Presentation on theme: "Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development CHAPTER 3Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development
2Learning GoalsDescribe two contemporary perspectives on socioemotional development: Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory and Erikson’s life-span development theory.Discuss how the social contexts of families, peers, and schools are linked with socioemotional development.Explain these aspects of children’s socioemotional development: self-esteem, identity, moral development, and coping with stress.
3Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development ContemporaryTheoriesBronfenbrenner’sEcologicalTheoryErikson’sLife-SpanDevelopment Theory
4Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Bronfenbrenner’s theory focuses on the social contexts in which people live and the people who influence their development.
5Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory cont’d Microsystem: Direct interactions with parents, teachers, peers, and others.Mesosystem: Linkages between microsystems such as family and school, and relationships between students and peers.Exosystem: Experiences in settings in which a child does not have an active role influence the child’s experiences.
6Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory cont’d Macrosystem: The broader culture in which students and teachers live.Chronosystem: The sociohistorical conditions of a student’s development.
7Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Theory into Practice Sid’s father left his family years ago and provides no support for them. Sid and his three siblings live with their mother in a public housing project for low-income families. They receive public assistance in the form of reduced rent, money to live on, and participation in a food program. Sid and his siblings receive free school lunches, and do not have to pay the standard book rental fee. In addition, they receive free medical care when ill or injured, but Sid’s mother considers the care they receive to be substandard. Recently, she contacted legal aid about obtaining child support from her children’s fatherA1: Family, school, health servicesA2: Social services, legal servicesQ.1: What aspects of Sid’s microsystem are discussed in the example? Explain.Q.2: What aspects of Sid’s exosystem are discussed in the example? Explain.
8Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Theory into Practice Sid’s father left them years ago and provides no support for the family. Sid and his three siblings live with their mother in a public housing project for low-income families. They receive public assistance in the form of reduced rent, money to live on, and participate in a food program. Sid and his siblings receive free school lunches, and do not have to pay the standard book rental fee. In addition, they receive free medical care when ill or injured, but Sid’s mother considers the care they receive to be substandard. Recently, she contacted legal aid about obtaining child support from her children’s father.A3: There does not appear to be much communication. However, at least the school is aware of the economic situation of the family.Q.3: How is the mesosystem currently operating for Sid? Explain.
9Bronfenbrenner’s Theory in the Classroom Think about children embedded in several environmental systems and influencesAttend to connections between school and familiesRecognize the importance of community, culture, and socioeconomic status
10Erikson’s Life-Span Development Theory Development proceeds in stagesEach stage is characterized by a psychosocial challenge or crisisStages reflect the motivation of the individual
11Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Human Development 1 - Trust vs. mistrust2 - Autonomy vs. shame and doubt3 - Initiative vs. guilt4 - Industry vs. inferiority5 - Identity vs. identity confusion6 - Intimacy vs. isolation7 - Generativity vs. stagnation8 - Integrity vs. despair
12Erikson’s Human Development Stages 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust0–1 years2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 1–3 years3 - Initiative vs. Guilt 3–5 yearsDeveloped through consistent love and supportIndependence fostered by support and encouragementDeveloped by exploring and accepting challenges
13Erikson’s Human Development Stages 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority 6 years–puberty5 - Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation Early adult yearsMastery comes from success and recognitionExploration of different paths to attain a healthy identityForm positive, close relationships with others
14Erikson’s Human Development Stages 7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood8 - Integrity vs. Despair Late AdulthoodTransmitting something positive to the next generationLife review and retrospective evaluation of one’s past
15Strategies for Erikson’s Stages of Development InitiativeEncourage social playHave children assume responsibilityStructure assignments for successIndustryNourish motivation for masteryBe tolerant of honest mistakesIdentityRecognize that identity is multidimensionalEncourage independent thinkingStimulate students to examine different perspectives
16Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development of DevelopmentFamiliesPeersSchools
17Baumrind’s Parenting Styles NeglectfulParents are uninvolved. Children have poor self-control, don’t handle independence well, and low achievement motivation.AuthoritarianParents are restrictive and punitive. Children tend to be socially incompetent, anxious, and exhibit poor communication skills.IndulgentParents are highly involved but set few restrictions. Children have poor self-control.AuthoritativeParents are nurturing and supportive, yet set limits. Children are self-reliant, get along with peers, and have high self-esteem.
