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The Election of Andrew Jackson March 24, 2010 Project History.

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1 The Election of Andrew Jackson March 24, 2010 Project History

2 Hard Times After the Panic of 1819 Estimated that 1/3 of population effected Estimated that 1/3 of population effected 1819 New York Society for Prevention of Pauperism estimated 8,000 paupers in city of 120, , New York Society for Prevention of Pauperism estimated 8,000 paupers in city of 120, , million acres sold million million acres sold million 1815 Pa land $150 an acre $ Pa land $150 an acre $35

3 Effects of Panic of 1819 Heighten sectionalism--each section became more self-interested--South became more opposed to protective tariff- -manufacturing areas want greater protection Heighten sectionalism--each section became more self-interested--South became more opposed to protective tariff- -manufacturing areas want greater protection Sharpen class antagonisms--discredit elites--engendered a kind of political restiveness Sharpen class antagonisms--discredit elites--engendered a kind of political restiveness

4 John C. Calhoun in 1820 “There has been within these two years an immense revolution of fortunes in every part of the Union; enormous numbers of persons utterly ruined; multitudes in deep distress; and a general mass of disaffection to the government, not concentrated in any particular direction, but ready to seize upon any event and looking out everywhere for a leader.” “There has been within these two years an immense revolution of fortunes in every part of the Union; enormous numbers of persons utterly ruined; multitudes in deep distress; and a general mass of disaffection to the government, not concentrated in any particular direction, but ready to seize upon any event and looking out everywhere for a leader.”

5 American Ambivalence Moral note enters American politics--theme of moral decay, corruption, dishonesty, indolence and extravagance condemned Moral note enters American politics--theme of moral decay, corruption, dishonesty, indolence and extravagance condemned Dual nature--attracted to speculative enterprise--but feelings of guilt Dual nature--attracted to speculative enterprise--but feelings of guilt During pre-panic times latent fears and suspicions of banks suppressed--seen as creative engines of enterprise During pre-panic times latent fears and suspicions of banks suppressed--seen as creative engines of enterprise After economic collapse--many saw it as God’s way of punishing errant people--people who had expected riches without work After economic collapse--many saw it as God’s way of punishing errant people--people who had expected riches without work

6 Benjamin Franklin Franklin recommends frugality, thrift, and hard work and promises results of moral and material rewards Franklin recommends frugality, thrift, and hard work and promises results of moral and material rewards Yet emphasis upon material values-- equating wealth with moral rectitude Yet emphasis upon material values-- equating wealth with moral rectitude Follower of Poor Richard might forget necessary relationship between hard work and riches Follower of Poor Richard might forget necessary relationship between hard work and riches Wealth based upon speculation, riches without work considered sinful by most Americans Wealth based upon speculation, riches without work considered sinful by most Americans

7 Benjamin Franklin

8 Niles Register “ It seems to me that the whole paper system is nothing more than a contrivance of knaves to cheat honest men….” “ It seems to me that the whole paper system is nothing more than a contrivance of knaves to cheat honest men….”

9 Political Reaction to Panic Most states passed stay laws or minimum appraisal laws protected debtor from having to sell property for debt at deflated prices Most states passed stay laws or minimum appraisal laws protected debtor from having to sell property for debt at deflated prices Some states establish state banks or loan offices in order to expand money supply-- paper money they issued had to be accepted by creditors for debt Some states establish state banks or loan offices in order to expand money supply-- paper money they issued had to be accepted by creditors for debt

10 Kentucky Election of majority of legislature pledged to relieve people Election of majority of legislature pledged to relieve people Legislature chartered Bank of the Commonwealth of Kentucky--made loans of paper money--received for taxes and public debts Legislature chartered Bank of the Commonwealth of Kentucky--made loans of paper money--received for taxes and public debts If private creditor not receive bank paper-- debtor could delay debt for 2 years If private creditor not receive bank paper-- debtor could delay debt for 2 years

