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Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge By A.S. Hashim. MD.

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1 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge By A.S. Hashim. MD

2 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge Supplication بـســـم الله الرحمن الرحيم In the Name of God, Lord of Mercy and Lord of Grace

3 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge Nahjul Balaaghah Nahjul Balaaghah, a highly valued book, consists of: – 254 sermons, – 48 letters, and – 212 sayings of Imam Ali Nahjul Balaaghah is unique to Imam Ali None of the Sahaaba was ever able to produce anything like it: 1. neither in substance 2. nor in literary eloquence. No wonder Ali was referred to as: 1. Sayyid al-Bulaghaa' (Pinnacle of Literary Expression) and 2. Sayyid al-Fu'qahaa, (Pinnacle of the Jurisprudents)

4 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge References about knowledge Nahjul Balaaghah contains 18 references about Knowledge, some of which appear in the following slides: The quotes appear in various sermons, –said at variable occasions and –about different subjects. 1. The Arabic quotes are from the book of Nahjul Balaaghah, by Dr. Subhi Al-Salih, and so is the numbering of the sermons and pages, 1st Edition, Beirut 1967. 2. The Number of the sermons may differ by a factor of 1 in other volumes of Nahjul Balaaghah 3. The references are quotes by Abd al-Zahra' al-Husayni in vols. I & IV of his work (see Al-Islam.org, internet)

5 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge Time Element The majority of Ali's sayings and speeches were stated: –During his Khilaafah when in Kufa, –At Different Places –At Different Occasions –Often at Khutba of Jumu’ah

6 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 5, Page 52 Delivered when the Holy Prophet died After the Prophet’s death Abu Sufyan was eager to sow discord by asking Ali to stand up to his Rights and fight off Abu Bakr. Seeing Abu Sufyan’s malicious scheme, Ali rejected the offer and explained it in this Sermon See next slide please Other sources: 1. Sibt ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirah, bab 6, 137; 2. al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj, I, 127; 3. al-Bayhaqi, al-Mahasin, II, 139, see `Arshi.

7 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 5, Delivered when the Prophet died Oh people! Deliver yourselves from the malice of discord, avoid paths of dissension, and put away the crowns of pride. Prosperous is the one who has power, or else he who wants peace, so others enjoy ease. The aspiration for Khilaafah is like turbid water or a morsel that chocks him who swallows it. One who plucks fruits before being ripe is like one who cultivates in a field that belongs to someone else. If I object they would call me covetous for power, but if I keep quiet they would say I was scared to die. It is a pity that after all the ups and downs I have been through, by Allah the son of Abu Talib is more familiar with death than an infant anxious for his mother’s breast. I have been given hidden knowledge, if I were to disclose it you would tremble like ropes in deep wells. أَيُّها النَّاسُ، شُقُّوا أَمْوَاجَ الفِتَنِ بِسُفُنِ النَّجَاةِ، وَعَرِّجُوا عَنْ طَريقِ الـمُنَافَرَةِ، وَضَعُوا تِيجَانَ الـمُفَاخَرَةِ. أَفْلَحَ مَنْ نَهَضَ بِجَنَاح، أوِ اسْتَسْلَمَ فَأَراحَ، مَاءٌ آجِنٌ، وَلُقْمَةٌ يَغَصُّ بِهَا آكِلُهَا، وَمُجْتَنِي الَّثمَرَةِ لِغَيْرِ وَقْتِ إِينَاعِهَا كالزَّارعِ بِغَيْرِ أَرْضِهِ. فَإِنْ أقُلْ يَقُولُوا: حَرَصَ عَلَى الـمُلْكِ، وَإنْ أَسْكُتْ يَقُولُوا: جَزعَ مِنَ المَوْتِ! هَيْهَاتَ بَعْدَ اللَّتَيَّا وَالَّتِي! وَاللهِ لاَبْنُ أَبي طَالِب آنَسُ بالمَوْتِ مِنَ الطِّفْلِ بِثَدْي أُمِّهِ، بَلِ انْدَمَجْتُ عَلَى مَكْنُونِ عِلْم لَوْ بُحْتُ بِهِ لاَضْطَرَبْتُمُ اضْطِرَابَ الاَْرْشِيَةِ في الطَّوِيِّ البَعِيدَةِ!

