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Bridges… Coping with Career Indecision Prof. Dr. Dean W. Owen Morehead State University 15 May, 2008 Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkiye.

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Presentation on theme: "Bridges… Coping with Career Indecision Prof. Dr. Dean W. Owen Morehead State University 15 May, 2008 Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkiye."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bridges… Coping with Career Indecision Prof. Dr. Dean W. Owen Morehead State University 15 May, 2008 Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkiye

2 This is a “Green” Seminar. 1.No animals were harmed in the creation of this seminar. 2. No trees were damaged in making this seminar although a large number of electrons were inconvenienced.

3 Career choice is part of life.. Sometimes easy….

4 Career choice is part of life.. Sometimes difficult

5 Career indecision is quite normal, sometimes uncomfortable, and can be made better!

6 Seminar Goals 1.Discuss Career Choice and Indecision 2.Discuss Career Development Theory 3.Provide a structure and some tools for self-discovery

7 Career Indecision: The inability or unwillingness To make a career choice or commitment.

8 Common Reasons for Indecision: 1.Belief that there is but one correct or best decision. 2.Too many options 3.Too few options 4.Competing options 5.Competing values 6.Cognitive and behavioral rigidity 7.Fear of commitment/inability to take a risk….

9 Career Decision Variables CD = P k + W k + E 2 ?

10 Career Decision Variables P k Personal Knowledge Intelligence Achievement Aptitude Preference Personality

11 Career Decision Variables P k Personal Knowledge W k World Knowledge Intelligence Achievement Aptitude Preference Personality Occupational Information: Local Regional National International

12 Career Decision Variables P k Personal Knowledge W k World Knowledge E 2 External Events Intelligence Achievement Aptitude Preference Personality Occupational Information: Local Regional National International Government Regulation Family Community Natural Disaster War

13 Decision Theory Source: Zunker (1990) Fundamental Premise: Each individual is confronted with options and alternatives in life from which a choice must be made. Decision making theory addresses the process of identifying, evaluating and selecting from among options. The sequence typically involves: 1.Defining the problem5. Making plans 2.Generating alternatives6. Selecting goals 3.Gathering information7. Implementing plans 4.Processing information

14 Decision Theory Source: Zunker (1990) The decision making model proposed by Gelatt: Step 1: recognition of the need for a decision: objective Step 2: Collection of data Step 3: prediction or probability of outcomes Step 4: estimating desirability of outcomes Step 5: evaluation and selection of a decision a. Terminal decisionb. Investigatory decision Gelatt (1962)

15 Just some fundamentals to focus our thinking……a kind of structure for our thoughts…. Theories of Career Development

16 Career Path What path have you taken to this place in your career?

17 Theories of Career Development The theories to be discussed are best considered as models rather than strict scientific theories for each represents a view of a highly complex and individual process. Still, the study of these models can be of value in guiding research, clarifying personal choice, and further conceptual analysis.

18 The Big Three Frank Parsons Donald Super John Holland

19 Trait-Factor Theory Frank Parsons (1909) suggested that vocational guidance was accomplished by: Studying the individual (Personal Traits) Surveying occupations (Job Factors) Using “true reasoning” to find a match A bit like finding a pair of shoes that fit!

20 Trait-Factor Theory This is the oldest and most durable of the career development theories. This theory is based upon the following assumption. “Individuals have unique patterns of ability or traits that can be objectively measured and correlated with the requirements of various types of jobs.” (Zunker, 1990)

21 Trait-Factor Theory Traits Each of these can be measured or determined through objective assessment. Jobs can be similarly evaluated for critical factors.

