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Elena Parina (Philipps-Universität Marburg / Institute of Linguistics RAS, Moscow) Welsh Adjectives for ‘sharp’: polysemy and etymology Comparative-Historical.

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Presentation on theme: "Elena Parina (Philipps-Universität Marburg / Institute of Linguistics RAS, Moscow) Welsh Adjectives for ‘sharp’: polysemy and etymology Comparative-Historical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elena Parina (Philipps-Universität Marburg / Institute of Linguistics RAS, Moscow) Welsh Adjectives for ‘sharp’: polysemy and etymology Comparative-Historical Linguistics of the XXIst Century: Issues and Perspectives Moscow, RSUH,

2 Die semantische Entwicklung von Adjektiven im Kymrischen unter diachron-sprachtypologischen Gesichtspunkten Polysemy and semantic change of adjectives in Welsh from historical and typological perspective FB 10: Vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft und Keltologie Philipps-Universität Marburg

3 3 Structure of the paper 1.Main adjectives for ‘sharp’ Welsh from 13 th c. to 21 st c patterns of polysemy 1.2. system change 2.Etymologies for these adjectives 3.Typological parallels for attested polysemy patterns and etymologies

4 4 llym pre Total279

5 5 llym weapons and instruments 25 natural object 11 swift motion 7 harsh action 1

6 (1) A guneuthur bagyl ida6 o hayarn llym megys y gallei llad y dewin a hi. And make for him a sharp staff of iron, so that one could kill the magician with it. (NLW c.) (2) Llym vym par llachar ygryt. Sharp is my spear, bright in battle. GwLl 4.11 (3) Llym awel llum brin. Sharp is the wind, bare the hill. ClAb 2.1 (4) gwae fy llaw llym digones Alas, my hand, it performed harshly. PenUr

7 (5) ac odyno yn llym mi a neidaf And from there I shall jump quickly Pen 5 t96r-c148- ll24 (ca. 1350) (6) ac otuel a|gyuodes yn llym y|vynyd And Otuel rose quickly/angrily up Pen 5 t79v-c86- ll29 (ca. 1350) (7) sanguis a wna dyn yn da y ewyllys ac yn hyn a6s. ac yn araf ac yn llawen [...] Y colera a|wna|dyn yn llidya6c ac yn ethrylithus. ac yn llym Blood makes a person good-willed and kind and slow and joyful […] Yellow bile makes a person angry and intelligent and quick Caerdydd 3.242t73-ll4 (c.1375–c.1425)

8 8 llym weapons and instruments11 (6) natural object2 frost, wind, winter3 fire1 weapon + tongue1 analysis1 criticism1 swift motion / smbd, smth swift4 regulation (negatively)2

9 (8) Y gaiaf aeth yn llym iawn The winter proved remarkably severe JAUG (1779) (9) Cyfraith lym a gwaedlyd ydoedd It was a severe and bloody law. S. Thomas: HB 170 (1718) (10) Mae’r diafol yn gwybod pryd mae’r gweinidog yn parottoi pregeth lem, addas i gyflwr ac eisiau dynion The devil knows when the minister is preparing a sharp sermon, meeting conditions and wishes of people. T.Jones: TOS 140 (1709)

10 10 Ellis, N. C., O'Dochartaigh, C., Hicks, W., Morgan, M., & Laporte, N. (2001). Cronfa Electroneg o Gymraeg (CEG) weapons and instruments2 natural object1 criticism17 regulation10 discipline5 speech, words3 look2 tribulation1 punishment1 voice1 pain1

11 (11) Wrth chwarae pêl-droed [...], cefais ddolur llym tua gwaelod fy nghefn. While I was playing football I got a sharp pain in the bottom of my back. (20 c. corpus) (12) Mae'n sôn am berson sy'n byw bywyd prysur "bosys llym, amserlen tynn". It is spoken about a person leading busy life: “severe bosses, tight schedule” (20 c. corpus) (13) Ei gariad at ei genedl a ysgogai'r Athro W J Gruffydd ei beirniadu mor llym ar brydiau. His love for his nation caused Professor W.J. Gruffydd to judge it so strictly sometimes. (20 c. corpus)

12 12 National Assembly of Wales Records regulation32 constraint, cut12 criticism6 to enforce smth strictly4 speech, words2 competition1 analysis2 punishment2 to deal harshly, severely, strictly10 time2

13 (15) Teimlwn fy mod wedi cael fy nhrin braidd yn llym a rhoddodd y profiad negyddol a gefais wrth fynd drwy’r adran ddiogelwch yn un brawychus iawn. I felt that my treatment was rather draconian and I was shocked by the negative experience that I had while going through security. (Nat. Assembly of Wales ) (16) Dyna yr ydym yn ei wneud: yr ydym yn profi’r canllawiau presennol sy’n ymwneud â safonau bwyd a maeth llym. That is what we are doing: we are testing the current guidelines relating to stringent food and nutritional standards.. (Nat. Assembly of Wales )

14 14 miniog : 12 weapons (+numeral)10 weapon : 37 weapons, instruments, natural objects 12 intellect5 wind3 pain1 speech7

15 Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd Er fy lladd-i â llafnau deufin as killing me with two-edged blade (about a girl’s look)

