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© www.dharmaavenue.com Module 01Sub Module Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 ●CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF BUDDHISM INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISM Summary of Lesson.

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Presentation on theme: "© www.dharmaavenue.com Module 01Sub Module Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 ●CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF BUDDHISM INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISM Summary of Lesson."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Module 01Sub Module Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 ●CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF BUDDHISM INTRODUCTION TO BUDDHISM Summary of Lesson Characteristics – Comprehensive Content Characteristics – Graceful Approach Agreement By Great Personalities Buddhist Contributions to the World Showcase of Contemporary Contributions DAIS-TG

2 © Comprehensive Content Excerpts : Buddha & His Teachings – Bhikkhu Narada ●Obvious And Irrefutable The four Noble Truths, which the Buddha Himself discovered and revealed to the world, are the chief characteristics and the unshakable foundations of Buddhism. They are suffering, its cause, i.e., craving, its end, i.e., Nibbāna (the summum bonum of Buddhism), and the Middle Way. The first three represent the philosophy of Buddhism, while the fourth represents the ethics of Buddhism, in accordance with that philosophy. These Truths are universally obvious, sensible and irrefutable. ●Accessible And Verifiable No blind faith is necessary to understand these four Noble Truths. The first two Truths, which are mundane (lokiya), can be experienced by worldlings themselves. The second two Truths, which are supramundane (lokuttara) can be experienced by attaining Saintship. It is on the bed-rock of these facts, which could be verified by personal experience and tested by anybody, that the Buddha-Dhamma is built, and not on the fear of the unknown. Buddhism is therefore rational and intensely practical. In the Dhamma there is nothing that is impractical or irrational. The Buddha practised what He taught; He taught what He practised. What He most emphasizes in His teaching is practice, for creeds alone cannot purify a person. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 01SUMMARY OF LESSON : Characteristics And Contributions Of Buddhism ●Realistic And Sensible Buddhism rests on the pivot of suffering. Although Buddhism emphasizes the existence of suffering yet it does not follow that Buddhism is a pessimistic religion. On the contrary it is neither totally pessimistic nor totally optimistic but realistic. One would be justified in calling the Buddha a pessimist if He had merely emphasized the truth of suffering without suggesting a means to end suffering and gain eternal happiness. The Buddha perceived the universality of sorrow and prescribed a remedy for this universal sickness of humanity. The highest conceivable happiness, according to the Buddha, is Nibbāna, which is the total extinction of suffering. ●Assuring And Joyful In the Samyutta Nikāya is found an interesting interpretation of the Dependent Origination (Paticca Samuppāda) in terms of happiness. This important passage clearly indicates how suffering can lead to happiness and ultimately to Sainthood. (The doctrine of Dependent Origination is an elaboration of the doctrine of Four Noble Truths). The Buddha says: "Suffering leads to Confidence (Saddhā); Confidence to Rapture (Pāmojja); Rapture to Joy (Pīti); Joy to Tranquillity (Passaddhi); Tranquillity to Happiness (Sukha); Happiness to Concentration (Samādhi); Concentration to Knowledge and Vision of things as they truly are (Yathābhūta-ñānadassana); the Knowledge and Vision of things as they truly are to Repulsion (Nibbidā); Repulsion to Non-attachment (Virāga); Non-attachment to Deliverance (Vimutti); Deliverance to the Extinction of Passions (Khaye-māna); i. e., to Arabantship. (SN II.32)

3 © Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 02 ●Universal And Scientific Because the entire Four Noble Truths are based on verifiable and substantiated existential experience of a human its doctrine is universal in appeal and scientific in approach. It transcends color, creed, gender and other artificial boundaries. ●Practical And Effective In the Dhamma there is nothing that is impractical or irrational. The Buddha practised what He taught; He taught what He practised. What He most emphasizes in His teaching is practice, for creeds alone cannot purify a person. It is a most dependable and reliable teaching. ●Open and Transparent A rational and practical system cannot contain any mysterious or esoteric doctrine. In the Parinibbāna Sutta the Buddha emphatically declares: "I have taught the truth without making any distinction between esoteric and exoteric doctrine; for in respect of the truth Tathāgata has no such thing as the closed fist of teacher who keeps something back.“ ●Gradual and Measured It is a teaching that is structured and gradual – not disorganized and steep, the Buddha give the simile of the ocean to illustrate this feature. It is also exact and precise and not abstract and vague, to that extent that ideas and words can conveyed – these are obvious to those who had peruse and study the scripture. SUMMARY OF LESSON : Characteristics And Contributions Of Buddhism