22 Trait-Factor Theory When personal traits can be matched with job factors then a successful choice can be made.

23 Donald Super (1972) The model of career development by Donald Super Emphasized the importance of the self-concept and more specifically the development of the vocational self-concept within each individual. Additionally, Super gave us a model by which we can view “career” and an integral component of adult life. Source: (Zunker, 1990)

24 Donald Super (1972) Super’s 5 Vocational Development Stages 1.Growthbirth-14 2.Exploration15-24 3.Establishment25-44 4.Maintenance45-64 5.Decline65+ Source: (Zunker, 1990)

25 Donald Super (1972) Growth Age: Birth-14 This period is characterized by development of capacity, attitudes, interests, and needs associated with self- concepts; Source: Isaacson, 1977, p 48-50

26 Donald Super (1972) Exploratory Age: 15-24 tentative This period is characterized by a tentative phase in which choices are narrowed but not finalized; Source: Isaacson, 1977, p 48-50

27 Donald Super (1972) Establishment Age: 25-44 This period is characterized by trial and stabilization through work experiences; Source: Isaacson, 1977, p 48-50

28 Donald Super (1972) Maintenance Age: 45-64 This period is characterized by a continual adjustment process to improve working position and situation; and Source: Isaacson, 1977, p 48-50

29 Donald Super (1972) Decline Age: 65+ This period is characterized by pre- retirement considerations, decreasing work output, and eventual retirement. Source: Isaacson, 1977, p 48-50

30 Donald Super (1972) Super’s Career Patterns for Men Source: (Zunker, 1990) Career PatternCharacteristics Stable Early entry with little of no trial work period Conventional Trial work periods followed by entry into stable work period. Unstable A number of trial jobs which may lead to temporary stable jobs followed by further trial jobs. Multiple Trial No evidence of career pattern; marked by continual change of employment

31 Super’s Career Patterns for Women Career PatternCharacteristics Source: (Zunker, 1990) Stable HomemakingMarriage before any significant work experience. ConventionalEntry into work after training in high school/college, marriage and the full-time homemaking. Stable Working Entry into work following training and viewed as lifetime. Double-TrackEntry into work followed by marriage and second career of homemaking. InterruptedEntry into work followed by marriage and full time homemaking; may return to entry career later in life. UnstableTypical of lower SES; repetitive pattern of working, dropping out of work, fulltime homemaking. Multiple trialNo real career established, marked my continual change of employment.

32 Self-Administered Vocational Assessment P K Personal Knowledge….Vocational Interest

33 John Holland A Typology Approach Basic Premise: Career Choice is an expression of and an extension of an individual’s personality through identification with specific occupational stereotypes.

34 John Holland (1973) 4 Basic Assumptions 1. In our culture, most persons can be categorized as one of six types: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (p.2) Source: Holland (1973) 2. There are six kinds of environments: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (p.3)

35 John Holland (1973) 4 Basic Assumptions 3. People search for environments that will let them exercise their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles (p.4) Source: Holland (1973) 4. A person’s behavior is determined by an interaction between his personality and the characteristics of his environment. (p.4)

36 Personal Style: aggressive, prefers concrete vs. abstract work tasks, basically less sociable, poor interpersonal interactions. Occupational Environments: Skilled trades (plumber, electrician), machine operator, airplane mechanic. Realistic (R type)

37 Personal Style: Intellectual, abstract, analytical, independent, sometimes radical and task oriented. Occupational Environments Chemist, physicist, mathematician; technicians such as laboratory technician, computer programmer, or electronics worker. Investigative (I type)

38 Personal Style: Imaginative, values aesthetics, prefers self-expression through the arts, rather independent and extroverted. Occupational Environments Sculptor, artist, designer, musician, editor or writer, dancer. Artistic (A type)

39 Personal Style: Prefers social interaction, concerned with social problems, religious, community service and interested in education. Occupational Environments Teacher, educational administrator, college professor, social worker, professional nurse. Social (S type)

40 Personal Style: Extroverted, aggressive, adventurous, prefers leadership roles, dominant, persuasive and has excellent verbal skills. Occupational Environments Personnel manager, Sales managers, insurance auto or real estate salespersons. Enterprising (E type)

41 Personal Style: Practical, well controlled, sociable, rather conservative, prefers structured tasks and conformity sanctioned by society. Occupational Environments Office and clerical workers, teller, accountant, receptionist, credit manager. Conventional (C type)

42 What is RIASEC?

43 Consistency of Personality Patterns RC I AS E

44 Congruence When an individual’s personality type is a close match for one’s work environment. Congruence: social interaction, concerns for social problems, and educational interests. Not highly correlated with academic performance, job satisfaction or job stability Personality Style Work Environment Personality Style