16 (17) Y seithuet oed dywyll heuyt. ac aruthyr o li6 g6aet. ac yndi megys cledyf ped6ar minnya6c. The seventh (sun) was also dark and terrible, of colour of blood, and in it as if a four-edged sword. (Llyfr Coch Hergest t139r-c571b-ll3 c.1375–c.1425) (19) Ac Escrifena at Angel Eglwys Pergamus, Hyn ymay ef yny Ddwedyd y sydd ar cleddey llym day vinioc. And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges (TN Huet Dat. 2 12: 1567)

17 (21) Dannedd miniog y llygoden yw unig allwedd i'r gist. The sharp teeth of the mouse are the only key to the chest (20 c. corpus) (22) dyma nhw'n gofyn i mi fynd â'u hoffer di-fin nhw i lawr at y gof i'w hogi, a dod â'r rhai miniog i fyny'n ôl. so they asked me to bring their blunt instruments down to the smith to sharpen them and to bring them the sharp ones (20 c. corpus) (23) Fel y gwyr pob diabetig, cael nodwydd finiog yw'r gyfrinach. As every diabetic knows, the secret is to find a sharp needle. (Y gwyddonydd - Cyf. 4, Rhif 1 Mawrth 1966) (24) gwaywffon finiog a thanllyd honed fiery spear

18 (25) Cofiwn yr ymdrech gynnar yn erbyn gwynt anarferol o finiog I could remember the early struggle with the unusually strong wind (20 c. corpus) (26) Gyda'ch meddwl miniog, fe gofiwch yn syth imi ofyn y cwestiwn hwnnw gyntaf ar 24 Tachwedd With your razor-sharp mind, you will instantly recall that I first asked that question on 24 November (Nat. Assembly of Wales )

19 19 System change weapon, instruments abstract Middle and Early Modern Welsh llym [miniog] llym Contemporary Welsh miniog llym miniog

20 miniog – etymology GPC 2462: [min + -iog] 2460 min ‘edge, border, mouth’ [MCo. myn ‘face, lip, mouth; tip, edge, border’, MBr. and ModBr. min ‘face; mouth; lip’; ?cf. Gwydd. C. mēn ‘mouth’] LEIA M – “en somme rien de sûr”

21 llym – etymology GPC 2269 MCo. lym, MBr. and ModBr. lemm, OIr. slim ‘smooth, sleek’: possibly < *slibsmos, from IE *(s)leib-, extension of the root *(s)lei- ‘muddy, dirty;, slymy’, see llyfn] llyfn 2254 – ModCo. leven ‘smooth, even, slippery’, OBr. limn gl. lentum, ModBr. levn, Oir. slemon ‘smooth, polished, sleek, slippery’, ModIr. sleamhain ‘sleek, slippery, smooth; treacherous’: ? Clt. *sli-m-no ‘slippery’ from the root *(s)lei- ‘muddy, slimy’, cf. S. slime, OHG. slīm ‘mud, slime’ and may be Lat. līma ‘file’ (напильник)

22 llym – etymology Matasović 2009: 239 *lim-ā- ‘sharpen, polish’ [Vb] GOID: Mir. límaid ‘shaprens, polishes’; limsat [3p Pret.] W: MW llymhau ‘sharpen, whet, quicken’ BRET: OBret. lemhaam gl. acuo, MBret. lemaff, MoBret. lemmañ ETYM: These words are most probably related to Lat. līma ‘carpenter's file’, OHG slīm ‘mud, slime’, slīman ‘make smooth’, etc. The PIE root would be *(s)ley- (IEW 663), with the suffix *-mo- in Italic, Germanic, and Celtic. However, the length in Olr. límaid is unexpected (but cf. the short vowel in 3 pl. Pret. limsat). REF: GPC II: 2271, DGVB 239, Deshayes 2003: 458.

23 23 DATABASE of semantic shifts in the languages of the world Zalizniak, Anna A., Bulakh, M., Ganenkov, D., Gruntov, I., Maisak, T., Russo. M. Zalizniak, Anna A., Bulakh, M., Ganenkov, D., Gruntov, I., Maisak, T., Russo. M. The Catalogue of semantic shifts as a database for lexical semantic Typology // M. Koptjevskaja- Tamm, M. Vanhove (eds.) New directions in lexical typology. A special issue of Linguistics, 2012, vol. 50, No. 3, P

24 Anna Zaliznjak et al. 2012: 640

25

26 26 Archi s ː ob 'mouth' — 'tip, end (rope), bank' Hausa baki 'mouth' — 'edge, border' Avar k'al 'mouth' — 'beginning, end (e.g. of a rope, field, ), part (e.g. front part of a military brigade)' Hausa baki 'mouth' — 'knife blade' Geez ʔ af 'mouth' — 'border, edge' Turkish ağız 'mouth' — 'blade (knife); start (road)'

27 Database of Semantic Shifts meaningsourcetarget big, large14 (13)8 (3) little, small11 (9)5 (2) cold15 (9)2 (1) warm4 (1)1 dry16 (8)0 full 2 (1)0 good 5 (4)14 (8) long 4 (3)1 short 4 (3)0 new 2 (2)2 (1) round 2 (2)0 heavy 15 (10)0 thin 16 (11)2 (1)

28 28 Diolch am roi gwrandawiad imi! Danke für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit ! Thank you for your attention! Спасибо за внимание!


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