8 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 18, Page 60 Ali: About the Opinionated Theologians When Allah is One, the Quran is One, and the Prophet is One then the religion should also be One. And when the religion is one how can there be divergent opinions and orders about any theological matter? Divergence, then, can only be in case the theologian has: 1. Forgotten it, or is 2. Oblivious to it, or when 3. Senselessness overtakes him, or 4. He willfully desires entanglement in these labyrinths, since Allah and the Prophet are above all these things. See next slide please Other sources: 1. Ibn Talhah, Matalib, I, 141; 2. al-Tabarsi, al-'Ihtijaj, I, 139; 3. al-Qadi al-Nu`man, Da`a'im, I, 93; 4. Narrated by Ibn Udhaynah from al-'Imam al-Sadiq (A) in al-Nuri, Mustadrak al-Wasa'il, III, 174; see also al-Saffar, Basa'ir al-darajat.

9 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 18, Ali: About the Opinionated Theologians When a theological query is put before one of the judges he gives his verdict out of his imagination. When the same query is presented before another one he passes a different verdict. Then these judges give their verdicts to the Justice (who had appointed them) and he accepts their contradictory verdicts. All this and their Lord is One, their Prophet is One, and their Book is One (yet their verdicts are not the same!!). Is it that Allah ordered them to differ and they obeyed Him? Or He prohibited them from it but they disobeyed Him? Or has Allah sent an incomplete faith and He sought their help to complete it? Or is that they were His partners, so they utter something and He has to agree? تَرِدُ عَلَى أحَدِهِمُ القَضِيَّةُ في حُكْم مِنَ الاَْحْكَامِ فَيَحْكُمُ فِيهَا بِرَأْيِهِ، ثُمَّ تَرِدُ تِلْكَ القَضِيَّةُ بِعَيْنِهَا عَلَى غَيْرِهِ فَيَحْكُمُ فِيها بِخِلافِ قَوْلِهِ، ثُمَّ يَجْتَمِعُ القُضَاةُ بِذلِكَ عِنْدَ إمامِهِم الَّذِي اسْتَقْضَاهُم، فَيُصَوِّبُ آرَاءَهُمْ جَمِيعاً، وَإِلهُهُمْ وَاحِدٌ! وَنَبِيُّهُمْ وَاحِدٌ! وَكِتَابُهُمْ وَاحِدٌ! أَفَأَمَرَهُمُ اللهُ ـ سُبْحَانَهُ ـ بِالاخْتلاَفِ فَأَطَاعُوهُ! أَمْ نَهَاهُمْ عَنْهُ فَعَصَوْهُ! أَمْ أَنْزَلَ اللهُ سُبْحَانَهُ دِيناً نَاقِصاً فَاسْتَعَانَ بِهِمْ عَلَى إِتْمَامِهِ! أَمْ كَانُوا شُرَكَاءَ لَهُ فَلَهُمْ أَنْ يَقُولُوا وَعَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَرْضِى؟

10 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 87, Page 119 Ali: of the ignorant pretending to be a scholar Ali describes people who claim to know it all yet they are actually ignorant, in the following slide: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi`, bab al-`izz wa al-sharaf; see also Ibn Abi al-Hadid, II, 132.

11 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 87, Ali: of the ignorant pretending to be a scholar While the other (kind of) man is he who calls himself learned but he is not so. He has gleaned ignorance from the ignorant and misguidance from the misguided. He has set for the people a trap of deceit and untrue speech. He takes the Quran according to his opinion and mutated the Truth by way of his wishes. He makes people feel safe from big sins and takes light the serious sins. He claims that he stops at the doubtful but he remains plunged therein, and that he is aloof from innovations yet he is immersed in them. His shape is that of a man, but his heart is that of a beast. He does not know the gate of guidance to follow it nor the gate of misguidance to keep away from it. These men are alive but actually are living-dead. وَآخَرُ قَدْ تَسَمَّى عَالمِاً وَلَيْسَ بِهِ، فَاقْتَبَسَ جَهَائِلَ مِنْ جُهَّال وَأَضَالِيلَ مِنْ ضُلاَّل، وَنَصَبَ لِلنَّاسِ أَشْرَاكاً مِنْ حبالِ غُرُور، وَقَوْلِ زُور، قَدْ حَمَلَ الْكِتَابَ عَلَى آرَائِهِ، وَعَطَفَ الْحَقَّ عَلى أَهْوَائِهِ، يُؤْمِنُ مِنَ الْعَظَائِمِ، وَيُهَوِّنُ كَبِيرَ الْجَرَائِمِ، يَقُولُ: أَقِفُ عِنْدَ الشُّبُهَاتِ، وَفِيهَا وَقَعَ، وَيَقُولُ: أَعْتَزِلُ الْبِدَعَ، وَبَيْنَهَا اضْطَجَعَ، فَالصُّورَةُ صُورَةُ إِنْسَان، وَالْقَلْبُ قَلْبُ حَيَوَان، لاَ يَعْرِفُ بَابَ الْهُدَى فَيَتَّبِعَهُ، وَلاَ بَابَ الْعَمَى فيَصُدَّ عَنْهُ، فَذلِكَ مَيِّتُ الاَْحْيَاءَ!

