# Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet1 FYS 4250. Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet2 FYS 4250 Table 1 Content of air Volume %, equal to kPa if the barometric.

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Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet1 FYS 4250

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet2 FYS 4250 Table 1 Content of air Volume %, equal to kPa if the barometric pressure is 100 kPa. dry saturated 37 o C nitrogen78.173.4 oxygen20.919.6 argon 0.9 0.8 carbon dioxide0.04 water vapor 0 6.3

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet3 FYS 4250 Figure 1 Airways with larynx, trachea, bronchi and alveoles

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet4 FYS 4250 Figure 2 Lung volume parameters Equation 1 ComplianceC = ΔV / ΔP [L/Pa, L/cmH2O]

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet5 FYS 4250 Equation 2 Poiseuille [Pa/m 3 /s = pressure / flow rate]

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet6 FYS 4250 Figure 4 Flow lines with local hindrance and a back eddy (non-laminar zone) turbulence

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet7 FYS 4250 Figure 5 PV-diagram for a closed volume PV=nRT

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet8 FYS 4250 Gas properties Tc [oC]Pc [bar]Tb [oC] Helium (He)-2682,4-269 Nitrogen (N 2 )-14733,6-196 Argon (Ar)-12249-186 Oxygen (O 2 )-11950,3-183 Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )3173* Nitrous oxide (N 2 O)36,572* Water (H 2 O)374218100

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet9 FYS 4250 Figure 6 Laplace cylinder model P=T/r

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet10 FYS 4250 Figure 7 Left: dry gas mixture, right: after insertion of a water filled dish

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet11 FYS 4250 gas/blood [L/L] gas/oil [L/L] Nitrous oxide0.51.4 Halotane2.3224 Enflurane1.896 Isoflurane1.491 Desflurane0.419 Sevoflurane0.653 Ether1265 Oxygen0.02 Carbon dioxide0.8 Nitrogen0.015 Table 3 Solubility of gases in blood and oil at 37 oC

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet12 FYS 4250 Figure 8 Laryngoscope and tube insertion.

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet13 FYS 4250 Figure 9 One-way small portable resuscitation system

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet14 FYS 4250 Figure 10 Rebreathing circle with one-directional valves 1 and 2

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet15 FYS 4250 Figure 11 Sidestream sampling to a multigas analyzer

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet16 FYS 4250 Figure 12 Mainstream sampling

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet17 FYS 4250 Table 4 Three measuring principles Measuring principle mediumvariablestime const comments 1aSpectrophotometricgasCO 2, H 2 O, agent vapors 0.1scapnography included 1bSpectrophotometric puls­oximetry bloodO2O2 1-10salso in-vitro cuvette- oximetry and in blood gas analyzers 2aParamagnetic, contin.gasO2O2 10ssample gas unchanged 2bParamagnetisk, pulsed gasO2O2 0.2ssample gas changed 3aEl.chem. fuel cell, membrane covered gas or liquid O2O2 30slimited lifetime, drifts and frequent calibration, single use 3bEl.chem. polarographic membrane covered (Clark) gas or liquid O2O2 0.1- 20s membrane & el.lyte change and reuse, used in blood gas machine 3cEl.chem. membrane covered (Severinghaus) gas or liquid CO230sused in blood gas machine 3dEl.chem. pH and ion- selective electrodes liquidpH Na, K etc 10sused in blood gas machine

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet18 FYS 4250 Figure 13 IR absorption spectra for some anaesthetic agent vapours. Datex Ohmeda Division, Instrumentarium Corporation

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet19 FYS 4250 Figure 14 Multigas spectrophotometric gas analyzer with rotating filter wheel

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet20 FYS 4250 Table 5 Magnetic molar susceptibility  m of respiratory gases. SI unit: [m 3 /mol], but according to customary practice, cgs units are used and given here as  m /10 -6 cm 3 mol -1 (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics). gas mm  m relative oxygen O 2 +3449+100 nitrogen N 2 -12-0.35 nitric oxide NO+1461+42 nitrous oxide N 2 O-18.9-0.55 nitrogen dioxide NO 2 +150+4.3 water vapour H 2 O-13.1-0.38 carbon dioxide CO 2 -21-0,61 argon-19.3-0.56

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet21 FYS 4250 Figure 15 Paramagnetic oxygen analyzer. The construction is enclosed in a tight box with inlet and outlet for the gas to be examined, the reference gas is enclosed in the two spheres.

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet22 FYS 4250 Figure 16 Paramagnetic oxygen analyzer using pulsed magnetic field. Gray lines are tubes.

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet23 FYS 4250 Figure 17 Closed variable volume

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet24 FYS 4250 Figure 18 Pressure sensors. Left: piezoelectric transducer with an optional dome to be positioned so as to form a closed volume above the membrane. Right: optical transducer

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet25 FYS 4250 Rotameter, gas flow sensor

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet26 FYS 4250 Figure 19 Hot wire flow meter with two termistors, cross section shown to the right

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet27 FYS 4250 Figure 20 Vane flow sensor in a tube, cross section shown to the right

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet28 FYS 4250 Figure 21 Pitot flow sensor in a tube, cross section shown to the right

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet29 FYS 4250 Figure 22 Poiseuille gas flow sensor (pneumotachometer)

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet30 FYS 4250 Figure 23 Servocontrolled ventilator shown in the inspiration cycle

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet31 FYS 4250 Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet31 Figure 24 Compression loss model

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet32 FYS 4250 Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet32 Figure 25 Anaesthesia machine

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet33 FYS 4250 Figure 26 Spirometer, watersealed

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet34 FYS 4250 Spirometer, electronic

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet35 FYS 4250 Figure 27 Whole body plethysmograph

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet36 FYS 4250 Figure 28 Hyperbar chambers

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet37 FYS 4250 Fig.29 Venturi suction system

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet38 FYS 4250 Figure 30 Vacuum pressure as a function of static suction flow

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet39 FYS 4250 Equation Bernoulli P s + ½  v 2 +  gh = constant P s = static (v=0) pressure [Pa].  = density [kg/m 3 ]. v = velocity [m/s]. g = acceleration due to gravity [m/s 2 ]. h = height difference [m]. Validity range: Laminar flow, any geometry, valid at any point along a line of flow, gases or liquids, no frictional (viscous) losses. Actually the Bernoulli equation is about the conservation of energy along a flow line, but it is usually given as here in terms not of energy, but pressure.

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet40 FYS 4250 Figure 31 Equivalent electrical circuit for a dynamic suction system

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet41 FYS 4250 Figure 32 Cryo principle according to a Joule-Thomson capillary model.

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet42 FYS 4250 Figure 33 Principle components of cryo equipment according to Joule-Thomson

Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet43 FYS 4250 Figure 34 CO2 phase diagram

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