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Earth’s Interior What caused a 2.5 square kilometer landmass to form in the ocean off the coast of Iceland in 1963? An erupting volcano underneath the.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth’s Interior What caused a 2.5 square kilometer landmass to form in the ocean off the coast of Iceland in 1963? An erupting volcano underneath the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Earth’s Interior

3 What caused a 2.5 square kilometer landmass to form in the ocean off the coast of Iceland in 1963? An erupting volcano underneath the ocean caused an island form and to continually to grow in size for many years

4 Icelanders named their new landmass Surtsey the god of fire

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6 The Science of Geology

7 The modern science of geology, the study of planet Earth, began in the late 1700s. Geology The geologist in the top picture are studying the characteristics of a cave The geologist in the bottom picture is investigating rock layers

8 Geologists are scientists who study the forces that make and shape our planet. They study the chemical and physical characteristics of rock, the material that forms Earth’s hard surface. They map where different types of rocks are found and describe landforms, the features sculptured in rock and soil by water, wind, and waves. Geologists study the processes that create Earth’s features and search for clues about Earth’s history.

9 Clues that Geologists use to study the Earth’s interior include: Seismic waves –produced by earthquakes –man-made - Geologists record electronic signals and study their travel through rock strata Drill-hole data

10 Geologic Forces: Geologists divide the forces that change the earth’s surface into two groups: Constructive forcesDestructive forces

11 Constructive Forces are forces that shape the surface of the Earth by building up mountains and landmasses. Examples Include: Islands from volcanoes Flooding Weather (also destructive)

12 Destructive Forces are forces that slowly wear away mountains and eventually every other feature on the surface of the Earth. Some examples of this type of force are: Ocean waves WeatheringEarthquakes

13 Journey to the Center of the Earth drill Seismic recording device Temperature-sensing device Pressure-sensing device

14 Temperature: increases as the depth inside Earth increases. Rock near the surface would be cool At about 20 meters down the rock layers get warmer For every 40 meters of descent, the temperature of the rock strata increases 1°C

15 Pressure: - the force pushing on a surface or area - increases when traveling from the surface towardthe core of the Earth.

16 The deeper the water in the pool, the greater the pressure, just as pressure is greater the deeper you go beneath the surface of Earth The water in the pool does not have layers The pressure increases as you go deeper inside the earth because amount and weight of the rock layers increases

17 Ever wondered what our earth is made of? Think of it as an apple. An apple constitutes the skin, the pulp and the core in the middle. Similarly, the earth is made up of the thin outermost layer called the crust, the innermost part called the core, and the part in between them called the mantle. Skin = Crust Pulp = Mantle Core = Core

18 Three main layers make up Earth’s interior: The crust The mantle The core Each layer has its own conditions and materials

19 The Crust: outermost layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer skin including both dry land and the ocean floor averages 32 km or 16 miles thick chemical composition: O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Fe, K, Ca

20 Oceanic crust: the floor of the deep oceans, is thin, about 7km thick, and made of relatively dense rocks like basalt. Basalt is a dark, dense rock with a fine texture that makes up most of the ocean floor. Continental crust is much thicker, averaging 33km, and is composed of relatively light material such as granite. Granite has larger crystals and is less dense than basalt. This type of rock is the main component of the continental crust. (Fig 1.2) The Crust (Oceanic and Continental).

21 The basalt looks like it’s made of one material The granite looks like it’s made of several materials.

22 Mantle: layer of rock between the core and the crust about 2900 km (1400 miles) thick mainly solid rock but there is also a layer of molten rock called magma nearer the core. Temperatures are high, at about 2000 o C. chemical composition: O, Mg, Si, Fe divided into two sub-layers –lithosphere –asthenosphere

23 There are two sub-layers in the mantle: Lithosphere: The upper most mantle and the crust form a solid rigid layer Asthenosphere: The soft portion of the mantle in which the lithosphere floats

24 The lithosphere is solid and rigid while the material in the asthenosphere is somewhat soft and can bend like plastic. Lithosphere: The upper most mantle and the crust which form a solid rigid layer

25 Asthenosphere: soft portion of the mantle in which the lithosphere floats soft layer just below the lithosphere that flows like hot asphalt under a heavy weight

26 The Core: The denser materials such as iron sank to form the core. It is partly solid. Temperatures are extremely high, at about 3000 o C. layer of rock beneath the mantle makes up 1/3 of the Earth’s mass and 15% of its volume temperature ranges from 2000 o C to 5000 o C chemical composition: Fe and Ni

27 Three characteristics cause geologists to consider the inner and outer cores as part of one layer instead of as two separate layers. Both made of iron and nickel Great pressure Extreme Temperature

28 The Outer Core layer of molten metal that surrounds the inner core acts like a liquid

29 Layer of solid metal that is under extreme pressure from the outer core causes the inner core to spin The Inner Core

30 Earth works like a giant bar magnet. If you shifted this magnet beneath the paper, what would happen to the iron filings? The iron filings would move with the magnet, again forming the same pattern above the magnet’s new position.

31 Currents in the liquid outer core force the solid inner core to spin Like a planet within a planet, the inner core spins inside Earth at a slightly faster rate than the rest of the planet This movement creates Earth’s magnetic field, which causes the planet to act like a giant bar magnet.

32 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. This table shows the conditions you would find as you traveled toward the center of the Earth. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 km 100 km 2,000 km 4,000 km 6,000 km

33 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Table Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. This table shows the conditions you would find as you traveled toward the center of the Earth. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust 100 km 2,000 km 4,000 km 6,000 km

34 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. This table shows the conditions you would find as you traveled toward the center of the Earth. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 km 2,000 km 4,000 km 6,000 km

35 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. This table shows the conditions you would find as you traveled toward the center of the Earth. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantle 2,000 km 4,000 km 6,000 km

36 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. This table shows the conditions you would find as you traveled toward the center of the Earth. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 km 4,000 km 6,000 km

37 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. This table shows the conditions you would find as you traveled toward the center of the Earth. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 kmmantle 4,000 km 6,000 km

38 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. This table shows the conditions you would find as you traveled toward the center of the Earth. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 kmmantle Solid or molten material 4,000 km 6,000 km

39 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. This table shows the conditions you would find as you traveled toward the center of the Earth. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 kmmantle Solid or molten material 4,000 kmOuter core 6,000 km

40 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. This table shows the conditions you would find as you traveled toward the center of the Earth. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 kmmantle Solid or molten material 4,000 kmOuter core Molten iron & nickel 6,000 km

41 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. This table shows the conditions you would find as you traveled toward the center of the Earth. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 kmmantle Solid or molten material 4,000 kmOuter core Molten iron & nickel 6,000 kmInner core

42 Sharpen Your Skills Creating Data Tables Imagine that you have invented a super-strong vehicle that can resist extremely high pressure as it bores a tunnel deep into Earth’s interior. You stop several times on your trip to collect data using devices located on your vehicle’s outer hull. This table shows the conditions you would find as you traveled toward the center of the Earth. DepthName of LayerComposition 20 kmcrust Solid rock, mainly granite and basalt 100 kmmantleSolid rock 2,000 kmmantle Solid or molten material 4,000 kmOuter core Molten iron & nickel 6,000 kmInner core Solid iron & nickel


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