Building Knowledge for Themselves Engaging Students in Building Knowledge for Themselves
Objectives of this workshop series cognitive development needs 1.Identify the cognitive development needs of students educational theories 2.Introduce some educational theories which can help us address the developmental needs easy methods for teaching / assessment 3.Propose easy methods for teaching / assessment for helping with these cognitive development needs adopting / adapting 4.Explore ways for adopting / adapting some of the methods in your course
Adopting / adapting the methods in your specific context The facilitators provide generic ideas The participants adopt / adapt the ideas in specific subjects Designed generic worksheets Directly use / modify the worksheets for specific subjects Suggested ways for implementing the ideas in teaching and assessment Brain storm how to adopt / adapt the ideas in your own courses
I can onlytry tomemorize don’t understand ‘ I can only try to memorize. I don’t understand.’ can’t understand the lecturememorise ‘I just can’t understand the lecture. I memorise the things to take the examination.’ memorize a lot of textscan’t understand them when we read ‘We have to memorize a lot of texts …basically we can’t understand them when we read, so we just memorize them.’ can’t comprehend the formula ‘I can’t comprehend the formula.’ don’t really knowwhat they are doing memorise ‘Actually I don’t really know what they are doing. If you don’t know, you have to memorise …’ A cognitive weakness.
Explain it to me !! I think the lecturer should explain it more clearly. I can’t understand by reading it myself, I have to go to the lecturer. It’s difficult to understand by reading a book. It will be better for a teacher to explain it to us. When I revise at home and have a problem, I hope that I can make a phone call right away or send an e-mail to the lecturer, and get the reply immediately. It will be great if the lecturer has ICQ and turn that on for 24 hours. It will be even better if he can give us his mobile phone number. An attitude problem – dependent on teachers.
Helping students to understand Which approach works better?? More explanation by teacher Developing students’ abilities to understand Students to receive knowledge from teachers passively Students to learn for themselves We aim at developing independent learners !
Why do students fail to understand? Students memorise information because they have difficulties with … Seeing relationship among information Forming a holistic picture of the topic Integrating and assimilating knowledge for personal internalization Developing students abilities in understanding is helping students to change in this direction Developing students abilities in understanding is helping students to change in this direction : Memorize information passively Assimilating, building knowledge for personal internalization
Developing abilities to build knowledge – What educational theories can help us? 3 levels of understanding 3 levels of understanding (based on Biggs - SOLO Taxonomy) Learning strategies to achieve them Learning strategies to achieve them (based on Weinstein & Mayer) Extended abstract (go beyond what is given) Extended abstract (go beyond what is given) theories, generalize, hypothesize, reflect Elaboration Elaboration creating analogy, self-questioning linking to past knowledge & experience Relational (Understanding via relating ideas) Relational (Understanding via relating ideas) compare, contrast, explain causes, analyse, relate, apply Organization Organization grouping, categorizing, summarizing, constructing concept map Multi-structural (Memorisation of information, algorithm) Multi-structural (Memorisation of information, algorithm) Describe, list, combine, do algorithms Rehearsal Rehearsal repeating, underling, mental imagery
2 Levels Developing Abilities for Understanding at 2 Levels Cognitive strategies for understanding Metacognitive strategies w.r.t. understanding What are they? How to develop them? What are they? How to develop them?
Metacognition What is metacognition? A.Awareness / knowledge of what cognition (learning) is B.Abilities to control cognition (learning), i.e. the disposition & habits that support and drives learning Key operations in metacognition (control of learning) 1.Planning 1.Planning your learning 2.Monitoring 2.Monitoring your learning 3.Assessing 3.Assessing your learning
Developing Abilities for understanding My Knowledge Building Worksheet 3-Step Thinking Worksheet Pattern Detector
Knowledge Building Worksheet What is Knowledge Building worksheet? It is a tool to help student go beyond memorising facts into relational and creative thinking, both cognitively and motivationally Rationale Many students learn by simply memorizing facts as they misconceive it to be the goal of learning By showing that disconnected information is of little use, students are encouraged to link loose ideas together to form a meaningful structure
Using the Knowledge Building Worksheet How to use? Points diagram new ideas Examples Revision worksheet Course formation revealer
3-step Thinking Worksheet What is 3-step Thinking Worksheet? It provides a handy means to sharpen students’ understanding of learnt material Sharpen target cognitive abilities with option sets: Logical Reasoning Knowledge Personalization Extension and Application Originality Enhancement
Using 3-step Thinking Worksheet in Teaching and Assessment Teaching: Learnt Material Organizer Lecture notes quick-fixer Assessment: Continuous assessment: review exercise
Pattern Detector What is Pattern Detector? It provides a scaffold for students to interpret data The worksheet: The five guiding questions to interpret data We need your input!
Using Pattern Detector in Teaching and Assessment Teaching: Using the guiding questions to present graphic information in the lecture In-class activity Assessment: Visual data hunt Regular assignment