Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 3 Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 3 Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 3 Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development

2 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Learning Goals 1. Describe two contemporary perspectives on socioemotional development: Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory and Erikson’s life-span development theory. 2. Discuss how the social contexts of families, peers, and schools are linked with socioemotional development. 3. Explain these aspects of children’s socioemotional development: self-esteem, identity, moral development, and coping with stress.

3 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development Contemporary Theories Erikson’s Life-Span Development Theory Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory

4 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Bronfenbrenner’s theory focuses on the social contexts in which people live and the people who influence their development.

5 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory cont’d Microsystem: Direct interactions with parents, teachers, peers, and others. Mesosystem: Linkages between microsystems such as family and school, and relationships between students and peers. Exosystem: Experiences in settings in which a child does not have an active role influence the child’s experiences.

6 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory cont’d Macrosystem: The broader culture in which students and teachers live. Chronosystem: The sociohistorical conditions of a student’s development.

7 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sid’s father left his family years ago and provides no support for them. Sid and his three siblings live with their mother in a public housing project for low-income families. They receive public assistance in the form of reduced rent, money to live on, and participation in a food program. Sid and his siblings receive free school lunches, and do not have to pay the standard book rental fee. In addition, they receive free medical care when ill or injured, but Sid’s mother considers the care they receive to be substandard. Recently, she contacted legal aid about obtaining child support from her children’s father Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Theory into Practice Q.1: What aspects of Sid’s microsystem are discussed in the example? Explain. Q.2: What aspects of Sid’s exosystem are discussed in the example? Explain.

8 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sid’s father left them years ago and provides no support for the family. Sid and his three siblings live with their mother in a public housing project for low-income families. They receive public assistance in the form of reduced rent, money to live on, and participate in a food program. Sid and his siblings receive free school lunches, and do not have to pay the standard book rental fee. In addition, they receive free medical care when ill or injured, but Sid’s mother considers the care they receive to be substandard. Recently, she contacted legal aid about obtaining child support from her children’s father. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Theory into Practice Q.3: How is the mesosystem currently operating for Sid? Explain.

9 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Bronfenbrenner’s Theory in the Classroom Think about children embedded in several environmental systems and influences Attend to connections between school and families Recognize the importance of community, culture, and socioeconomic status

10 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Erikson’s Life-Span Development Theory Development proceeds in stages Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial challenge or crisis Stages reflect the motivation of the individual

11 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Human Development 1 - Trust vs. mistrust 2 - Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3 - Initiative vs. guilt 4 - Industry vs. inferiority 5 - Identity vs. identity confusion 6 - Intimacy vs. isolation 7 - Generativity vs. stagnation 8 - Integrity vs. despair

12 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Erikson’s Human Development Stages 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust 0–1 years 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 1–3 years 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt 3–5 years Developed through consistent love and support Independence fostered by support and encouragement Developed by exploring and accepting challenges

13 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Erikson’s Human Development Stages 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority 6 years–puberty 5 - Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation Early adult years Mastery comes from success and recognition Exploration of different paths to attain a healthy identity Form positive, close relationships with others

14 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Erikson’s Human Development Stages 7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood 8 - Integrity vs. Despair Late Adulthood Transmitting something positive to the next generation Life review and retrospective evaluation of one’s past

15 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Strategies for Erikson’s Stages of Development Initiative Encourage social play Have children assume responsibility Structure assignments for success Industry Nourish motivation for mastery Be tolerant of honest mistakes Identity Recognize that identity is multidimensional Encourage independent thinking Stimulate students to examine different perspectives

16 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development Social Contexts of Development FamiliesPeersSchools

17 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Authoritarian Parents are restrictive and punitive. Children tend to be socially incompetent, anxious, and exhibit poor communication skills. Indulgent Parents are highly involved but set few restrictions. Children have poor self-control. Neglectful Parents are uninvolved. Children have poor self- control, don’t handle independence well, and low achievement motivation. Authoritative Parents are nurturing and supportive, yet set limits. Children are self-reliant, get along with peers, and have high self-esteem.

