intercept runway axis and 5% glide path. For a standard runway (1000m), imagine three times the runway and materialize a ground spot at 3 km away from the threshold abeam which the aircraft will have to turn to intercept the final approach track. Back

Geometry of the different circuits Back It is the circuit basically designed in the regulation. It is implicitly expected to be carried out left hand at 1000 ft above the aerodrome elevation, unless otherwise specified. Radio call (if necessary) Approach check-list Approach - level Beginning downwind Turning downwind Holding level Beginning croswind Initial turn to crosswind leg Take-off start Beginning final approach Turning final Radio call (if necessary) Approach descent Beginning base Turning baseleg Beginning of outbound leg It is a calibrated circuit carried out at a height 1000 ft above the aerodrome elevation, with 180° standard rate 1 turn (Φ=15%xIAS) to used at night and as a refresher. Radio call (if necessary) Approach check-list Approach - level Beginning downwind Holding level Initial turn to downwind leg Take-off start Beginning final approach Radio call (if necessary) rate of descent and rate of turn Adjustments Descent and turning final approach Beginning of outbound leg 45° Type of circuit to be used in case of low ceiling, poor visibility, minor failure after take-off requiring a quick turnaround and a volontary flight abortion. Radio call (if necessary) Approach check-list Approach - level Beginning downwind Holding level Initial turn to downwind leg Take-off start Beginning final approach Radio call (if necessary) Rate of descent and rate of turn Adjustments Descent and turning final approach

Landing briefing LANDING BRIEFING: Aiming point Calculated Vref Configuration (flaps) LANDING BRIEFING : Aiming point is the touch down zone marking Vref=70kt Configuration flaps LDG LANDING BRIEFING : Aiming point is the touch down zone marking Vref=70kt Configuration flaps LDG The landing briefing is carried out during downwind outbound leg. It aims at remind the different landing datas. Retour

FLIGHT LESSON PLAN : 1.Rectangular circuit 2.Standard circuit 3.Low altitude circuit

1- Rectangular circuit Airspeed below 108 kt, flaps to T/O θ= +0° P= 50% IAS= 75 kt VS= 0 ft/min θ= +2° P= 45% IAS= 80 kt VS= 0 ft/min APPROACH CHECK LIST AFTER TAKE OFF CHECK LIST Airspeed above 63 kt, flaps to UP IAS= 60kt Rotation θ= +8° P= 100% IAS= 75 kt VS= + θ= +6° P= 90% IAS= 80kt VS= + RADIO CALL LANDING BRIEFING θ= -3° P= 30% IAS= 75 kt VS= -400ft/min Airspeed below 91 kt, flaps to LDG Φ=30° RADIO CALL BEFORE LANDING CHECK LIST θ= -3° P= 35% IAS= 65kt VS= -400ft/min RADIO CALL Φ=30° Φ=20° 3 km T=80sec ± wind(kt) 60° 2,5 km H=1000ft or specified height 300ft 500ft 300ft STABILISATION FLOOR 500ft Skip  To acquire the visualisation of a track parallel to the runway.  To sharpen judgement and decision to descent in order to intercept final approach path and track by adjusting the final turn.  To improve judgement and decision to descent in order to intercept final approach path and track by adjusting the final turn.  To acquire the capacity to anticipate and correct for wind on the coming flight segment. Advanced Basic Objectives