4 © Graceful Approach Excerpts : Buddha & His Teachings – Bhikkhu Narada ●Harmless And Peaceful No coercions, persecutions, or fanaticisms play any part in Buddhism. To the unique credit of Buddhism it must be said that throughout its peaceful march of 2500 years no drop of blood has been shed in the name of the Buddha, no mighty monarch has wielded his powerful sword to propagate the Dhamma, and no conversion has been made either by force or by repulsive methods. Yet the Buddha was the first and the greatest missionary that lived on earth. Buddhism has spread, and is still spreading rapidly throughout the world, and is making peaceful penetration to all countries mainly owing to the intrinsic merit and unsurpassing beauty of its teachings and not at all with the aid of Imperialism, militarism or any other indirect proselytizing. In the name of the Buddha no sacred place was reddened with the blood of innocent women, no sincere thinkers were burnt alive, and there was no merciless roasting of heretics. agencies. The boundless kindness of the Buddha was directed not only to all human beings but also to the dumb animals as well. It was the Buddha who banned the sacrifice of animals and admonished His followers to extend their loving-kindness (Mettā) to all living beings -- even to the tiniest creature that crawls at one's feet. No man, He taught, has the right to destroy the life of another as life is precious to all. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 03 ●Tolerant And Persuasive No blind Buddhism is saturated with this spirit of free inquiry and complete tolerance. It is the teaching of the open mind and the sympathetic heart which, lighting and warming the whole universe with its twin rays of wisdom and compassion, sheds its genial glow on every being struggling in the ocean of birth and death. So compassionate and tolerant was the Buddha that He did not exercise His power to give commandments to His lay-followers. Instead of using the Imperative -- Thou shalt or thou shalt not -- He says-- It behoves you to do this, it behoves you not to do this. The ordinary precepts which Buddhists are expected to observe are not commandments but modes of discipline (sikkhāpada) which they take of their own accord. ●Compassionate And Liberating It was the Buddha who, for the first time in the known history of mankind, attempted to abolish slavery and "invented the higher morality and the idea of the brotherhood of the entire human race and in striking terms condemned" the degrading caste- system which was firmly rooted in Indian Society at that time. The Buddha declared: "By birth is not one an outcast, By birth is not one a brahmin. By deeds is one an outcast, By deeds is one a brahmin.“ (Vasala Sutta) SUMMARY OF LESSON : Characteristics And Contributions Of Buddhism

5 © Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 04 ●Honorable And Equitable According to Buddhism caste or color does not preclude one from becoming an adherent of the Buddha or from entering the noble Order of the Sangha where all are treated as Nobles. Fishermen, scavengers, courtesans, together with warriors and brahmins, were freely admitted into the Order and were also given positions of rank. Upāli, the barber, was made, in preference to all others, chief disciple in matters pertaining to the Vinaya discipline. Sunīta, who was honored by Kings and nobles as an Arahant, was a timid scavenger. The philosophic Sāti was the son of a fisherman. The courtesan Ambapāli joined the Order and attained Arahantship. Rajjumālā, who was converted by the Buddha as she was about to commit suicide, was a slave girl. So was Punnā whose invitation to spend a rainy season was accepted by the Buddha in preference to that of the millionaire Anāthapindika, her own master. Subhā was the daughter of a smith. Cāpā was the daughter of a deer-stalker. Such instances could be multiplied from the books to show that portals of Buddhism were wide open to all without any distinction. The Buddha provided equal opportunities for all and raised, rather than lowered, the status of people. In Buddhism one finds milk for the babe and meat for the strong, and it appeals equally to both the rich and the poor. ●Just And Supportive It was also the Buddha who raised the status of women and brought them to a realization of their importance to society. Before the advent of the Buddha women in India were not held in high esteem. The Buddha did not humiliate women, but only regarded them as feeble by nature. He saw the innate good of both men and women and assigned to them their due places in His teaching. Sex is no barrier for purification or service. Sometimes the Pāli term used to connote women mātugāma which means 'mother-folk' or 'society of mothers.' As a mother a woman holds an honourable place in Buddhism. The mother is regarded as a convenient ladder to ascend to heaven, and a wife is regarded as the 'best friend' (paramā sakhā) of the husband. The Buddha founded the Order of Bhikkhunis (Nuns). It was the Buddha who thus founded the first society for women with rules and regulations. Arahants Khemā and Uppalavannā were made the two chief female disciples in the Order of Bhikkhunis. Many other female disciples, too, were named by the Buddha Himself as amongst most distinguished and pious followers. To women who were placed under various disabilities before the appearance of the Buddha, the establishment of the Order of Bhikkhunis was certainly a blessing. Queens, princesses, daughters of noble families, widows, bereaved mothers, helpless women, courtesans - all despite their caste or rank met on a common footing, enjoyed perfect consolation and peace, and breathed that free atmosphere which was denied to those cloistered in cottages and palatial mansions. Many, who otherwise would have fallen into oblivion, distinguished themselves in various ways and gained their emancipation by seeking refuge in the Order SUMMARY OF LESSON : Characteristics And Contributions Of Buddhism

