Presentation on theme: "CHRISTMAS. Christmas Celebrated on: 25th December (in Gregorian calendar) 6th January (Armenia) 7th January (in Iulian calendar: Russia, Serbia, Georgia,"— Presentation transcript:
Christmas Celebrated on: 25th December (in Gregorian calendar) 6th January (Armenia) 7th January (in Iulian calendar: Russia, Serbia, Georgia, Ukraine, Macedonia, Republic of Moldavia)
History of Christmas date In the Bible isn’t mention any specific date of Jesus birth So... In the begining it was celebrated on: 6th January It is known that during Constantine Emperor (the first Roman Emperor who became Christian) Christmas was celebrated on December 25th Rome, 336 AD Few years later, pope Julius I officially declared that the Jesus birthday is 25th December.
Christmas - etimology "Christ's Mass„: Crīst = is from Greek Khrīstos (Χριστός), a translation of Hebrew Māšîa ḥ (Messiah), meaning "anointed" Mæsse = is from Latin missa, the celebration of the Eucharist
Crăciun - etimology Calatio (Latin) – when Romans were concocated by pagan priests in every first day of the month to announce the feasts for that month Creatio (Latin) = creation, birth; the day of creation or Jesus birth Creātiōnem (Latin) = „gift” with the sense of „child”, Crăciun could mean „Jesus – The Child”
Crăciun - etimology Can be connected to Slavic feast of winter solstice: Korochun (корочун, карачун in Russian), Kračún (in Czech and Slovakian), Krachun (in Hungarian, Karácsony = Christmas).
Pre-Christian Winter festivals (connected with winter solstice) in many European pagan cultures. Many modern Christmas customs have been directly influenced by such festivals, including gift-giving and merrymaking from the Roman Saturnalia, greenery, lights, and charity from the Roman New Year, and Yule logs and various foods from Germanic feasts.
Christmas Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus to the Virgin Mary as a fulfillment of the Old Testament's Messianic prophecy. According to Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke, Jesus was born to Mary, assisted by her husband Joseph, in the city of Bethlehem.
Decorations In the 15th century, it was recorded that in London it was the custom at Christmas for every house and all the parish churches to be decorated with ivy. The heart-shaped leaves of ivy were said to symbolize the coming to earth of Jesus, while its thorns and red berries were considered to be a protection against pagans and witches
Colors of Christmas decorations RED RED = the blood of Jesus, which was shed in his crucifixion GREEN GREEN = eternal life, and in particular the evergreen tree GOLD GOLD = first color associated with Christmas, as one of the three gifts of the kings, symbolizing royalty.
Decorations – Christmas Tree Is considered by some as Christianisation of pagan tradition and ritual surrounding the Winter Solstice, which included the use of evergreen boughs, and an adaptation of pagan tree worship; The modern Christmas tree tradition is believed to have begun in Germany in the 18th century. In Romania, the Christmas tree is usualy decorated on the Christmas Eve
Decorations – Christmas Tree The fir tree by its triangular shape represents the Trinity The fir tree is decorated with ornaments signifying knowledge and wealth, like the sacred tree from the Garden of Eden, they were in apple - fruits of knowledge
The legend of the Christmas tree At the moment of the birth of Christ, one myth says that every tree bore perfect fruit to bear tribute and honor to the Lord except the lowly fir tree. This tree was ashamed of his stature until the Lord approached him and caused him to sparkle with light.
The fir tree in Romanian tradition In Romanian tradition from villages, we find the cusom of decorating the fir tree at weddings and death young women and men. The custom exists from the time of Dacians and signifies a ritual marriage between the deceased and the nature represented by the fir tree. The fir tree thus decorated is called the Tree of Life, which is found as a natural reason in the folk art. During the time, the fir tree gained meanings like: "judgment tree", "tree of charity", "fertilizer tree"
Other decorations Bells Candles Stockings Wreaths Angels Candies and candy canes
Gifts Sharing gifts one to another seems to be a custom that was borrowed from Romans. During Saturnalia (celebrated between 17 and 23th December) slaves received gifts from the rich people. Also, during this celebration they could live like free people.
„A Christmas Carol” – Ch. Dickens Written in 1843, the novel helped revive the "spirit" of Christmas and seasonal joy. Its instant popularity played a major role in portraying Christmas as a holiday emphasizing family, goodwill, and compassion. Dickens sought to construct Christmas as a family-centered festival of generosity, in contrast to the community-based and church-centered observations
„A Christmas Carol” – Ch. Dickens Dickens influenced many aspects of Christmas that are celebrated today in Western culture, such as family gatherings, seasonal food and drink, dancing, games, and a festive generosity of spirit. "Merry Christmas" was popularized following the appearance of the story.
Christmas in Romania In Romania, Christmas is the moment when all members of the family are gathering together. In this period, they share the activities in preparing the Christmas Day. In the house is created a specifical dynamic and noisy atmosphere Usualy the food is prepared in the Christmas Eve and the day before it. In the North of Moldovia (the region of Romania) the Christmas Eve’s dishes are without meat and any animal products.
Carols Carols had ritual function, namely the wish for fertility, fruitfulness and abundance. On the other hand, a common goal of carols was to drive out the evil spirits and reunion with those who passed away. In this sense, they inherit function of pagan holiday of Saturnalia, Dies natalia Solis Invicti. Over time, from the original meaning of carols was preserved the festive mood, ceremony, parties and wishes.
Carols Romanian Carols are traditional songs, more exactly congratulations and kind of wishes. Romanian carols generally are between 20 and 60 lines. Carols are preserved since pre-Christian period. Usually children sing carols in the night of 23th December, and in the morning of 24th December. A part of the Romanian carols have different variants and versions, depending on region. Calenda was the Roman celebration dedicated to the Sun, designating a round object, a direct reference to the solar disk, hence the habit of split knot-shaped breads and nuts to singers, all symbols of the circle of perfection.
Santa Claus Santa Claus is the newer version of Saint Nicholas who has appeared in the first century. On Christmas night he gives gifts to all children (24 to December 25)
The Story of Santa Claus American pastor Clement Clarke Moore was the author of a poem in which he present St. Nicholas as a sympathetic character, chubby and smiling, who give the gifts from his sleigh pulled by reindeer. First published in the Sentinel newspaper (New York) on September 23, 1823, the poem has become highly sought after in the coming years, being translated and published all around the world.
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