12 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 91, Page 125 Ali: About the deeply versed in knowledge Ali delivered this sermon from the pulpit of the mosque of Kufa when someone asked him: O' Amir al-Mu'minin! describe Allah for us in such a way that we may imagine that we see Him with our eyes, thus we would love more Him and be more knowledge about Him. See next slide please for part of the sermon Other sources: 1. Mas`adah ibn Sadaqah, author of Khutab Amir al-Mu'minin; 2. Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd, II, 406; 3. al-Saduq, al-Tawhid, 34; 4. al-Zamakhshari, Rabi`, I, bab al-mala'ikah; 5. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, discusses its unusual (gharib) phrases in several places; 6. Ibn Tawus, Faraj al-mahmum, 56.

13 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 91, Ali: About the deeply versed in knowledge The firm-in-knowledge are the ones who desist from probing the barriers to the hidden unknown, and their acknowledgement of ignorance about the hidden unknown prevents them from further probe. Allah, glory to Him, praises them for their admission that knowledge not allowed to them are beyond them. They do not delve into discussion of what is not enjoined about knowing Him, affirmatively so. O’ people! Be content with this, and do not limit Allah’s Might because of the limitation of your minds, or else you be among the ruined ones. وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الرَّاسِخِينَ فِي الْعِلْمِ هُمُ الَّذِينَ أَغْنَاهُمْ عَنِ اقْتِحَامِ السُّدَدِ الْمَضْرُوبَةِ دُونَ الْغُيُوبِ، الاِْقْرَارُ بِجُمْلَةِ مَا جَهِلُوا تَفْسِيرَهُ مِنَ الْغيْبِ الْـمَحْجُوبِ، فَمَدَحَ اللهُ ـ تَعَالَى ـ اعْتِرَافَهُمْ بِالْعَجْزِ عَنْ تَنَاوُلِ مَا لَمْ يُحِيطُوا بِهِ عِلْماً، وَسَمَّى تَرْكَهُمُ التَّعَمُّقَ فِيَما لَمْ يُكَلِّفْهُمُ الْبَحْثَ عَنْ كُنْهِهِ رُسُوخاً، فاقْتَصِرْ عَلَى ذَلِكَ، وَلاَتُقَدِّرْ عَظَمَةَ اللهِ سُبْحَانَهُ عَلَى قَدْرِ عَقْلِكَ فَتَكُونَ مِنَ الْهَالِكِينَ.

14 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 103, Page 149 About attributes of the scholarly person In his analysis of people’s knowledge Ali gives comments as shown in the following slide See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Kulayni, Rawdah, 139; 2. al-Harrani, Tuhaf, 143; 3. al-Kulayni, Usul al-Kafi, II, 225; 4. Ibn Qutaybah, `Uyun, II, 352; 5. al-Zamakhshari, Rabi`, I, 219; 6. Ibn Talhah, Matalib, I, 202; 7. al-Qadi al-Quda`i, Dustur, 48; 8. al-Khuza`i, al-Fitan, see (9) 9. Ibn Tawus, al-Malahim, 27; 10. Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, V, 131.

