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Lecture 2: Convolution and edge detection CS4670: Computer Vision Noah Snavely From Sandlot ScienceSandlot Science

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Gaussian Kernel Source: C. Rasmussen

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Mean vs. Gaussian filtering

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Gaussian filters = 30 pixels= 1 pixel = 5 pixels = 10 pixels

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Gaussian filter Removes “high-frequency” components from the image (low-pass filter) Convolution with self is another Gaussian – Convolving two times with Gaussian kernel of width = convolving once with kernel of width Source: K. Grauman * =

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Sharpening Source: D. Lowe

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Sharpening revisited What does blurring take away? original smoothed (5x5) – detail = sharpened = Let’s add it back: originaldetail + α Source: S. Lazebnik

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Sharpen filter Gaussian scaled impulse Laplacian of Gaussian image blurred image unit impulse (identity)

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Sharpen filter unfiltered filtered

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Convolution in the real world Source: http://lullaby.homepage.dk/diy-camera/bokeh.html Bokeh: Blur in out-of-focus regions of an image. Camera shake * = Source: Fergus, et al. “Removing Camera Shake from a Single Photograph”, SIGGRAPH 2006

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Questions?

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Image noise http://theory.uchicago.edu/~ejm/pix/20d/tests/noise/index.html Original imageWhite Gaussian noiseSalt and pepper noise (each pixel has some chance of being switched to zero or one)

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Gaussian noise = 1 pixel= 2 pixels= 5 pixels Smoothing with larger standard deviations suppresses noise, but also blurs the image

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Salt & pepper noise – Gaussian blur = 1 pixel= 2 pixels= 5 pixels What’s wrong with the results? p = 10%

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Alternative idea: Median filtering A median filter operates over a window by selecting the median intensity in the window Is median filtering linear? Source: K. Grauman

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Median filter What advantage does median filtering have over Gaussian filtering? Source: K. Grauman

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Salt & pepper noise – median filtering = 1 pixel= 2 pixels= 5 pixels 3x3 window5x5 window7x7 window p = 10%

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Edge detection TexPoint fonts used in EMF. Read the TexPoint manual before you delete this box.: AAA Convert a 2D image into a set of curves – Extracts salient features of the scene – More compact than pixels

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Origin of Edges Edges are caused by a variety of factors depth discontinuity surface color discontinuity illumination discontinuity surface normal discontinuity

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Characterizing edges An edge is a place of rapid change in the image intensity function image intensity function (along horizontal scanline) first derivative edges correspond to extrema of derivative Source: L. Lazebnik

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How can we differentiate a digital image F[x,y]? – Option 1: reconstruct a continuous image, f, then compute the derivative – Option 2: take discrete derivative (finite difference) 1 How would you implement this as a linear filter? Image derivatives 1 : : Source: S. Seitz

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The gradient points in the direction of most rapid increase in intensity Image gradient The gradient of an image: The edge strength is given by the gradient magnitude: The gradient direction is given by: how does this relate to the direction of the edge? Source: Steve Seitz

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Image gradient Source: L. Lazebnik

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Effects of noise Where is the edge? Source: S. Seitz Noisy input image

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Solution: smooth first f h f * h Source: S. Seitz To find edges, look for peaks in

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Differentiation is convolution, and convolution is associative: This saves us one operation: Associative property of convolution f Source: S. Seitz

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2D edge detection filters Gaussian derivative of Gaussian ( x )

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Derivative of Gaussian filter x-direction y-direction

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The Sobel operator Common approximation of derivative of Gaussian 01 -202 01 121 000 -2 The standard defn. of the Sobel operator omits the 1/8 term –doesn’t make a difference for edge detection –the 1/8 term is needed to get the right gradient value

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Lecture 3: Edge detection, continued

Lecture 3: Edge detection, continued

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