DOWNWIND LEG  Climbing turn.  Level off during crosswind leg. Advanced Basic Objectives The initial 90° turn, performed after take-off, allows to go away perpendicularly from the runway. The second 90° turn aims at positionning the flight track parallel to the runway Carryinf out Wind  To hold accurately flight parameters (bank, airspeed…).  Take the wind effects into account by anticipating the coming flight segments.. Both turns are carried out at 30° bank.  During initial training, the first turn can be performed at 1000 ft to arrange a longer downwind leg. Acording to wind strength and direction, drift correction will be applied the crosswind leg. If no drift correction is applied, the ground course must be moved from the nominal path. The pilot must then join the downwind entry ground spot. OUTBOUND LEG  To hold heading in level flight with reference to outside landmarks.  Visualisation of the angle under which the runway must be seen at the end of downwind  Level off during crosswind leg.  To acquire landmarks and glance. Advanced Basic Objectives To go away a far enough to allow correct positionning on base. Outbound leg begins when passing abeam touch down zone. wind Crosscheck  Take the wind effects into account to ensure the quality of the coming interception.  Use every informations available (stopwatch, outside landmarks) to sharpen the flight path understanding. Stopwatch is a helpful reference to crosscheck outbound time. The outbound duration is 80 sec in a no wind condition. This must be corrected for wind effect by substracting tailwind:  Using the stopwatch is a good educational tool calibrate the initial downwind value. The wind effect is corrected with the drift value to ensure the downwind leg is parallel to the runway axis. The outbound check is done in priority by visual means (landmarks) and keeping the runway in sight. A the nominal distance, the runway should be seen under an angle of 30° backward Using the stopwatch can turn out to be a usefull mean to crosscheck for outbound position when flight conditions deteriorate: poor visibilty, night time…  Using the stopwatch is a good tool crosscheck downwind duration to guaranty a correct positionning on base. DOWNWIND  To visualise of the appropriate distance using landmarks and to hold heading.  To maintain alttitude and to keep the speed.  To change configuration in level flight. Advanced Basic Objectives To performed a segment parallel to the runway with an optimum distance intended to ensure a correct positionning of the outbound leg and base leg. wind  To hold strictly the targeted flight parameters.  To sharpen undrestanding of parameters related to wind and to integrate them in the management of the coming flight tracks. The wind effect is corrected with the drift value evaluated during initial climb, to ensure the downwind leg is parallel to the runway axis. The visual check of the parallel course allows to validate the drift correction angle.  Flaps and gears extension is done during this phase so as to keep a constant speed all along the outbound leg. carrying out

BASE LEG  To visualise aproach axis and glide path.  Training to analyse and decision making during final turn. Advanced Basic Objectives To ensure descent in approach configuration To visualise the beginning of final turn to ensure correct axis and glide path intercept. Wind  Improvement of analysis and decision making.  Stabilisation of flight path must be acquired as soon as possible for an efficient detection of the slightest gap. Set the aircraft in descent in approach configuration in base leg. Ensure visual contact with the runway to determine the moment the descending final turn should start to intercept final taxis and glide path (anticipation). Carrying out The effect of wind is corrected by the value of drift to ensure that base leg is perpendicular to the runway axis. The final turn is should be anticipated in case of tailwind in base or retarded in case of headwind. FINAL APPROACH  To visualise aproach axis and glide path.  Training to analyse and decision making.  Familiarisation to the transfer of energy for the control of glide slope. Advanced Basic Objectives To ensure the final approach segment stabilised at 300 ft (speed, configuration, axis and glide slope, check-list) and at last at 100 ft to guaranty landing at the desired touch down zone and aircraft deceleration within the runway limits. To visualise the beginning of final turn to ensure correct axis and glide path intercept.  Improvement of analysis and decision making.  Stabilisation must be acquired as soon as possible for an efficient detection of the slightest gap. Stabilise the elements of the flight path (axis and glide path) and the configuration (gear, flaps, airspeed) at the latest at 300ft. A go-around must be engaged at the latest at 100ft if one of the stabilisation criteria is not acquired. Carrying out FINAL APPROACH Advanced Basic A possible drift correction angle is applied to the effect of crosswind take into account. The airspeed, increased possibly by Kve, allows to take the effective wind into account. Wind Crosscheck When no glide path visual or instrument aid is available, confirm actual glide slope by adjusting the rate of descent in accordance with the targeted glide path and ground speed. The pilot visual scanning in this phase should emphasize approach axis and glide path, airspeed indicator and rate of descent. Corrections on the approach axis are done with coordinated turns. Nonetheless, take care of anticipating the neutralisation of these corrections and have them adapted to the value of the gap detected.