15 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 103, Ali: About attributes of the scholarly person The learned person is he who knows his worth. Suffice it for a man to remain ignorant if he knows not his worth. Certainly, the despised man with Allah is he whom Allah has left him for his own self. Such a person goes astray from the right path, and proceeds without a guide. If he is called to the plantation of this world he is active, but if he is called to the plantation of the next world he is passive. As though what he is active for is enjoined upon him whereas in whatever he is passive was not required of him. الْعَالِمُ مَنْ عَرَفَ قَدْرَهُ، وَكَفَى بِالْمَرءِ جَهْلاً أَلاَّ يَعْرِفَ قَدْرَهُ; وَإِنَّ مِنْ أَبْغَضَ الرِّجَالِ إِلَى اللهِ لَعَبْدٌ وَكَّلَهُ اللهُ إِلَى نَفْسِهِ، جَائِرٌ عَنْ قَصْدِ السَّبِيلِ، سَائِرٌ بَغَيْرِ دَلِيل، إِنْ دُعِيَ إِلَى حَرْثِ الدُّنْيَا عَمِلَ، أوْ إِلَى حَرْثِ الاْخِرَةِ كَسِلَ! كَأَنَّ مَا عَمِلَ لَهُ وَاجِبٌ عَلَيْهِ، وَكَأَنَّ مَا وَنَى فِيهِ سَاِقطٌ عَنْهُ!

16 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 110, Page 164 Ali: The learned who does not apply Ali urges people to learn and understand the Quran, giving comments as shown in the following slide: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Harrani, Tuhaf, 104; 2. al-Saduq, Man la yahduruh, I, 131; 3. al-Saduq, `Ilal, 114; 4. al-Barqi, al-Mahasin, 233; 5. al-Tusi, al-'Amali, I, 220.

17 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 110, Ali: The learned who does not apply Learn the Quran for it is the fairest of discourses; and understand the Quran thoroughly for it is the blossom of the hearts. Seek cure with its light for it is the cure for hearts. Recite it well for it is well nigh the best narration. Certainly, a scholar who acts not according to his knowledge is like the off-headed ignorant who finds no relief from his ignorance, But the plea of Allah is greater on the learned and the grief more incumbent, and before Allah he is more blameworthy. وَتَعَلَّمُوا الْقرْآن فَإِنَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْحَدِيثِ، وَتَفَقَّهُوا فِيهِ فَإِنَّهُ رَبِيعُ الْقُلُوبِ، وَاسْتَشْفُوا بِنُورِهِ فَإِنَّهُ شِفَاءُ الصُّدُورِ، وَأَحْسِنُوا تِلاَوَتَهُ فَإِنَّهُ أَنْفَعُ الْقَصَصِ. وَإِنَّ الْعَالِمَ الْعَامِلَ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمِهِ كَالْجَاهِلِ الْحَائِرِ الَّذِي لاَ يَسْتَفِيقُ مِنْ جَهْلِهِ، بَلِ الْحُجَّةُ عَلَيْهِ أَعْظَمُ، وَالْحَسْرَةُ لَهُ أَلْزَمُ، وَهُوَ عَنْدَ اللهِ أَلْوَمُ.

18 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 116, Page 173 Ali: About knowing ahead Ali brings attention to his own knowledge, and what reaction of the people would be. See next slide please Other sources: 1. Ibn `Abd Rabbih, al-`Iqd, VI, 249; 2. al-Mas`udi, Muruj, III, 150; 3. al-'Azhari, Tahdhib, VII, 101 (kh.d.r); 4. Ibn Faqih, al-Buldan, 181; 5. al-Harawi, al-Jam`, see Ibn al-'Athir, al-Nihayah, II, 41, V, 170; 6. al-Muttaqi, Kanz, VI, 87; 7. al-Daylami, al-'Irshad, I, 33.

19 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 116, Ali: About knowing ahead If you were to know the concealed from you as what I know, you would have certainly gone out weeping over your deeds, beating yourselves in grief, And you would have abandoned your property without leaving guards or deputies. And everyone would have cared for none but his self, paying no attention to others. Lo! You people have forgotten what you were taught and felt safe from what you had been warned. Therefore, your minds have gone astray and your affairs have splintered. وَلَوْ تَعْلَمُونَ مَا أَعْلَمُ مِمَّا طُوِيَ عَنْكُمْ غَيْبُهُ، إِذاً لَخَرَجْتُمْ إِلَى الصُّعُدَاتِ، تَبْكُونَ عَلَى أَعْمَالِكُمْ، وَتَلْتَدِمُونَ عَلَى أَنْفُسِكُمْ، وَلَتَرَكْتُمْ أَمْوَالَكُمْ لاَ حَارِسَ لها وَلاَ خَالِفَ عَلَيْهَا، وَلَهَمَّتْ كُلَّ امْرِىء مِنْكُمْ نَفْسُهُ، لاَ يَلْتَفِتُ إِلَى غَيْرِهَا; وَلَكِنَّكُمْ نَسِيتُمْ مَا ذُكِّرْتُمْ، وَأَمِنْتُمْ مَا حُذِّرْتُمْ، فَتَاهَ عَنْكُمْ رَأْيُكُمْ، وَتَشَتَّتَ عَلَيْكُمْ أَمْرُكُمْ.