11 Kentucky 2 Bank of Commonwealth of Kentucky notes worth 50% face value---creditor forced to accept it at face value Bank of Commonwealth of Kentucky notes worth 50% face value---creditor forced to accept it at face value Political battles in state between Relief and Anti-Relief parties (comprised of planters, businessmen and most powerful lawyers) Political battles in state between Relief and Anti-Relief parties (comprised of planters, businessmen and most powerful lawyers) Kentucky Court of Appeals struck down relief legislation Kentucky Court of Appeals struck down relief legislation Relief Party controlled legislature and dissolved court and set up new court Relief Party controlled legislature and dissolved court and set up new court Bitter fights in Kentucky between Old Court (anti-relief) and New Court (relief) parties Bitter fights in Kentucky between Old Court (anti-relief) and New Court (relief) parties Relief Party strong supporters of Andrew Jackson---Amos Kendall and Frank Blair Relief Party strong supporters of Andrew Jackson---Amos Kendall and Frank Blair

12 Andrew Jackson Born in S.C. ---captured by English during American Revolution Born in S.C. ---captured by English during American Revolution British officer demanded Jackson clean boots. Jackson said: “Sir, I’m a prisoner of war, and claim to be treated as such.” Officer slashed him with a sword British officer demanded Jackson clean boots. Jackson said: “Sir, I’m a prisoner of war, and claim to be treated as such.” Officer slashed him with a sword Jackson lost his brother and mother to smallpox during war Jackson lost his brother and mother to smallpox during war After war---life of dissipation and hell-raising- -studied law in law office After war---life of dissipation and hell-raising- -studied law in law office

13 Andrew Jackson 2 Moved to Nashville in held a number of state offices in 1790s as well as serving a short time in the House of Rep and US Senate. Moved to Nashville in held a number of state offices in 1790s as well as serving a short time in the House of Rep and US Senate. But from early 19th century down to war of 1812 lived life of planter But from early 19th century down to war of 1812 lived life of planter Given command of Tennessee militia and then made major general in U.S. forces Given command of Tennessee militia and then made major general in U.S. forces

14 Battle of New Orleans Jackson led forces that defeated British in New Orleans in January, 1815 Jackson led forces that defeated British in New Orleans in January, ,057 English dead, 13 Americans 2,057 English dead, 13 Americans Jackson voted thanks by Congress and given gold medal Jackson voted thanks by Congress and given gold medal Martin Van Buren of NY wrote leg thanking Jackson “an event surpassing the most heroic and wonderful achievements which adorn the annals of mankind.” Martin Van Buren of NY wrote leg thanking Jackson “an event surpassing the most heroic and wonderful achievements which adorn the annals of mankind.”

15 Niles Register “Glory be to God that the barbarians have been defeated and that at Orleans the intended plunders have found their grave! Glory to Jackson…Glory to the militia…Sons of freedom---saviors of Orleans--benefactors of your country and avengers of its wrongs, all hail! Hail glorious people--worthy, thrice worthy, to enjoy the blessing which heaven in bounteous profusion has heaped on your country.” “Glory be to God that the barbarians have been defeated and that at Orleans the intended plunders have found their grave! Glory to Jackson…Glory to the militia…Sons of freedom---saviors of Orleans--benefactors of your country and avengers of its wrongs, all hail! Hail glorious people--worthy, thrice worthy, to enjoy the blessing which heaven in bounteous profusion has heaped on your country.”

16 Battle of New Orleans

17

18 Andrew Jackson

19

20 Election of 1824 Five candidates: Adams, Calhoun, William Henry Crawford, Clay and Jackson Five candidates: Adams, Calhoun, William Henry Crawford, Clay and Jackson Crawford caucus candidate Crawford caucus candidate Jackson’s nomination---fluke Jackson’s nomination---fluke Once nominated Jackson’s candidacy gained popular support Once nominated Jackson’s candidacy gained popular support