6 © Admiration by Great Personalities Excerpt : Great Personalities On Buddhism – Ven. K. Sri Dhammananda On Philosophy ●Albert Einstein, renown scientist. The religion of the future will be a cosmic religion. It should transcend a personal God and avoid dogmas and theology. Covering both the natural and the spiritual, it should be based on a religious sense arising from the experience of all. things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity. Buddhism answers this description. ●Bishop Gore. It is Buddhism as we find it actually recorded, not a hypothetical primitive system, which still forms a challenge to other religions. ●Prof. Carl Gustay Jung, a leading psychologist. As a student of comparative religions, I believe that Buddhism is the most perfect one the world has ever seen. The philosophy of the Buddha, the theory of evolution and the law of Karma were far superior to any other creed. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 05 ●H. G. Wells, science fiction writer. Over great areas of the world it still survives. It is possible that in contact with Western science, and inspired by the spirit of history, the original teaching of Gotama, revived and purified, may yet play a large part in the direction of human destiny. ●H. G. Wells. Buddhism has done more for the advance of world civilization and true culture than any other influence in the chronicles of mankind. ●Hazrat Inayat Khan, Muslim scholar. The mission of the Buddha was quite unique in its character, and therefore it stands quite apart from the many other religions of the world. His mission was to bring the birds of idealism flying in the air nearer to the earth, because the food for their bodies belonged to the earth. ●Arthur Schopenhauer, German philosopher. If I am to take the results of my philosophy as the standard of truth I should be obliged to concede to Buddhism the pre-eminence over the rest. ●Prof. Max Muller, German scholar. Buddhism is the highest expression of philosophic thought. The highest spiritual conceptions are to he found therein. ●George Grimm, German Philosopher. Unlike anyone else, Buddha not only laid bare the great practical problem of how we can make ourselves perfectly free from sorrow and absolutely full of bliss, but he has referred his essential problem directly to the primary problem of our deepest nature. What wholly unique is that he has referred it to a simple syllogism of such simplicity that, with goodwill, even an intelligent shepherd can in the end experience it in all its overwhelming certainty. ●Sir Edwin Arnold, writer. I have often said, and I shall say again and again, that between Buddhism and modern Science there exists a close intellectual bond. SUMMARY OF LESSON : Characteristics And Contributions Of Buddhism