2- Standard circuit 60° 1,5 km H=1000ft or specified height 300ft 500ft 300ft STABILISATION FLOOR 500ft Φ=rate 1 3 km T=80sec ± wind(kt) Airspeed below 108 kt, flaps to T/O θ= +0° P= 50% IAS= 75 kt VS= 0 ft/min θ= +2° P= 45% IAS= 80 kt VS= 0 ft/min APPROACH CHECK LIST AFTER TAKE OFF CHECK LIST Airsped above 63 kt, flaps to UP IAS= 60kt Rotation θ= +8° P= 100% IAS= 75 kt VS= + θ= +6° P= 90% IAS= 80kt VS= + RADIO CALL LANDING BRIEFING θ= -3° P= 30% IAS= 75 kt VS= -500ft/min Airspeed below 91 kt, Flaps to LDG Φ=rate 1 RADIO CALL BEFORE LANDING CHECK LIST θ= -3° P= 35% IAS= 65kt VS= -400ft/min RADIO CALL Skip  To acquire the visualisation of the standard rate 1 turn radius.  To sharpen judgement and decision to descent in order to intercept final approach path and track by adjusting the final turn.  To improve judgement and decision to descent in order to intercept final approach path and track by adjusting the final turn.  To acquire the capacity to anticipate and correct for wind on the coming flight segment. Advanced Basic Objectives

INITIAL TURN  To start climbing turn.  To level off during turn.  During initial training, turn can be preformed leveled- off at 1000ft to allow an extended downwind leg.To hold strictly the targeted flight parameters. Advanced Basic Objectives The initial turn after take-off allows to join the ground spot materialising downwind entry. The lateral distance from the runway should represent, in a no wind condition, the diameter of rate one turn. Wind Crosscheck In the end of turn, target the downwind entry ground spot adjusting bank. According to the wind strength and direction, several methods can be considered to correct for drift on the initial turn:  Increase or decrease bank by half the drift.  Perform a straight leg perpendicular to the runway which duration is equal to drift. If no wind correction is applied, the ground course should be offset from the nominal one and the downwind entry ground spot must then be joined.  Holding accurately flight parameters (bank, airspeed…)  To take the wind effect into account by anticipating theflight segments. Carrying out This initial turn is done using standard rate one turn. DOWNWIND  To visualise of the appropriate distance using landmarks and to hold heading.  To maintain alttitude and to keep the speed.  To change configuration in level flight. Advanced Basic Objectives To performed a segment parallel to the runway with an optimum distance intended to ensure a correct positionning of the outbound leg and base leg. wind  To hold strictly the targeted flight parameters.  To sharpen undrestanding of parameters related to wind and to integrate them in the management of the coming flight tracks. The wind effect is corrected with the drift value evaluated during initial climb, to ensure the downwind leg is parallel to the runway axis. The visual check of the parallel course allows to validate the drift correction angle.  Flaps and gears extension is done during this phase so as to keep a constant speed all along the outbound leg.  Calculate elementes for final approach (Kve, IAS, Grond speed, VS) carrying out OUTBOUND LEG  To hold heading in level flight with reference to outside landmarks.  Visualisation of the angle under which the runway must be seen at the end of downwind  Level off during crosswind leg.  To acquire landmarks and glance. Advanced Basic Objectives To go away a far enough to allow correct positionning on base. Outbound leg begins when passing abeam touch down zone. wind Crosscheck  Take the wind effects into account to ensure the quality of the coming interception.  Use every informations available (stopwatch, outside landmarks) to sharpen the flight path understanding. Stopwatch is a helpful reference to crosscheck outbound time. The outbound duration is 80 sec in a no wind condition. This must be corrected for wind effect by substracting tailwind:  Using the stopwatch is a good educational tool calibrate the initial downwind value. The wind effect is corrected with the drift value to ensure the downwind leg is parallel to the runway axis. To avoid changing bank during final turn, the pilot may doble the drift on the oubound. The outbound check is done in priority by visual means (landmarks) and keeping the runway in sight. A the nominal distance, the runway should be seen under an angle of 30° backward Using the stopwatch can turn out to be a usefull mean to crosscheck for outbound position when flight conditions deteriorate: poor visibilty, night time…  Using the stopwatch is a good tool crosscheck downwind duration to guaranty a correct positionning on base.

