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Presentation on theme: "POLITICAL PARTIES Chapter 7"— Presentation transcript:


2 What is a political party?
A group of political activists who organize to win elections, operate government, and determine public policy.

3 How do PPs differ from Interest Groups?
IGs do not want to operate government IGs sharpen issues (make distinctions) and PPs try to manipulate issues in order to get support

4 How do PPs differ from factions?
Factions come before the PP Factions are not always permanent Factions are smaller Factions are out to obtain certain benefits for themselves

5 What do political parties do?
Organize the competition Recruit and Nominate candidates Register voters Train candidates Aid candidates ($) Organize volunteers

6 Unify the Electorate Moderate Conflict by bringing together different viewpoints under one party Extreme Conservative Extreme Liberal

7 Help Organize Government
Not as cohesive or “vital” in the US as in Europe Committees dictate the issues Congress addresses and committee membership is determined by pp and seniority

8 Enact policies and implement campaign promises (effectively changing government with legislation)
No guarantee that candidates will follow party platform Soft Money usually means candidates follow party platform

9 Provide opposition to the party that controls the White House or Congress
Honeymoon period everyone gets along The “out” party provides the public with alternatives to the “in” parties policies

10 The Three Faces of a Party
1. Party-in-the-Electorate Those who identify themselves with the party

11 2. Party Organization Formal structure and leadership
National Convention Every 4 years To nominate a candidate Party platform (written & ratified)

12 National Committee -direct party activities for the next four years
National Chairperson -spokesperson for the party AND Manage national election

13 State Central Committee – runs the party within the state
Made up of representatives Unit Rule – all of a state’s electoral votes are cast for the candidate with the most votes

14 3. Party-in-Government Elected or appointed officials from the party
Ticket splitting – voting for candidates from two or more parties Prefer divided gov’t Other issues

15 How do parties nominate a candidate?
Caucus-closed meeting to pick candidate Party convention-candidates chosen by party members Direct primary-elections to determine candidates (mostly used today!)

16 Different types of Primaries:
Open Primaries-any voter can participate in elections (no matter the party affiliation) Crossover voting Closed Primaries-only voters registered as that party can vote

17 Party System Know the following terms: Two-party system
Multiparty system Presidential system Parliamentary system Coalition gov’t Proportional representation Winner-take-all system

18 Minor Parties Third parties Grouped by ideology
Examples: Anti-Mason, Bull Moose Party, American Independent Party, Reform Party, Green Party

19 History of Political Parties in the US
Founding fathers did not support parties Not mentioned in Constitution Federalists v. Democratic-Republicans Realigning Elections-turning points in history that align voters and political agendas 1824, 1860, 1896, 1932

20 1824 Jackson and the Democrats
Four Democrat-Republican candidates Andrew Jackson won the popular vote but did not get the majority in the electoral college John Q Adams and the “corrupt bargain” with Henry Clay 1828 Rematch-Jackson won (Democrat v. National Republican) Two-party system established

21 1860 Civil War and the Republicans
Crisis of slavery lead to a new party-the second Republican party (“Grand Old Party” or GOP) Abraham Lincoln won 1860, 64, 68, 72, 76, 80, 88, 96, 1900, 04, 08 –all Republican victories 1884 &1892 –Cleveland’s (D) The Democrats survived b/c of strong base of white males in the south

22 1896 Repubican Party in Transition
Party does not lose power but realigns due to the industrial revolution Hard times for farmers and miners United with workers in the East and Midwest to combat foreign investments in US

23 The Progressive Era in the Republican Party
Progressive wing of Republican Party Focused on corrupt political parties Direct primary elections 17th Amendment (1913) Senators elected by popular vote Remained dominate party until the 1930s

24 1932 FDR and the New Deal difficulty

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