45 John Holland Occupational information is essential for accurate identifications with occupations environments. Intelligence is less important than personality and interest. Personalities evolve and influence our activities and our experiences which, in turn, influence our personalities. Holland’s theory emphasizes the importance of self- knowledge and career information. It continues to be the foundation for many assessment instruments and occupations classification schemes. Source: Zunker (1990)

46 Keirsey Temperment TempermentSurvey Personal Knowledge….Personality style

47 A short form version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI KierseyTempermentSorter

48 Scoring

49 E Extroversion / I Introversion The Four Major Scales S Sensing / N Intuition T Thinking / F Feeling J Judgment / P Perception

50 Extrovert (75%) Externally Oriented Sociable Breadth Multiple Relationships Thinks out loud Temperament Types Introvert Internally Oriented Territorial Depth Limited Relationships Reflects Inside

51 Effects of each type at work Extroverts (E-Types) Like variety and action Tend to work quickly, dislike complicated jobs Are often good at greeting people Are impatient with long, slow jobs Don’t mind interruptions Act quickly, sometimes without thinking Like to have people around Usually communicate freely Often enjoy talking on the phone

52 Effects of each type at work Introverts (I-Types) Like quiet for concentration Tend to be careful with details Have trouble remembering names and faces Enjoy working on long projects Dislike interruptions Think carefully before acting Work contentedly alone May have trouble communicating easily Dislike telephone interruptions May prefer communications to be in writing

53 Temperament Types Sensing (75%)Intuitive ExperienceHunches PastFuture RealisticSpeculative ActualPossible PerspirationInspiration

54 Effects of each type at work Sensing Types Enjoy solving problems in standard ways Like established ways of doing things Enjoy using skills already learned Work more steadily Usually reach conclusions in a step by step manner Are patient with routine details Are not often inspired Seldom make errors of fact Tend to be good a precise work

55 Effects of each type at work Intuitive (N) Types Like solving new problems Dislike doing the same things repeatedly Enjoy learning a new skill more than using it Work in bursts of energy with slack periods in between Tend to reach conclusions quickly Are impatient with routine details Follow their inspirations, good or bad Frequently make errors of fact Dislike taking time for precision

56 Temperament Types Thinking (50%)Feeling ObjectiveSubjective PolicySocial Values LawsCircumstances ImpersonalPersonal AnalyticalEmpathetic

57 Effects of each type at work Thinking (T) Types Do not show emotion readily Are uncomfortable with other’s feelings May hurt people’s feelings without knowing it Like analysis and logic Can tolerate disharmony Tend to decide issues impersonally Are able to reprimand or fire people if necessary Tend to respond to others’ thoughts, not feelings Tend to be firm minded Need to be treated fairly

58 Effects of each type at work Feeling (F) Types Tend to be very aware of others’ feelings Enjoy pleasing people, even in unimportant ways Like harmony and may be disturbed by office feuds Often let feelings influence decisions Dislike telling people unpleasant things Are strongly “people” oriented Tend to be sympathetic Respond to people’s values Need occasional praise Take an interest in the person behind the job or idea

59 Temperament Types Judging (50%)Perceiving StructuredPending Settled/ClosureGather more data Plan AheadAdapt as you go Run one’s lifeLet life happen DeadlineWhat deadline??

60 Effects of each type at work Judging (J) Types Work best when they can plan their work Like to get things settles and finished May decide things too quickly Dislike interrupting a project for a more urgent one May not notice things that need to be done Want only the essentials needed to begin work Tend to be satisfied whey they reach a decision Schedule projects so that each gets done on time Use lists as agendas for action

61 Effects of each type at work Perceptive (P) Types Adapt well to changing situations Don’t mind leaving things open for alteration May have trouble making decisions May start too many projects and have trouble finishing them. May postpone unpleasant jobs Want to know all about a new job before beginning it Tend to be curious and welcome new information a situation or person. Get a lot done at the last minute under pressure of a deadline Use lists as reminders of things they have to do “someday”


