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THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10 Section 2 Protest, Resistance, and Violence Why were the Fugitive Slave Act and the Kansas- Nebraska.

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Presentation on theme: "THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10 Section 2 Protest, Resistance, and Violence Why were the Fugitive Slave Act and the Kansas- Nebraska."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10 Section 2 Protest, Resistance, and Violence Why were the Fugitive Slave Act and the Kansas- Nebraska Act factors that led to war? How was the debate over slavery leading to violence?

2 Southern Fears Is slavery vulnerable? How could it be ended? Why is Expansion of Slavery so Important

3 Impact of the Fugitive Slave Act of Energized Northern Abolitionists 2.Persuaded moderate Northerners to become more supportive of abolition (read bottom p. 288) 3.North responds by passing personal liberty laws = laws forbidding imprisonment of runaway slaves 4.Alienated the South, who felt that North was not keeping its part of the bargain in the Compromise of Increased sectionalism in the country & eroded support for federal govt. in both N and S.

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5 Underground Railroad Abolitionists form a network of people who helped escaped slaves to journey to Canada or northern states for freedom. The people who worked on this network, called the Underground Railroad, were called “conductors.” The most famous conductor was Harriet Tubman, who led over 300 slaves to freedom in 19 trips, despite a $40,000 bounty on her head.

6 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Published in 1852 Author: Harriet Beecher Stowe, daughter of Rev. Beecher, abolitionist Reaction to Fugitive Slave Act Immensely popular in North, shapes attitudes toward slavery Influential in France and England Immense political impact in US and abroad

7 Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin was historic for a number of reasons. Not only did it help to fire up northern antislavery sentiments, but it also was the first American novel that featured African American characters in prominent roles. It was issued in various editions with many different covers, but most of them featured the lead character, Uncle Tom--another first in American publishing. This particular cover, from an early "Young Folks' Edition" of the book, depicts the stooped old man with his young, sympathetic white mistress. (Collection of Picture Research Consultants and Archives) Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

8 Theatre poster: Uncle Tom's Cabin With its vivid word pictures of slavery, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin translated well to the stage. Stowe herself was among the many who wrote dramatizations of the novel. Scenes of Eliza crossing the ice of the Ohio River with bloodhounds in pursuit and the evil Simon Legree whipping Uncle Tom outraged northern audiences and turned many against slavery. Southerners damned Mrs. Stowe as a "vile wretch in petticoats." ( Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.) Theatre poster: Uncle Tom's Cabin Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

9 Kansas-NebraskaKansas-Nebraska Act Stephen Douglas pushes for popular sovereignty to determine the status of the Kansas Territory and splitting into two: Kansas and Nebraska. Kansas-Nebraska Act passed in It nullifies (ends) the Missouri Compromise b/c land is north of 36º30’ line. Implied that Kansas to be Slave and Nebraska Free Free-soilers try to settle Kansas, touches off sectional conflict Only 2 slaves in Kansas, only 15 in Nebraska, A debate about “an imaginary negro in an imaginary place”

10 Map: The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

11 Why were the Fugitive Slave Act and the Kansas-Nebraska Act factors that led to conflict?

12 Bleeding Kansas 1855: 1 st Election in Kansas Territory Missourians (Slaveholders) cross border illegally & win election, then pass Lecompton Constitution (pro- slavery) Free-soilers elect their own state govt. & own constitution Free-soiler settlement at Lawrence, KS attacked by pro-slavery militia of over 800 men. Town is sacked. John Brown retaliates at Pottawatomie Creek, murders 5, leads to deaths of over 200. Civil strife continues in Kansas until end of Civil War

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14 SUMMARY: The artist lays on the Democrats the major blame for violence perpetrated against antislavery settlers in Kansas in the wake of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Here a bearded "freesoiler" has been bound to the "Democratic Platform" and is restrained by two Lilliputian figures, presidential nominee James Buchanan and Democratic senator Lewis Cass. Democratic senator Stephen A. Douglas and president Franklin Pierce, also shown as tiny figures, force a black man into the giant's gaping mouth. The freesoiler's head rests on a platform marked "Kansas," "Cuba," and "Central America," probably referring to Democratic ambitions for the extension of slavery. In the background left is a scene of burning and pillage; on the right a dead man hangs from a tree. CREATED/PUBLISHED: NOTES: [Drawn by John L. Magee]

15 Armed antislavery men with John Doy Though no one would deny that their cause was noble, many of the men who flocked to Kansas to resist the expansion of slavery were no less violent than their proslavery adversaries. This photograph, taken in 1859, shows a gang of armed antislavery men who had just broken an accomplice (John Doy, seated) out of jail in neighboring St. Joseph, Missouri. Like proslavery "Border Ruffians," many of these men also served in guerrilla bands during the Civil War and some went on to careers as famous outlaws after the war was over. (Kansas State Historical Society) Armed antislavery men with John Doy Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

16 Violence in the Senate Charles Sumner, abolitionist senator, delivers speech entitled “The Crime Against Kansas,” attacking slavery and Southern Senators. Sumner is attacked by Preston Brooks on Senate Floor and beaten with a cane. Sumner suffers severe head injuries and is unable to serve in Senate for 3 years. N & S split in reaction to event. “First blows” of Civil War.

17 Charles Sumner beaten by Preston Brooks

18 Map: The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

19 EVENT:YEAR:

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