FINAL APPROACH  To visualise aproach axis and glide path.  Training to analyse and decision making.  Familiarisation to the transfer of energy for the control of glide slope. Advanced Basic Objectives To ensure the final approach segment stabilised at 300 ft (speed, configuration, axis and glide slope, check-list) and at last at 100 ft to guaranty landing at the desired touch down zone and aircraft deceleration within the runway limits. To visualise the beginning of final turn to ensure correct axis and glide path intercept.  Improvement of analysis and decision making.  Stabilisation must be acquired as soon as possible for an efficient detection of the slightest gap. Stabilise the elements of the flight path (axis and glide path) and the configuration (gear, flaps, airspeed) at the latest at 300ft. A go-around must be engaged at the latest at 100ft if one of the stabilisation criteria is not acquired. Carrying out FINAL APPROACH Advanced Basic A possible drift correction angle is applied to the effect of crosswind take into account. The airspeed, increased possibly by Kve, allows to take the effective wind into account. Wind Crosscheck When no glide path visual or instrument aid is available, confirm actual glide slope by adjusting the rate of descent in accordance with the targeted glide path and ground speed. The pilot visual scanning in this phase should emphasize approach axis and glide path, airspeed indicator and rate of descent. Corrections on the approach axis are done with coordinated turns. Nonetheless, take care of anticipating the neutralisation of these corrections and have them adapted to the value of the gap detected. FINAL TURN Advanced Basic Objectives Using a controlled turn from downwind, target axis and glide path.. Wind As decision is made, according to the evaluation of the position compared with the desired touch down zone, pre-set flight path parameters:  Set the aircraft in descent by pitching down and reducing power.  Once aircraft is tabilised in descent, start turning at roate one. As soon as possible aim at establishing visual contact on he runway to intercept the final approach glide path. Reaching the first half of the turn, ajust bank and rate of descent in accordance with the intercept of targeted axis and glide path. Carrying out Calculate corrections on pre-settings to be applied on final using the relation: 10%  7kt  100ft /min This corresponds to an overall correction of 10kt for each 15kt headwind component.

3- Low altitude circuit θ= +0° P= 50% IAS= 75 kt VS= 0 ft/min APPROACH CHECK LIST IAS= 60kt Rotation θ= +8° P= 100% IAS= 75 kt VS= + MESSAGE RADIO LANDING BRIEFING θ= -3° P= 30% IAS= 75 kt VS= -400ft/min Airspeed below 91 kt, flaps to LDG Φ=30 to 45° RADIO CALL BEFORE LANDING CHECK LIST θ= -3° P= 35% IAS= 65kt VS= -400ft/min RADIO CALL T=6 sec x h/100 45° h between 300ft & 500ft 100ft STABILISATION FLOOR Φ=20° Passer  To hold strictly the targeted flight parameters.  To improve the parameters relative to manoeuver anticipation and coordination.  To improve the quick action sequencing.  To prepare the apprenticeship to circling manoeuvers. Advanced Basic Objectives To develop flying skills, decision making, and speed.  Master of flight path when closed to the ground.  Apprenticeship of quick and tight manoeuvers in case of weather deterioration or minor failure after take-off.  Manoeuvers anticipation and coordination.