18 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. The Changing Family Working parents Nature of parents’ work matters Children in divorced families The quality of parental relationships, timing of divorce, use of support systems, type of custody, SES, and quality schooling all affect children. Elementary school children did best when the parent and the school environment were authoritative. Children in stepfamilies Show more adjustment problems than children in intact families, especially during adolescence

19 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in Families Minority students Families tend to be larger; depend more on the extended family for support Single parents are more common Less educated; lower income Low-income parents Tend to value external characteristics such as obedience and neatness See education as the teachers’ job

20 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Variations in Families Middle-class families Often place high value on internal characteristics such as self-control and delayed gratification See education as a mutual responsibility

21 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. School-Family Linkages Communicate effectively with families about school programs and their child’s progress Involve families with their children in learning activities at home Encourage parents to be volunteers Provide assistance to families Coordinate community collaboration Include families as participants in school decisions

22 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Peer Statuses Neglected Infrequently “best friend”; not disliked by peers Rejected Seldom “best friend”; often actively disliked by peers Popular Frequently nominated as best friend; rarely disliked by peers

23 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Peer Statuses Controversial Frequently “best friend”; often disliked by peers Average Receive both positive and negative peer nominations

24 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Friendships Quality of Friendships Affect Outcomes Reflect: What is a friend?

25 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Early Childhood and Elementary School Developmentally appropriate practices Early Childhood Approaches  Reggio Emilia  Montessori  Academic versus child-centered Transition to elementary schools

26 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Schools for Adolescents Transition to Middle or Junior HS  Stressful due to developmental changes  Top-dog phenomenon  Academic challenge Carnegie Corporation 1989 Recommendations Improving America’s High Schools  High expectations for all students  Improve drop-out rates

27 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development Socioemotional Development The Self Moral Development Coping with Stress

28 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Self-Concept and Self-Esteem Self-esteem is the affective or emotional reaction to one’s self-concept. Self-concept is a cognitive appraisal of our social, physical, and academic competence. Cognitive Academic Social Physical

29 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Improving Children’s Self-Esteem  Identify causes of low self-esteem and areas of competence important to the self  Provide emotional support and social approval  Help children achieve  Develop coping skills

30 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Marcia’s Four Statuses of Identity

31 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Ethnic Identity … “is an enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group, along with the attitudes and feeling related to that membership” (Phinney, 2006) (as cited in Santrock, 2009). Positive ethnic identity  Higher school engagement  Lower aggression  Navajo adolescents: higher self-esteem, school connectedness, and social functioning

32 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development Preconventional Conventional Postconventional Moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishments. Internal standards are imposed by others. Morality is internal, not based on external standards.

33 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, others might also do so and this could result in disorder in the classroom. Because of this, he understands that it is his duty to follow the rules. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice Q: At which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development is Sam functioning?

34 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, he will be punished. Q: At which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development is Sam functioning? Explain. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice

35 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, it will displease his teacher. Q: At which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development is Sam functioning? Explain. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice

36 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Care vs. Justice Perspective Justice perspective focuses on rights of individuals Care perspective emphasizes relationships and concern for others

37 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Reflection & Observation Reflection: Recall a cheating incident. What factors influenced the decision to cheat?

38 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Enter the Debate Should teachers teach students values/morality? YESNO

39 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Moral Education 1. Hidden Curriculum School personnel serve as models of ethical behavior. Classroom rules and peer relationships transmit positive attitudes to students. 2. Character Education Schools take a direct approach to teaching moral literacy and design an environment that rewards proper behavior.

40 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Moral Education 3.Values Clarification Schools design programs that allow students to clarify their own values and understand the values of others. 4. Cognitive Moral Education Schools base programs on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as moral reasoning develops.

41 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Moral Education 5. Service Learning Schools encourage students to be involved in the community by becoming a tutor, helping the elderly, volunteering in hospitals or day care, etc. 6. Integrative Approach Schools encourage students to be reflective moral thinkers and committed to justice, and develop children’s moral character.

42 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Crack the Case The Case of the Fight 1. What are the issues in this case? 2. At what stage of moral development would you expect these boys to be, based on the information you have? What predictions can you make regarding each boy’s sense of self and emotional development? 3. What can you say about the boys’ mothers?

43 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 4. What do you think about the punishment that Luke received? How would you have handled this situation? 5. What impact do you think this will have on the boys’ future relationship? What impact will it have on their attitudes toward school? Crack the Case The Case of the Fight

44 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Strategies for Coping with Stress Reassure children Encourage talk Protect from re-exposure to stress Help make sense


Download ppt "© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 3 Social Contexts and Socioemotional Development."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google