Warming up Exercise Q: Are communication skills important? Daily life Job Wanted (Vacancy) Business School: a course offered? Business community: on-the-job tasks? Its relevance to negotiation? Q: Are you a competent communicator?
Review of negotiation process: a communication focus pre-self-&TOS- assessment (trust, credibility, commitment), strategy formulation strategic planning vis-a-visbargain, debate, trade-off, compromise solution-crafting post-recaping and checking, deal-closing deal-drafting
Communication as a sub-process PHASESFEATURES OF COMMU pre-perceptual error, attributions and biases, Framing vis-a-viscommunicative behaviors (VC & NVC), conduct post-recapping and checking, deal-closing
Learning objectives Primary and ultimate goal: a competent and effective IB communicator 1. Appreciate/know communication as a means, sub- process (cf. perception as a sub-process), and its principles. 2. Heighten/raise your sensitivity to the role of verbal and nonverbal communication. 3. Sharpen/hone your communication skills by speaking for effect, proper inquiring, active listening, keen observing, and stepping into others’ shoes (sympathizing).
Outline 1.Basic Principles/Models of Communication 2.What is Communicated during Negotiation? 3.How People Communicate in Negotiation? 4.How to Improve Communication in Negotiation 5.Special Communication Considerations at the Close 6.Chapter Summary 7.Assignment 8. List of recommended readings
1.1 Basic Models of Communication A conceptual framework of communication by Shannon and Weaver (1948), an influential model Key Elements: Video clip (at the course site) (1) Senders and receivers: goals & relationship; plus individual characteristics (2) Transmitters and receptors: means; appropriate choice of media (3) Messages: symbolic forms, direct or representative (ambiguity) (4) Encoding: how messages are framed and shaped, inc. processs (5) Channels: conduits, e.g. airwave, NIT, channel noise (p.164), (6) Decoding: translation, interpretation (see Perception,chpt 5) (7) Meanings: a set of filters by individuals, e.g. a “No”, simple? (8) Feedback: reaction/response; a silence is also interpreted!
1.2 Distortion in Communication Communication “work” to the degree that a wide variety of information---facts, opinions, feelings, preferences, and experiences---is completely and thoroughly shared, accurately received and decoded, leading to mutual understanding. What are the implications for you? OR What are immediate questions in your mind? Q: What are potential barriers/stumbling blocks? Distortions: “Noise” and interferences e.g. Sender/receiver: 1) The more diverse goals, or the more antagonistic relationship, the greater likelihood of distortions and errors; 2) Negotiators are have individual characteristics and different views of world Then, what about appropriate choice of media (channel)?
2. What is Communicated-a quick tour A richly researched question aimed at analyzing the patterns of commu, by a dominance of audio- taping/video-taping role plays (p. 165). Findings: 70% verbal tactics are integrative; buyer-seller observes the reciprocity rule (Alexander et al. 1991) A majority of the communication is not about negotiator preferences (Carnevale et al. 1981). The blend of IvsD content varies as a function of the issues being discussed, but the content of communication is only partly responsible for outcomes. Followed is a discussion of five different categories of communication during negotiation and an inquiry of whether more communication is always better than less.
2. What is communicated –Five categories Five categories (pp. 165-67) 1. Offers, Counteroffers, and Motives: 2. Information about Alternatives 3. Information about Outcomes 4. Social Accounts 5. Communication about Process Q: Is more Information Always Better? (p167-69)
2. What is the communicative process about? (1) 1. Offers, Counteroffers, and Motives Significantly, a bargaining session is featured by offers and counteroffers. Negotiator preferences and motives behind rational behaviors. (ref. Tutzauer’s assumption (p.165): any question?) A communicative framework for negotiation: (assumption, p.166) This communicative process constantly revises the parameters of the negotiation, eventually narrowing the bargaining range and guiding the discussion towards a settlement point.
2.--- Information about Alternatives (2) Exchange of offers and counter-offers, plus alternatives Another line of inquiry: how sharing information with TOS influences the negotiation process? Findings(p.166): a sheer possession of an attractive BATNA is in-adequate; to let TOS learn about it is necessary and how (tone and style) to do it is all the more important. Note the marked difference in effect btwn a polite (even subtle style VS an imposing or condescending manner! Learning focus: Any how-to implications for you?
2. --- Information about Outcomes(3) Inquiry How winners and losers evaluated their negotiation outcomes: a focus on the effects of sharing different types of information. Simply put, “Satisfied/pleased with the outcome or not ” Findings (Thompson et al. 1995; Novemsky & Schweitzer) Taken together (pp. 166-7), these findings suggest that negotiators be cautious about sharing their outcomes or even their positive reactions to outcomes with TOS, especially if they are going to negotiate with that party again in the future. (why?) ( “catching up with the Joneses” (acronyms: GHL vs GDP) Also, negotiators should evaluate their own success before learning about TOS’ evaluations of the outcomes.
2. --- Social Accounts (4) Social accounts 公告, 报道 : Negotiators use types of information to explain things to TOS (e.g. J.F. Kennedy’s confession to Khrushchev) A review by Sitkin& Bies (1993): 3 types of explanations 1 ） Mitigating circumstances; 2 ） exonerating circumstances; 3 ） Reframing explanations (e.g. short- term pain for long-term gain) Inferences (suggestions/proposals) by Sitkin& Bies: Multiple-explanations negotiators are more likely to have better outcomes and the negative effects of poor outcomes can be alleviated by communicating explanations for them. Any implications?