20 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 154, Page 216 Ali: Acting with knowledge or without it Ali urges people to carefully consider their decisions and the path they are to take, as shown in the following slide: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-'Amidi, Ghurar, 252, 324, 331; 2. al-Yamani, al-Taraz, I, 217

21 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 154, Ali: Acting with knowledge or without it The one who sees with his heart and acts with insight should assess: Does the deed go for me or against me? If the deed goes for him he should proceed, otherwise he should avoid. For, he who acts without knowledge is like one who treads without a map. His deviation from the path will do nothing but increase his distance from his goal. But a person who acts according to knowledge is like the one who treads the clear path. Therefore, let the one who can perceive: should he proceed or should he go back. وَالنّاظِرُ بِالْقَلْبِ، الْعَامِلُ بِالْبَصَرِ، يَكُونُ مُبْتَدَأُ عَمَلِهِ أَنْ يَعْلَمَ: أَعَمَلُهُ عَلَيْهِ أَمْ لَهُ؟! فَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُ مَضَى فِيهِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ عَليْهِ وَقَفَ عِنْدَهُ. فَإِنَّ الْعَامِلَ بَغَيْرِ عِلْم كَالسَّائِرِ عَلَى غيْرِ طَرِيق، فَلاَ يَزِيدُهُ بُعْدُهُ عَنِ الطَّرِيقِ الْوَاضِحِ إِلاَّ بُعْداً مِنْ حَاجَتِهِ، وَالْعَامِلُ بالْعِلْمِ كَالسَّائِرِ عَلَى الطَّرِيقِ الْوَاضِحِ، فَلْيَنْظُرْ نَاظِرٌ: أَسَائِرٌ هُوَ أَمْ رَاجِعٌ!

22 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 189, Page 280 Ali: Ask me before you miss me Ali alludes to the vastness of his knowledge, even to urge people to keep learning from him before he is gone, as shown in the following slide: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-Tha`alibi, al-'I`jaz, 32; 2. al-Saffar, Basa'ir, 31; on p. 202 from (3) 3. Mas`adah ibn Sadaqah, Khutab Amir al-Mu'minin (A); 4. al-Saduq, `Uyun, I, 164; 5. al-Saduq, al-Khisal, II, 164; 6. al-'Amidi, Ghurar, 80, narrated by (7) 7. al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, II, 466; 8. Ibn `Abd al-Birr, Jami`, I, 114; 9. Ibn Hajar, al-'Isabah, II, 509; 10. al-Tabari, al-Riyad, 198; 11. al-Suyuti, Ta'rikh al-khulafa', 124; 12. Dahlan, al-Futuhat, II, 337; 13. al-Qunduzi, Yanabi` al-mawaddah, 224

23 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 189, Ali: Ask me before you will miss me Certainly, our case is arduous and complicated; whose burden cannot be discharged except by a believer whom Allah has tried his heart with belief. Our traditions will be upheld only by men of trustworthy hearts and honorable station. O' people! ask me before you will miss me, Since I am more acquainted with the matters of heavenly life than the ways of the earthly life, Do so before the malice of discord springs upon its feet, trampling and destroying the hopes and wishes of so many people. إِنَّ أَمْرَنا صَعْبٌ مُسْتَصْعَبٌ، لاَ يَحْتَمِلُهُ إِلاَّ عَبْدٌ مُؤْمِنٌ امْتَحَنَ اللهُ قَلْبَهُ لِلاِيمَانِ، وَلاَ يَعِي حَدِيثَنَا إِلاَّ صُدُورٌ أَمِينَةٌ، وَأَحْلاَمٌ رَزِينَةٌ. أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، سَلُوني قَبْلَ أَنْ تَفْقِدُوني، فَلاََنَا بِطُرُقِ السَّماءِ أَعْلَمُ مِنِّي بِطُرُقِ الاَْرْضِ، قَبْلَ أَنْ تَشْغَرَ بِرِجْلِهَا فِتْنَةٌ تَطَأُ فِي خِطَامِهَا وَتَذْهَبُ بِأَحْلاَمِ قَوْمِهَا

