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The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior 2e Andrew J. DuBrin PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior 2e Andrew J. DuBrin PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nature and Scope of Organizational Behavior Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior 2e Andrew J. DuBrin PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Chapter 1

2 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–21–2 Learning Objectives 1.Explain what organizational behavior means. 2.Summarize the research methods of organizational behavior. 3.Identify the potential advantages of organizational behavior knowledge. 4.Explain key events in the history of organizational behavior. 5.Describe how focusing on the human element can contribute to organizational and managerial effectiveness. 6.Understand how a person develops organizational skills.

3 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–31–3 The Meaning of Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior (OB) is Organizational behavior (OB) is  the study of human behavior in the workplace,  the interaction between people and the organization,  and the organization itself. Organizational behavior’s major goals are to Organizational behavior’s major goals are to  explain, predict, and control behavior.

4 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–41–4 OB Data Collection and Research Methods Data collection methods Data collection methods  Survey questionnaires  Interviews  Direct observation  Systematic observation  Participant observation Researcher methods Researcher methods  Case studies  Laboratory experiments  Field experiments (or studies)  Meta-analysis

5 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–51–5 Benefits of Studying Organizational Behavior  Develop skills to function effectively in the workplace.  Grow personally through insight into human behavior.  Enhance overall organizational effectiveness  Sharpen and refine common sense.

6 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–61–6 Key Developments in OB History The Hawthorne Studies at Western Electric  Originally intended as a study of the effects of environmental changes on productivity.  The Hawthorne Effect — the tendency of people to behave differently (perform better) when they receive attention.  Key Findings 1.Economic incentives are less potent than generally believed. 2.Dealing with human problems is complicated and challenging. 3.Leadership practices and work-group pressures strongly influence productivity, satisfaction, and performance. 4.Personal problems influence worker productivity. 5.Effective communication is critical to success. 6.Factors embedded in the social system influence behavior.

7 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–71–7 Key Developments in OB History The Human Relations Movement The Human Relations Movement  Based on belief that managerial practices, morale, and productivity are strongly linked and that the proper working environment enhances worker capabilities.  Douglas McGregor  Theory X –Managers assume people dislike work, avoid responsibility, lack ambition, and need close supervision.  Theory Y –Managers assume people enjoy work, accept responsibility, are innovative, and are self-controlling.

8 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–81–8 Key Developments in OB History The Contingency Approach The Contingency Approach  Emphasizes that there is no one best way to manage people. Different situations require managers to make decisions about which managerial methods and approaches to use in a specific instance.  Knowledge of organizational behavior and management is essential to the examination of individual and situational differences before deciding a course of action.

9 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–91–9 Key Managerial Practices of Successful Organizations 1.Employment security. 2.High standards in selecting personnel. 3.Extensive use of self- managed teams and decentralized decision making. 4.Comparatively high compensation based on performance. 5.Extensive employee training. 6.Reduction of status differences between higher management and other employees. 7.Information sharing among managers and other workers. 8.Promotion from within. Source: Jeffery Pfeffer, The Human Equation (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1998), pp. 64–98; Joanne Cole, Interview with Jeffery Pfeffer: “Putting People First,” HRFOCUS, April 1998, pp. 11–12; Pfeffer, “Producing Sustainable Competitive Advantage through the Effective Management of People,” Academy of Management Executive, February 1995, pp. 64–65. EXHIBIT 1-1

10 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–10 Skill Development in Organizational Behavior General learning model 1.Conceptual information and behavioral guidelines. 2.Conceptual information demonstrated by example and brief descriptions. 3.Experiential exercises in the form of practice cases and self-assessment exercises. 4.Feedback on skill utilization, or performance, from others.

11 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–11 A Model for Developing Organizational Behavior Skills Skill Development in Organizational Behavior Learner Uses 1.Conceptual knowledge and behavior guidelines 2.Conceptual information and examples 3.Experiential exercises 4.Feedback on skill utilization EXHIBIT 1-2

12 A. J. DuBrin, Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Second Edition. Copyright © 2002 by South-Western. 1–12 A Framework for Studying Organizational Behavior The Organizational System and the Global Environment Organizational structure and design Organizational culture and change The learning organization and knowledge management Cultural diversity and international organizational behavior Individual Level Individual differences, mental ability, and personality Learning, perception, attitudes, values, and ethics Individual decision making and creativity Foundation concepts of motivation Conflict, stress, and well-being Groups and Interpersonal Relations Interpersonal communication Group dynamics and teamwork Leadership Power, politics, and influence EXHIBIT 1-3


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