7 © ●Jawarhalal Nehru, Prime Minister of India. His message was one of universal benevolence, of love for all. It was an ideal of righteousness and self-discipline. Buddha relies on reason and logic and experience and asks people to seek the truth in their own minds. It is remarkable how near this philosophy of the Buddha brings us to some of the concepts of modern physics and modern philosophic thought. Buddha's method was one of psychological analysis and, again, it is surprising to find how deep was his insight into this latest of modem science. ●Hazrat Inayat Khan, Muslim scholar. The Buddha taught in the form of religion, and today the thinkers of the modern world are beginning to find the same solution which Buddha found over 2500 years ago; they call it psychoanalysis. It is the beginning of that which had already reached its summit in the highest idealism. ●Swami Vivekananda. Of all the teachers of the world, the Buddha was the one who taught us most to be self-reliant, who freed us not only from the bondage of four false values but from dependence on the invisible beings called God or Gods. He invited everyone into the state of freedom which he called Nirvana. All must attain it, one day, and the attainment is the complete fulfillment of man. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 06 ●Prof. Hans Driesch, German philosopher. Buddhism seems to me the most philosophical of all religions. Can also say that some of my metaphysical convictions are in conformity with Buddhist ideas specially with regard to the idea of the unity of all living beings. Buddhism and Christianity have many similarities, and there is no reason for mutual enmity, but the idea of the unity of all living beings comes more into a prominence in Buddhism. ●Bertrand Russell, famous philosopher. Philosophical conceptions are a product of two factors: one, inherited religious and ethical conceptions; the other called the Scientific. Seen thus, Buddhism is a combination of both speculative and scientific philosophy. It advocates the Scientific Method and pursues that to a finality that may be called the Rationalistic. In it are to be found answers to such question of interest as "What are mind and matter? Of them which is of greater importance? Is the Universe moving towards a goal? What is man's position? Is there living that is noble? It takes up where science cannot lead because of the limitations of the latter's physical instruments. Its conquests are those of the mind. ●Prof. Huxley, scientist. Gautama got rid of even that shade of a shadow of permanent existence by a metaphysical tour de force of great interest to the student of philosophy seeing that it supplies the wanting half of Bishop Berkeley's well-known idealist argument. It is a remarkable indication of the subtlety of Indian speculation that Gautama should have seen deeper than the greatest of modern idealist'. The tendency of enlightened thought of all today all the world over is not towards theology, but philosophy and psychology. The bark of theological dualism is drifting into danger. The fundamental principles of evolution and monism are being accepted by the thoughtful. ●Rabindranath Tagore, famous poet. Buddhism was the first spiritual force, known to us in history, which drew close together such a large number of races separated by most difficult barriers of distance, by difference of language and custom, by various degrees and divergent types of civilization. It had its motive power, neither in international commerce, nor in empire building, nor in scientific curiosity, nor in a migrative impulse to occupy fresh territory. It was a purely disinterested effort to help mankind forward to its final goal. SUMMARY OF LESSON : Characteristics And Contributions Of Buddhism

8 © On Morality ●Prof. Max Muller. Buddha was the embodiment of all the virtues he preached. During his successful and eventful ministry of 45 years he translated all his words into action; and in no place did he give vent to any human frailty, or any base passion. The Buddha's moral code is the most perfect which the world has ever known. ●Prof. Max Muller. The most important element of the Buddhist reform has always been its social and moral code. That moral code taken by itself is one of the most perfect which the world has ever known. On this point all testimonials from hostile and friendly quarters agree; philosophers there may have been, religious preachers, subtle metaphysists, disputants there may have been, but where shall we find such an incarnation of love, love that knows no distinction of caste and creed or colour, a love that over- flowed even the bound of humanity, that embraced the whole of sentient beings in its sweep, a love that embodied as the gospel of universal 'Maitri' and Ahimsa. ●Rev. Adolph Thomas. The moral code of Buddhism has given a pure expression to natural morality. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 07 ●Prof. Rhys Davids, Scholar. Buddhist or not Buddhist, I have examined every one of the great religious systems of the world, and in none of them have I found anything to surpass, in beauty and comprehensiveness, the Noble Eightfold Path and the Four Noble Truths of the Buddha. I am content to shape my life according to that path. ●Prof. Rhys Davids. It is not too much to say that almost the whole of the moral teachings of the Gospels as distinct from the dogmatic teaching will be found in Buddhist writings several centuries older than the Gospels. ●Dr. S Radhakrishnan, President of India. When we read Buddha's discourses, we are impressed by his spirit of reason. His ethical path has for its first step right views, a rational outlook. He endeavors to brush aside all cobwebs that interfere with mankind's vision of itself and its destiny. ●Dr. S Radhakrishnan. The Buddha gave an ethical twist to the thought of His time. We find in the early teaching of Buddhism three marked characteristics, an ethical earnestness, an absence of any theological tendency and an aversion to metaphysical speculation. ●Bishop Bigendet. Most of the moral truths prescribed by the gospel are to be met within the Buddhist scriptures --in reading the particulars of the life of the last Buddha Gotama, it is impossible not to feel reminded of many circumstances relating to our Saviour's life, such as it has been sketched by the Evangelists. ●Rev. Joseph Wain. Buddhism taught a life not by rule, but by principle, a life of beauty; and as a consequence, it was a religion of tolerance. It was the most charitable system under the sun. SUMMARY OF LESSON : Characteristics And Contributions Of Buddhism