21 Election of Jackson only candidate with national support---Crawford (South), Clay (West) and Adams (Northeast) Calhoun withdrew Jackson only candidate with national support---Crawford (South), Clay (West) and Adams (Northeast) Calhoun withdrew Jackson won plurality of popular vote--but no one had maj in electoral college Jackson won plurality of popular vote--but no one had maj in electoral college Top three candidates forwarded to H of R- -Jackson, Crawford and Adams Top three candidates forwarded to H of R- -Jackson, Crawford and Adams Clay threw support to Adams and was appointed Secretary of State Clay threw support to Adams and was appointed Secretary of State

22 Dissolution of Jeffersonian Republican Party Jackson supporters charge “corrupt bargain” between Clay and Adams Jackson supporters charge “corrupt bargain” between Clay and Adams Election of 1824 brought dissolution of old Jeffersonian Republican Party Election of 1824 brought dissolution of old Jeffersonian Republican Party After Adams supporters began calling themselves National Republicans and Jacksonians---Democratic Republicans After Adams supporters began calling themselves National Republicans and Jacksonians---Democratic Republicans

23 Why was Jackson so Popular One historian has written a book-- Andrew Jackson: Symbol of an Age One historian has written a book-- Andrew Jackson: Symbol of an Age Why was he so popular---man of tremendous will, courage Why was he so popular---man of tremendous will, courage Indiana newspaper “There is not to be found in this wide universe a man so pure, spotless and exceptional in his moral and political character as Andrew Jackson. But he has no leading man in his favor. This is his only crime.” Indiana newspaper “There is not to be found in this wide universe a man so pure, spotless and exceptional in his moral and political character as Andrew Jackson. But he has no leading man in his favor. This is his only crime.”

24 Why was Jackson so Popular 2 Seen as advocate of democracy, untainted by corruption of old political system Seen as advocate of democracy, untainted by corruption of old political system Second George Washington--and like Washington represents certain virtues of the old republic Second George Washington--and like Washington represents certain virtues of the old republic “Washington the people’s choice was elevated to the Presidency by the people--the prosperity of the country proved the wisdom of his administration. Jackson, the people’s choice is now before you--will you complete the parallel.” “Washington the people’s choice was elevated to the Presidency by the people--the prosperity of the country proved the wisdom of his administration. Jackson, the people’s choice is now before you--will you complete the parallel.”

25 Campaigning for 1828 Martin Van Buren key figure “we will support no man who does not come forward on the principles and in the form in which Jefferson and Madison were brought forward.” Martin Van Buren key figure “we will support no man who does not come forward on the principles and in the form in which Jefferson and Madison were brought forward.” Principles: states rights, strict construction of the constitution---appeal to radicals of former Crawford faction--Coalition of “plain Republicans of the North with the planters in the South” Principles: states rights, strict construction of the constitution---appeal to radicals of former Crawford faction--Coalition of “plain Republicans of the North with the planters in the South” Establish Jackson Committees across country and newspapers Establish Jackson Committees across country and newspapers

26 Martin Van Buren

27 Election of 1828 Campaign one of most scurrilous in American history Campaign one of most scurrilous in American history Jackson and wife Rachel charged with living in sin and bigamy Jackson and wife Rachel charged with living in sin and bigamy “Ought a convicted adulteress and her paramour husband to be placed in the highest office of this free and Christian land? What effect, think you, fellow citizens, will it have upon the American youth?” “Ought a convicted adulteress and her paramour husband to be placed in the highest office of this free and Christian land? What effect, think you, fellow citizens, will it have upon the American youth?”

28 Rachel Jackson

29 Election of Jacksonians charged Adams was a pimp Jacksonians charged Adams was a pimp “Why is Adams on ticklish grounds? Because he stands of slippery Clay.” “Why is Adams on ticklish grounds? Because he stands of slippery Clay.” Results Results –Jackson 178 electoral votes to Adams 83 –Popular vote Jackson 647,000 to Adams 508,000 –Jackson swept all states south of Potomac and west of NJ –1,150,000 votes cast---increase of 800,000 over 1824

30 Washington in Jackson Era

31 Jackson’s Inaugural


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