 Flaps and gears extension is done during this phase so as to keep a constant speed all along the outbound leg.  Calculate elementes for final approach (Kve, IAS, Grond speed, VS) carrying out wind = 45 sec DOWNWIND  To visualise of the appropriate distance using landmarks and to hold heading.  To maintain alttitude and to keep the speed.  To change configuration in level flight. Advanced Basic Objectives To performed a segment parallel to the runway to ensure a correct positionning of the outbound leg and final leg.  To hold strictly the targeted flight parameters.  To sharpen undrestanding of parameters related to wind and to integrate them in the management of the coming flight tracks. The wind effect is corrected with the drift value evaluated during initial climb, to ensure the downwind leg is parallel to the runway axis. The visual check of the parallel course allows to validate the drift correction angle. OUTBOUND LEG  To hold heading in level flight with reference to outside landmarks.  Visualisation of the angle under which the runway must be seen at the end of downwind  Level off during crosswind leg.  To acquire landmarks and glance. Advanced Basic Objectives To go away a far enough to allow correct positionning on base. Outbound leg begins when passing abeam touch down zone. wind Crosscheck  Take the wind effects into account to ensure the quality of the coming interception.  Use every informations available (stopwatch, outside landmarks) to sharpen the flight path understanding. Stopwatch is a helpful reference to crosscheck outbound time. The outbound duration is 80 sec in a no wind condition. This must be corrected for wind effect by substracting tailwind:  Using the stopwatch is a good educational tool calibrate the initial downwind value. The wind effect is corrected with the drift value to ensure the downwind leg is parallel to the runway axis. To avoid changing bank during final turn, the pilot may doble the drift on the oubound. The outbound check is done in priority by visual means (landmarks) and keeping the runway in sight. A the nominal distance, the runway should be seen under an angle of 45° backward Using the stopwatch can turn out to be a usefull mean to crosscheck for outbound position when flight conditions deteriorate: poor visibilty, night time…  Using the stopwatch is a good tool crosscheck downwind duration to guaranty a correct positionning on base. T= 6 sec x h/100 ± Wind FINAL TURN Advanced Basic Objectives To come and intercept runway axis and glide path after sufficient outbound. Wind Crosscheck Bank wiil be choosen between 30° and 45° at the beginning of turn to be decreasing al along the rest of the turn in accordance with the interception of runway axis and glide path. Letting down is performed according to the height on downwind (at the beginning of final turn for a downwind at 600 ft and at the end o the final turn for a downwind at 300ft). If letting is performed during turn, power must be adjusted to maintain the airspeed for approach manoeuvers (1,45Vs). Upon axis intercept, reduce power and extend flaps to have the aircraft decelerated to the final approach speed).  To take wind effect into account to provide the quality of the future interception.  To take all of the outside informations (landmarks) into account to sharpen corrections on pitch and bank. Carrying out  Stabilized turn.  Adjusting bank according to observed outside landmarks.  To visualise axis and glide path intercept. A visual crosscheck is done by establishing visual contact with the runway and touch down zone to make all the necessary corrections. The wind effect is corrected by applying the value of drift angle to provide final approach track on the extended runway centerline. FINAL TURN Advanced Basic Objectives To provide a stabilised flight segment (airspeed, configration, axis and glide path, check-list) at the latest at 100ft to guaranty a landing on the intended touch down zone and aircraft deceleleration within the runway limits. Wind Crosscheck To have fllight parameters (axis and glide path) and configuration (airspeed, flaps and gear) stabilised at the latest at 100ft. Approach must be aborted and go around must be initiated at the latest at 100ft if one of these flight parameters is not acquired.  To improve the velocity in analysis and decision making process.  Stabilisation must beaquired as soon as possible by a quick and reliable detection of the slightest gap. Ccarrying out  To visualise axis and glide path under different angles.  Training to quick analyse and decisions.  Familiarization to the transfer of energy for the glide path control. The wind effect is to be corrected by the value of the drift angle to provide a final approach track on the runway centerline. When no glide path visual or instrument aid is available, confirm actual glide slope by adjusting the rate of descent in accordance with the targeted glide path and ground speed. The pilot visual scanning in this phase should emphasize approach axis and glide path, airspeed indicator and rate of descent. Corrections on the approach axis are done with coordinated turns. Nonetheless, take care of anticipating the neutralisation of these corrections and have them adapted to the value of the gap detected..

FLIGHT PROGRESS: Duration: flight = 60min (Session can be divided into 2 or 3 flights, eg one for each type of circuit). Student takes care of the entire flight. Flight session in accordance with the briefing (demonstration-guidance-exercises). Check-lists and briefing done by FI (then progressively transfered to the student alng the next training sessions). Homework

QUESTIONS ?

Homework Joining techniquesJoining techniques Circuit: general review Load factor Stall

Have a good flight Thank you for your attention !

Joining the circuit in an uncontrolled aerodrome Arrival is done systematically at 500 ft above the circuit altitude. Surveying sector is loated on the opposite side to the circuit and parallel to the runway. The aerodrome circuit is a no transgression area for an inbound traffic. Check for the signal area and for any other conflicting traffic in the circuit. The aircraft will then join the circuit at the prescribed altitude well upstream of downwind. The pilot has to make several mandatory radio calls. At 3 min inbound OverheadOverhead On downwind On base On final

The particular case of AFIS The pilot can spare the bother of joining overhead when an AFIS agent is on duty. The pilot can even perform a straight-in or direct approach when the following three conditions are fulfilled simultaneously: 1.AFIS is on duty and aerodrome informations have been received 2.No traffic in the aerodrome circulation. 3.Arodrome is prohibited to no radio equipped aircraft.

Joining the circuit on controled airport Direct base DownwindDownwind Mid-downwind from overhead Straight-inStraight-in Once authorizd by ATC, every flight path can be considered; here is an overall view.

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