9 © ●Anagarika B. Govinda, A German Scholar. Buddhist morality is based on freedom, i.e. on individual development. It is therefore relative. In fact there cannot be any morality nor any ethical principle it there is compulsion or determination from an agent outside ourselves. Therefore the idea of a Creator and ruler of this world takes away the very foundation of morality and ethics; for how can we be made responsible for our faults if we have been created with them or in such a weak form that we cannot resist the evil. ●Prof. Max Muller. Buddha was the embodiment of all the virtues he preached. During his successful and eventful ministry of 45 years he translated all his words into action; and in no place did he give vent to any human frailty, or any base passion. The Buddha's moral code is the most perfect which the world has ever known. ●Albert Schweitzer, a leading Western philosopher. In this sphere He gave expression to truths of everlasting value and advanced the ethics not of India alone but of humanity. Buddha was one of the greatest ethical men of genius ever bestowed upon the world. ●Prof. Von Glasenapp, A German Philosopher. As I understand it, Buddhism is, all throughout a doctrine of salvation for the individual; the idea of human collectivity which has sinned and can be redeemed, is alien to it. Therefore it has no central authority which claims the right of issuing orders or proclaiming dogmas binding on all the Buddhists of the world. Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 08 On Method And Approach ●Aldous Huxley, essayist and novelist. Alone of all the great world religions Buddhism made its way without persecution, censorship or inquisition. In all these respects its record is enormously superior to that of Christianity, which made its way among people wedded to materialism and which was able to justify the bloodthirsty tendencies of its adherents by an appeal to savage bronze-age literature of the Old Testament. ●Jawarhalal Nehru, Prime Minister of India. If any question has to be considered, it has to be considered peacefully and democratically in the way taught by the Buddha. ●Dr. Cunningham, Archaeologist. Buddhists propagated their religion by the persuasive voice of the missionary, many others by the merciless edge of the sword. The sanguinary career of others was lighted by lurid flames of burning cities; the peaceful progress of the Buddhist 46 was illuminated by the cheerful faces of the sick in monastic hospitals, by the happy smiles of travellers reposing in rest houses by the road-side". SUMMARY OF LESSON : Characteristics And Contributions Of Buddhism

10 © Philosophy And Science Philosophy ●Introduce 4 Noble Truths (as against theo-centric teaching) ●Introduce ethics without God ●Introduce comprehensive meditation system ●Introduce universal orders and law of causation ●Introduce doctrine of Dependent Origination ●Introduce doctrine of Kamma and Rebirth ●Introduce classification of philosophical thoughts ●Introduce system of logic, dialogues, etc Health Science ●Introduce behavioral medicine ●Introduce mental health with meditation Other Sciences ●Introduce studies on energy as primary ‘particles’ ●Introduce studies on extra sensory faculties ●Introduce studies on the mind and its development ●Introduce studies on human and social evolution Education Knowledge and Education ●Establish knowledge as a foundation for practise and realization (pariyatti, patipatti, pativedha) ●Establish code of conduct and responsibilities for various positions and roles in life – e.g., Sigalovada Sutta ●Establish code of conduct, responsibilities and discipline for the Monastic Order – the Vinaya ●Establish mentorship in the training of monks ●Establish clear methodology to develop personal qualities and values ●Establish meditation as a method to access supramundane knowledge Buddhist Contributions to the World Excerpts : DharmaAvenue Resources Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 09SUMMARY OF LESSON : Characteristics And Contributions Of Buddhism

