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Blood pressure & Pulse. Blood Pressure The pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries. Blood pressure results from two forces. ▫One is created.

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Presentation on theme: "Blood pressure & Pulse. Blood Pressure The pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries. Blood pressure results from two forces. ▫One is created."— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood pressure & Pulse

2 Blood Pressure The pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries. Blood pressure results from two forces. ▫One is created by the heart as it pumps blood into the arteries and through the circulatory system. ▫The other is the force of the arteries as they resist the blood flow  Arterioles have greatest resistance

3 Blood Pressure Systolic Blood Pressure Diastolic Blood Pressure Measured in mm Hg

4 Systolic Pressure The number on top The pressure inside your blood vessels at the moment your heart beats. Normal > 120 mm Hg

5 Diastolic Pressure The number on the bottom Measures the pressure in your blood vessels between heartbeats, when your heart is resting. Normal >80 mm Hg

6 Measuring Blood Pressure Sphygmomanometer – Stethoscope Korotkoff sounds ▫sounds one is listening for when measuring blood pressure ▫detected by listening with a stethoscope placed over the brachial (arm) artery just below a blood pressure cuff (Reference What are Korotkoff Sounds retrieved from

7 Measuring Blood Pressure Procedure ▫Blood Pressure Cuff Inflated ▫Gradually deflated from a pressure high enough to obstruct the artery and stop the blood flowing ▫Listen for Korotkoff sounds  First sound heard-Systolic Pressure  Last sound heard- Diastolic Pressure Difference in Systolic and Diastolic called Pulse Pressure

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9 This chart reflects blood pressure categories defined by the American Heart Association. Blood Pressure Category Systolic mm Hg (upper #) Diastolic mm Hg (lower #) Normal less than 120andless than 80 Prehypertension120 – 139or80 – 89 High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Stage – 159or90 – 99 High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Stage or higheror100 or higher Hypertensive Crisis (Emergency care needed) Higher than 180orHigher than 110

10 Factors Effecting Blood Pressure Average is 120/80 Factors ▫ Cardiac Output  Volume of blood pumped out ventricles ▫ Blood volume (5 liters for avg adult)  Volume of blood circulating body per minute ▫ Blood Velocity  Speed of blood flow ▫ Peripheral Resistance  Resistance of blood flow

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12 Pulse Alternate expansion and recoil of an artery Caused by the intermittent injections of blood from the heart and elasticity of arterial walls Taken from the Radial Artery Pulse: bpm

13 Pulse Pulse points (Fig ) ▫Radial artery ▫Temporal artery ▫Common carotid artery ▫Facial artery ▫Brachial artery ▫Popliteal artery ▫Posterior tibial artery ▫Dorsalis pedis artery

14 Abnormal Heart Rhythms Arrhythmias Tachycardia = rapid heartbeat ( > 100 BPM) Bradycardia = slow heartbeat ( < 60 BPM) Fibrillation = rapid, uncoordinated unsynchronized heart rate. Atria (not serious) Ventricles (deadly)

15 Effects on Heart Rate What sets heart rate? Sympathetic ▫Chiefly Vagus ▫Stimulant ▫Release norepinephrine Parasympathetic ▫Cardiac Verve ▫Inhibitory ▫Release Acetylcholine

16 Heart Sounds Heart Sounds Website

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