18The Changing Family Working parents Children in divorced families Nature of parents’ work mattersChildren in divorced familiesThe quality of parental relationships, timing of divorce, use of support systems, type of custody, SES, and quality schooling all affect children.Elementary school children did best when the parent and the school environment were authoritative.Children in stepfamiliesShow more adjustment problems than children in intact families, especially during adolescence
19Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in Families Minority studentsFamilies tend to be larger; depend moreon the extended family for supportSingle parents are more commonLess educated; lower incomeLow-income parentsTend to value external characteristics such as obedience and neatnessSee education as the teachers’ job
20Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in Families Middle-class familiesOften place high value on internal characteristics such as self-control and delayed gratificationSee education as a mutual responsibility
21School-Family Linkages Communicate effectively with families about school programs and their child’s progressInvolve families with their children in learning activities at homeEncourage parents to be volunteersProvide assistance to familiesCoordinate community collaborationInclude families as participants in school decisions
22Peer Statuses Popular Rejected Neglected Frequently nominated as best friend; rarely disliked by peersRejectedSeldom“best friend”;often actively disliked by peersNeglectedInfrequently“best friend”;not disliked by peers
23Receive both positive and negative peer nominations Peer StatusesAverageReceive both positive and negative peer nominationsControversialFrequently“best friend”;often dislikedby peers
24Quality of Friendships Affect Outcomes Reflect: What is a friend?Quality of Friendships Affect OutcomesDuring a slideshow, text may be written on the slide in the white box, and then saved for later reference.
25Early Childhood and Elementary School Developmentally appropriate practicesEarly Childhood ApproachesReggio EmiliaMontessoriAcademic versus child-centeredTransition to elementary schools
26Schools for Adolescents Transition to Middle or Junior HSStressful due to developmental changesTop-dog phenomenonAcademic challengeCarnegie Corporation 1989 RecommendationsImproving America’s High SchoolsHigh expectations for all studentsImprove drop-out rates
27Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development The SelfMoralDevelopmentCoping with Stress
28Self-Concept and Self-Esteem Self-concept is a cognitive appraisal of our social,physical, and academic competence.CognitiveAcademicSocialPhysicalSelf-esteem is the affective or emotional reaction to one’s self-concept.
29Improving Children’s Self-Esteem Identify causes of low self-esteem and areas of competence important to the selfProvide emotional support and social approvalHelp children achieveDevelop coping skills
31Ethnic Identity … Positive ethnic identity Higher school engagement “is an enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feeling related to that membership” (Phinney, 2006) (as cited in Santrock, 2009).Positive ethnic identityHigher school engagementLower aggressionNavajo adolescents: higher self-esteem, school connectedness, and social functioning
32Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development PreconventionalConventionalPostconventionalMoral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishments.Internal standards are imposed by others.Morality is internal, not based on external standards.
33Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, others might also do so and this could result in disorder in the classroom. Because of this, he understands that it is his duty to follow the rules.A: Stage 4: Social Systems Morality. He is obeying the rule because he understands the importance of rules to maintaining order.Q: At which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development is Sam functioning?
34Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, he will be punished.A: Stage 1: Heteronomous morality. He is obeying the rule out of fear of punishment.Q: At which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development is Sam functioning? Explain.
35Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, it will displease his teacher.A: Stage 3: Mutual Interpersonal Expectations, Relationships, and Interpersonal Conformity. He is obeying the rule to preserve a relationship.Q: At which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development is Sam functioning? Explain.
36Care vs. Justice Perspective Justice perspective focuses on rights of individualsCare perspective emphasizes relationships and concern for others
37Reflection & Observation Recall a cheating incident. What factors influenced the decision to cheat?This slide accompanies the video segment, Cheating and Moral Reasoning, on the McGraw-Hill DVD Teaching Stories: A Video Collection for Educational Psychology.
38Enter the Debate Should teachers teach students values/morality? YES NODuring a slideshow, text may be written on the slides in the yes/no boxes, and then saved for later reference.
39Moral Education 1. Hidden Curriculum School personnel serve as models of ethical behavior.Classroom rules and peer relationships transmit positive attitudes to students.2. Character EducationSchools take a direct approach to teaching moral literacy and design an environment that rewards proper behavior.
40Moral Education 3. Values Clarification Schools design programs that allow students to clarify their own values and understand the values of others.4. Cognitive Moral EducationSchools base programs on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as moral reasoning develops.
41Moral Education5. Service LearningSchools encourage students to be involved in the community by becoming a tutor, helping the elderly, volunteering in hospitals or day care, etc.6. Integrative ApproachSchools encourage students to be reflective moral thinkers and committed to justice, and develop children’s moral character.
42Crack the Case The Case of the Fight What are the issues in this case?At what stage of moral development would you expect these boys to be, based on the information you have? What predictions can you make regarding each boy’s sense of self and emotional development?What can you say about the boys’ mothers?This case is on page 111 of the text.
43Crack the Case The Case of the Fight What do you think about the punishment that Luke received? How would you have handled this situation?What impact do you think this will have on the boys’ future relationship? What impact will it have on their attitudes toward school?This case is on page 111 of the text.
44Strategies for Coping with Stress Reassure childrenEncourage talkProtect from re-exposure to stressHelp make sense