Presentation on theme: "Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet1 FYS 4250. Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet2 FYS 4250 Table 1 Content of air Volume %, equal to kPa if the barometric."— Presentation transcript:
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet2 FYS 4250 Table 1 Content of air Volume %, equal to kPa if the barometric pressure is 100 kPa. dry saturated 37 o C nitrogen78.173.4 oxygen20.919.6 argon 0.9 0.8 carbon dioxide0.04 water vapor 0 6.3
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet3 FYS 4250 Figure 1 Airways with larynx, trachea, bronchi and alveoles
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet17 FYS 4250 Table 4 Three measuring principles Measuring principle mediumvariablestime const comments 1aSpectrophotometricgasCO 2, H 2 O, agent vapors 0.1scapnography included 1bSpectrophotometric pulsoximetry bloodO2O2 1-10salso in-vitro cuvette- oximetry and in blood gas analyzers 2aParamagnetic, contin.gasO2O2 10ssample gas unchanged 2bParamagnetisk, pulsed gasO2O2 0.2ssample gas changed 3aEl.chem. fuel cell, membrane covered gas or liquid O2O2 30slimited lifetime, drifts and frequent calibration, single use 3bEl.chem. polarographic membrane covered (Clark) gas or liquid O2O2 0.1- 20s membrane & el.lyte change and reuse, used in blood gas machine 3cEl.chem. membrane covered (Severinghaus) gas or liquid CO230sused in blood gas machine 3dEl.chem. pH and ion- selective electrodes liquidpH Na, K etc 10sused in blood gas machine
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet18 FYS 4250 Figure 13 IR absorption spectra for some anaesthetic agent vapours. Datex Ohmeda Division, Instrumentarium Corporation
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet19 FYS 4250 Figure 14 Multigas spectrophotometric gas analyzer with rotating filter wheel
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet20 FYS 4250 Table 5 Magnetic molar susceptibility m of respiratory gases. SI unit: [m 3 /mol], but according to customary practice, cgs units are used and given here as m /10 -6 cm 3 mol -1 (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics). gas mm m relative oxygen O 2 +3449+100 nitrogen N 2 -12-0.35 nitric oxide NO+1461+42 nitrous oxide N 2 O-18.9-0.55 nitrogen dioxide NO 2 +150+4.3 water vapour H 2 O-13.1-0.38 carbon dioxide CO 2 -21-0,61 argon-19.3-0.56
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet21 FYS 4250 Figure 15 Paramagnetic oxygen analyzer. The construction is enclosed in a tight box with inlet and outlet for the gas to be examined, the reference gas is enclosed in the two spheres.
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet22 FYS 4250 Figure 16 Paramagnetic oxygen analyzer using pulsed magnetic field. Gray lines are tubes.
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet24 FYS 4250 Figure 18 Pressure sensors. Left: piezoelectric transducer with an optional dome to be positioned so as to form a closed volume above the membrane. Right: optical transducer
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet38 FYS 4250 Figure 30 Vacuum pressure as a function of static suction flow
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet39 FYS 4250 Equation Bernoulli P s + ½ v 2 + gh = constant P s = static (v=0) pressure [Pa]. = density [kg/m 3 ]. v = velocity [m/s]. g = acceleration due to gravity [m/s 2 ]. h = height difference [m]. Validity range: Laminar flow, any geometry, valid at any point along a line of flow, gases or liquids, no frictional (viscous) losses. Actually the Bernoulli equation is about the conservation of energy along a flow line, but it is usually given as here in terms not of energy, but pressure.
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet40 FYS 4250 Figure 31 Equivalent electrical circuit for a dynamic suction system
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet41 FYS 4250 Figure 32 Cryo principle according to a Joule-Thomson capillary model.
Fysisk institutt - Rikshospitalet42 FYS 4250 Figure 33 Principle components of cryo equipment according to Joule-Thomson