11 © Ethics And Morality Value System ●Establish high standard of ethical behavior ●Establish openness and transparency ●Establish religious tolerance and harmlessness ●Establish equitability and equal opportunity ●Establish freedom of choice and meritocracy ●Establish respect for all forms of life ●Establish moderation, denounce extremism Human Rights ●Establish Freedom of Religious Practice ●Establish Freedom of Speech ●Uplift Status of Women in Society ●Admit Women in Monastic Order ●Denounce the Caste System Governance ●Establish code of discipline in the Monastic Order ●Establish democracy in the Monastic Order ●Establish code of ethics of governing Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 10 Social And Welfare Arts And Architecture ●Art: Japan (Ikebana, tea offering, zen garden), China (Shaolin), Tibet (Thangkas, Mandala) ●Architecture: Potala (Tibet), Borobudur (Indonesia), Sanchi Stupa (India), Mahabodhi Temple (India), Shwe Dagon (Burma), Emerald and Ayutthaya Temple (Thailand) ●Stone Sculptures and cave temples: India (Ajanta, Udaigiri, Ellora, Karle), Srilanka (Dambulla, Gal Vihara), Afghanistan (Bamiyam), China (Magao Caves, Yungang & Longmen Grottoes) Culture And Civilization ●Contribution of King Asoka, Contributions of Fa-hsien, Hsuan-tsang Services And Welfare (See Next Page) Environment And Peace (See Next Page) SUMMARY OF LESSON : Characteristics And Contributions Of Buddhism

12 © ●Tibet. The Dalai Lama and the peace movement ●Vietnam. Venerable Thich Nhat Hanh and the peace movement ●Taiwan. Buddhist model of international welfare work – the experience of Tzu Chi Buddhist Society ●Sri Lanka. Sharing resource, seeking peace – the experience of Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement ●Thailand-Europe. Harmony of cross cultural integration – Ajahn Chah and the Western Monastic Order ●Burma. Disseminating Treasures by the Burmese Masters ●India. Kiran Bedi and the reformation of prisoners Showcase of Contemporary Contributions Collated : DharmaAVenue Lesson : 3B / TG / 04 / PG 11SUMMARY OF LESSON : Characteristics And Contributions Of Buddhism

13 © About Us Welcome to DharmaAvenue.com. We are an independent, non- sectarian and not-for-profit Buddhist e-library and educational resource center based in Malaysia. All sects of Buddhism are respected and represented on this website. It was founded in 2004 and is committed to outreach learning. We are dedicated to sourcing, structuring and sharing resources to avail Buddhist knowledge to individuals interested in self-learning and Buddhist organizations interested in learning resources. While we hope to nurture a structured, systematic and integrated approach to learning about the Buddha’s Teaching we also hope to project the relevancy and immediacy of this beautiful ancient religion. Copyright. For free distribution only. You may print copies of this work for your personal use. You may re-format and redistribute this work for use on computers and computer networks, provided that you charge no fees for its distribution or use. Otherwise, all rights reserved. Please give acknowledgment to dharmaavenue.com. Bibliography Buddha And His Teachings. Bhikkhu Narada, Buddhist Missionary Society Great Personalities On Buddhism. Ven. Dr. K. Sri Dhammananda, Buddhist Missionary Society Further Reading Contribution Of Buddhism To World Culture. Ven. Soma Thera, Wheel 44, Buddhist Publication Society Knowledge And Conduct. Buddhist Contribution To Philosophy And Ethics, Wheel 50, Buddhist Publication Society Contribution Of Buddhism To World Civilization And Culture, P.N. Chopra (Co.Ee.), Tokan Sum (Ed.), S.Chand & Co Buddhism. The Religion And Its Culture. Ananda Guruge, World Fellowship of Buddhist Other Modules in College & University Series Introduction To Buddhism Four Noble Truths Development Of Ethics Development Of Tranquility Development Of Insight Path Of Purification Dependent Origination Kamma And Rebirth History Of Buddhism Traditions In Buddhism Scriptural Studies Credits Collated and Edited by: K.L. Hor, including cover design and layout Sub-editor: Fong Hong Wai Photo credits: Various sources across the Net. May owners of these photos be blessed with merits of this non-profit Project. Copyright © dharmaavenue.com May 2005


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