63 ISTJ Accountants Auditors Engineers Financial Managers Police officers Steel Workers Technicians ISTP Crafts workers Construction Workers Mechanics Protective Service Workers Statisticians ISFJ Health Workers Librarians Service Workers Teachers ISFP Clerical Workers Construction Workers Musicians Outdoor workers Painters Stock clerks

64 INFJ Artists Clergy Musicians Psychiatrists Social Workers Teachers Writers INTJ Computer Analysts Engineers Judges Lawyers Scientists Social Scientists Researchers INTP Artists Computer Analysts Engineers Scientists Writers INFP Artists Entertainers Editors Psychiatrists Psychologists Social Workers Writers

65 ESTP Auditors Carpenters Marketing Personnel Police officers Sales Clerks Service Workers ESTJ Administrators Financial Managers Managers Sales Associates Supervisors ESFP Child Care Workers Mining Engineers Secretaries Supervisors ESFJ Cosmetologists Health Workers Office Managers Secretaries Teachers

66 ENFP Actors Clergy Counselors Journalists Musicians Public Relations Workers ENFJ Actors Clergy Consultants Counselors Musicians Teachers ENTP Actors Journalists Marketing Personnel Photographers Sales Representatives ENTJ Administrators Credit Managers Lawyers Managers Marketing Personnel Researchers

67 NF32%Blue12% NT8%Green12% SP4%Orange38% SJ56%Gold38% % Teachers % Population What is your color?

68 People who prefer:Sensing & Thinking focus their attention on:Realities and handle these with:Objective analysis Thus they tend to becomePractical and analytical and find scope for their abilities inTechnical skills with objects and facts For example: Applied science Business Administration Banking Law enforcement Production Construction Sensing-Thinking ST

69 Sensing-Feeling SF People who prefer:Sensing & Feeling focus their attention on:Realities and handle these with:Personal warmth Thus they tend to becomeSympathetic and friendly and find scope for their abilities inPractical help and services to people For example: Health care Community service Teaching Supervision Religious service Office work Sales

70 Intuition-Feeling NF People who prefer:Intuition & Feeling focus their attention on:Possibilities and handle these with:Personal warmth Thus they tend to becomeEnthusiastic and insightful and find scope for their abilities inUnderstanding & communicating with people For example: Behavioral science Research Literature Art & Music Religious service Health care Teaching

71 Intuition-Thinking NT People who prefer:Intuition & Thinking focus their attention on:Possibilities and handle these with:Practical analysis Thus they tend to becomeLogical and analytical and find scope for their abilities inTheoretical and technical developments For example: Physical science Research Management Computers Law Engineering Technical work

72 What are your personal values??? Money Status Family Security Power Location Advancement Variety Independence Flexibility

73 Work Values Record Personal Knowledge….Values

74 The World of Work W K Current, valid, and accurate information about the world of work

75 İş Arama Siteleri:

76 www.elemanborsası.com www.insangücü.com www.insankaynakları.com www.istü www.iskapısı.com www.kampüsgü

77 www.koç www.mü


79 E2E2 External Events

80 Environmental conditions and events. These are situations beyond the control of the individual. Governmental policies regulating certain occupations, geographic and cultural differences, personal accidents, chance meetings or even natural disasters like floods, tsunamis, droughts, as well as man- made disasters (Wars) can dramatically change career opportunities. E2E2

81 Despite our best efforts and all of the planning and dreaming of a lifetime, sometimes “Life Happens”

82 Some Final Thoughts… If you wait for someone to make your career choice for you….they probably will! If you have a choice…..take both! For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction…..for every decision you make there will be consequences….Be Prepared Have the courage to take risks….otherwise don’t complain…….

83 Coping with career indecision is like dealing with anything else in life…. 1. Understand the problem… 2. Gather the necessary tools and information… 3. Confront it with as much skill and confidence as you can gather...and

84 …..if you still feel the need, get someone to work with you and to help….the more experienced and skillful the better…. A Trained Counselor!!!

85 Teşekkürler Questions and copies


87 References Ginzberg, E. (1984). Career Development. In D. Brown & L.Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Liptak, J.L. (2001). Treatment planning in career counseling. Belmont:Wadsworth. Zunker, V. (1990). Career counseling: Applied concepts of life planning (3 rd ed.). Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole.

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