24 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 214, Page 331 Ali: Character of the scholarly Ali enumerates some of the characters of the true scholarly, as shown in the following slide: See next slide please Other sources: 1. Al-'Amidi, Ghurar; 2. Ibn Abi al-Hadid, Sharh, III, 23

25 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Sermon 214, Ali: Character of the scholarly Be aware that the servants of Allah who preserve His knowledge: They protect what He desires to be protected, and clarify His wellsprings for others. They are in friendliness with others and affection on meeting each other. They drink from cups of wisdom, quenching their thirst to their full. They repel suspicions, and rebuff backbiting; since Allah forged their nature with good manners. Through His love they love each other and by it they meet each other. They are the select above others, like good seeds among others. The selection has distinguished them and purified them. وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ عِبَادَ اللهِ الْمُسْتَحْفَظِينَ عِلْمَهُ، يَصُونُونَ مَصُونَهُ، وَيُفَجِّرُونَ عُيُونَهُ، يَتَوَاصَلُونَ بِالْوِلاَيَةِ، وَيَتَلاَقَوْنَ بالْـمَحَبَّةِ، وَيَتَسَاقَوْنَ بِكَأْس رَوِيَّة، وَيَصْدُرُونَ بِرِيَّة، لاَ تَشُوبُهُمُ الرِّيبَةُ، وَلاَ تُسْرِعُ فِيهِمْ الْغِيبَةُ. عَلَى ذلِكَ عَقَدَ خَلْقَهُمْ وَأَخْلاَقَهُمْ، فَعَلَيْهِ يَتَحَابُّونَ، وَبِهِ يَتَوَاصَلُونَ، فَكَانُوا كَتَفَاضُلِ الْبَذْرِ يُنْتَقَى، فَيُوْخَذُ مِنْهُ وَيُلْقَى، قَد مَيَّزَهُ التَّخْلِيصُ، وَهذَّبَهُ الـتَّمْحيصُ.

26 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Letter 31, Page 397 a selection from Ali’s letter to his son After returning from the Battle of Siffin, Imam Ali gave advice to one of his sons (Some historians claim it to Imam Al-Hasan while others claim it to Muhammad ibn Al-Hanafiya). He wrote the letter in the form of a will, which deals with almost every aspect of life and what makes a truly manly person-- brave, humane, generous, virtuous and pious. See next slide please

27 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge In Letter 31, a selection of Ali’s letter to al-Hasan Son! Let there be a scale between you and others to measure your behavior: What you like or dislike for yourself, like it or dislike it for others. Do not oppress or tyrannize anyone, just as you surely do not like to be oppressed or tyrannized. Be kind and sympathetic to others just as you like others to treat you with kindness. If you find a loathsome habit in others, abstain from it. If you are pleased by receiving a goodly behavior, then behave with others in the same pleasing manner. Do not talk of what you don’t know, or even if you know little. And do not speak of others in the manner you do not want them to speak about you. يَا بُنَيَّ، اجْعَلْ نَفْسَكَ مِيزَاناً فِيَما بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ غَيْرِكَ، فَأَحْبِبْ لِغَيْرِكَ مَا تُحِبُّ لِنَفْسِكَ، وَاكْرَهْ لَهُ مَا تَكْرَهُ لَهَا، وَلاَ تَظْلِمْ كَمَا لاَ تُحِبُّ أَنْ تُظْلَمَ، وَأَحْسِنْ كَمَا تُحِبُّ أَنْ يُحْسَنَ إِلَيْكَ، وَاسْتَقْبِحْ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ مَا تَسْتَقْبِحُ مِنْ غَيْرِكَ، وَارْضَ مِنَ النَّاسِ بِمَا تَرْضَاهُ لَهُمْ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ، وَلاَ تَقُلْ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُ وَإِنْ قَلَّ مَا تعْلَمُ، وَلاَ تَقُلْ مَا لاَ تُحِبُّ أَنْ يُقَالَ لَكَ.

28 Nahjul Balaaghah about Knowledge Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim


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