2. --- Communication about Process (5) Inquiry/concern: How well is it going or what procedures might be adopted to improve the situation? A study by Brett et al. (1998) on what communication strategies in negotiation help keep TOS “in the game” or reach ideal (optimal) rather than less-than-ideal (sub- optimal) outcomes. Findings (effective tactics): Calling attention to TOS’ contentious actions and explicitly labeling the process as counterproductive. Inferences (ibid): Brett and her colleagues suggest that negotiators seeking to break out of a conflict spiral should resist the natural urge to reciprocate contentious communication from TOS. (p. 167)
2. ---Is more information always better? Information-is-weakness effect, i.e. receipt of too much information during the negotiation may actually be detrimental, but possibly true of very specific circumstances; for instance, Brodt’s simulation study (1994) concluded that “having more information enhanced the negotiator’s strength” (p.168) O’Connor(1997)’s experimental study: An utter exchange of information (having more information) does not automatically translate into better outcomes; nor does it automatically result in the “Information is weak” effect. Rather, the effect depends on the type of issues being discussed and the negotiator’s motivation to use the information. Then, how to manage f2f negotiation? Guidelines (see Box 6.1 Staying Clear-headed at the Negotiating Table) (p. 168): Any questions?
3. How People Communicate in Negotiation 1. the characteristics of language that communicators use, How to make threats (p.169)? And How to do things with words? TBCed with ex.ex 2. the use of non-verbal communication, Name some NV communicative behaviors! 3. the selection of a communication channel Effects of media on negotiation outcomes? (e-negotiation)
4. How to Improve Communication in Negotiation Questions to ponder: Which takes a big percentage of communication in negotiation? Inquiring Observing Speaking Listening Which is more in communication, VC or NVC?
Suggested answer: an iceberg metaphor 90% of the iceberg submerged beneath the water is the strategy and the planning of the negotiation; the tip of the iceberg is the negotiation itself, where 75% of this tip involves active listening and 25% communicating ideas, proposals, suggestions, alternatives and what you want from the negotiation.
4.1 Use of Questions Questions essential to negotiations Securing information about the other party’s position, supporting arguments, and needs. And other functions. What else, then? Nierenberg proposed that questions could be divided into two basic categories: manageable (p. 177) and unmanageable (p.177) And tough questions (p.178).
4.2 Listening There are 3 major forms of listening: (1) Passive listening (2) Acknowledgement (3) Active listening Athos and Gabarro(1978) note that successful reflective responding (p.176,179) is a critical part of active listening (ex. Available at the course site). Active listening is highly advisable/laudable in seeking more fully about their feelings, priorities, frames of references, and, by extension, the positions they are taking.
4.3 Role Reversal Role reversal (ex.), maybe useful for improving communication and the accurate understanding and appreciation of the other party’s position in negotiation. Maybe most useful during the preparing stage of negotiation or during a team caucus. However, increasing understanding does not necessarily lead to easy resolution of conflict, particularly when accurate communication reveals a fundamental in- compatibility in the position of two sides.
active listening Reflective responding: re-stating or para-phrasing: 1)“I don’t know how I am going to un-tangle this messy problem.” (You’re really stumped on how to solve this one.) 2 ） “Please, don’t ask me about that now.” (Sounds like you’re awfully busy right now.) 3 ） “I thought the meeting today accomplished nothing.” (You were very disappointed with our session.)
5. Special Communication Considerations at the Close Avoiding Fatal Mistakes Achieving closure in negotiation generally involves making decisions to accept offers, to compromise priorities, to trade off across issues with TOS, or to take some combination of these steps. Such decision making process can be divided into four key elements: framing, gathering intelligence, coming to conclusions, and learn from feedback.(p.180) Also here, watch out for decision traps!
5. Special Communication Considerations at the Close Achieving Closure (Gray Karrass’s advice) 1 to know “when to shut up”, to avoid surrendering important information needlessly, and to refrain from making “dumb remarks” (that push a wavering counterpart away from the agreement he or she is almost ready to endorse.) 2. to recognize TOS’s faux pas and dumb remarks. 3. to watch out for last-minute problems, such as nit-picking or second- guessing by authority away from the negotiating table. 4. to make sure of the communicative quality of the final, written agreement (Box 6.3, Do You Have a “Good” Agreement? By Blair Sheppard, p.181)
6. Chapter Summary This chapter opens a discussion of elements of the art and science of communication relevant to negotiation. Miscommunication abounds. Followed is a discussion about what is communicated during negotiation. To close up, it addresses (1) how to improve communication in negotiation, (2) special communication considerations at the close of negotiation.
Concluding remarks 1st step: basic principles of communication 2nd: practice! Learn actively and purposefully! continual self-development (guidebooks, training programs, peer-review, self-reflection, etc.)
7. Assignment Watch videos: 1.Body language 2.Negotiating culturally 3.Cross-cultural communication Self study: developing skills 1.reflective questions (ppt) 2.tactics towards agreement (ppt); 3.effective use of questions (case illustration, ppt); 4.use of conditionals (ppt); 5.self-study (complaints: case illustration and simulation); 6.self-test. are you a good listener? 7. Restatement (case illustration)
8. List of recommended readings 1.Excerpt. NVC (posture) 2. Extract. How to make the message effective? Reflect on the different impact of pairs of Dos and Don’ts 3.Excerpt. People Negotiate Differently by E-Mail 4.Excerpt. Negotiating by Telephone and Fax (case illustration) 5. NVC (Barshefsky) (case ）