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Presentation on theme: "Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume 07-121 TRAINING Click here to view this PowerPoint in its entirety Click here to view this PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume TRAINING Click here to view this PowerPoint in its entirety Click here to view this PowerPoint in its entirety FIRE MEDICS Shock Treatment, Pt. 2 Quiz EVOLUTIONS 2000 Kramer vs. Kramer Program Quiz Answers FIRELINE Davenport House Fire Rock Falls Factory Fire Discussion Questions HANDS-ON Half-Attic Fires, Pt. 4 Quiz Air Crash Simulator, Pt. 2 Quiz Working Fire Training Training Materials

2 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume TRAINING Click anywhere on page to view show in its entirety Click anywhere on page to view show in its entirety Working Fire Training Training Materials All training methods and procedures presented in this Working Fire Training (WFT) video program and training materials are based on IFSTA, NFPA, NIOSH, OSHA and all other relevant industry regulations and standards and are presented as a part of generally accepted and acknowledged practices in the U.S. Fire Service. WFT should be used under the supervision of certified trainers in conjunction with national, state, and local training standards and protocols, and the standard operating guides and procedures of the Subscriber. WFT is intended to be an ancillary source of training information and should not be used as the sole source of training for any emergency service organization. WFT accepts no responsibility for how the Subscriber implements or integrates this program into the Subscriber’s own training program, nor does the use of this program by the Subscriber imply that WFT approves or endorses any specific training methods presented by the Subscriber to its own organization. WFT accepts no responsibility for the correct understanding or application of its training methods and procedures by emergency service personnel who view this program; nor for any performance or lack of performance by emergency service personnel who may view this program and use or apply these training methods and procedures incorrectly; nor does it accept any liability for injuries or deaths of emergency service personnel who may view this program and use or apply such training methods and procedures incorrectly. By presenting this program for viewing to its organization’s members, the Subscriber, and by viewing or reading materials presented by WFT, the members and students of the Subscriber, agree to hold harmless WFT, the University of Cincinnati, VFIS, and any persons or organizations who participate in the creation and/or presentation of this training material from any legal action which might result from any line-of-duty injuries or deaths of the Subscriber’s members or any other emergency service personnel who view this program and who may use or apply such training methods and procedures incorrectly. LEGAL DISCLAIMER

3 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume DISPATCH/SIZE-UP The structure was a two-story frame house that had been subdivided into three apartments. The incident was called in by police. –Heavy fire was showing out of the second story Training Materials Fireline Incident: Davenport House Fire

4 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume INCIDENT COMMAND /INCIDENT ACTION PLAN Second-in company took care of water supply issues. Fire Marshal served as Safety and Accountability officer on the side 3/C. Sent crew in fast-attack mode to 2 nd floor. Sent interior crew to the attic to investigate concealed fire. Ordered vertical ventilation of roof using aerial. Planned for exposure protection of apartment building on side 2/B Training Materials Fireline Incident: Davenport House Fire

5 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume STRATEGY/TACTICS First-in crew went into fast-attack mode. All tenants were accounted for. Fast-Attack crew reached the seat of the initial fire on second floor. The crew in attic still knew something was burning; they started removing plaster and lathe in living area to uncover it but were unsuccessful. (WFT – This is a dangerous practice in this kind of fire! See “Remarks”.) Training Materials Fireline Incident: Davenport House Fire

6 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume STRATEGY/TACTICS An aerial ladder was used to deliver and remove a crew to the roof that ventilated the attic, clearing out smoke for attic crew. Defensive-mode exposure protection of adjacent building was initiated Training Materials Fireline Incident: Davenport House Fire

7 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume EVENTS First-in crew was in fast attack mode. Put out visible fire on second floor. Fire was still burning somewhere in attic. Attic crew began searching for it. Vertical ventilation of the roof was ordered; ventilation crew was delivered to roof via aerial bucket. Auto-ventilation of concealed space in attic impinged upon aerial bucket. Ventilation crew was removed by aerial. Exposures were protected Training Materials Fireline Incident: Davenport House Fire

8 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume EVENTS Before the aerial could remove the roof crew, the fire auto-ventilated through roof and impinged upon the aerial bucket. –The aerial was not damaged Training Materials Fireline Incident: Davenport House Fire

9 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume REMARKS (from Working Fire Training) Beyond any obvious fire in visible living spaces, this incident presented a high-hazard potential to firefighters: –Subdivided apartments automatically mean concealed spaces. –Brown smoke meant a fire in one of those concealed spaces Training Materials Fireline Incident: Davenport House Fire

10 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume REMARKS (from Working Fire Training) Smoke showing is a poor indicator of exactly where the fire is. Judging from the auto-ventilation below the dormer, this is where this attic fire was. DO NOT pull ceilings or walls in the living spaces of a half-attic! –Positive pressure will push a backdraft and fire into that space, possibly injuring or killing firefighters! Training Materials Fireline Incident: Davenport House Fire

11 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume REMARKS (from Working Fire Training) Ventilating the roof in such a structure will only give ventilation to the high attic and access to fire that has traveled to the high attic. It WON’T give you ventilation in the living space! –It also won’t get you to the source of the attic fire unless the fire has burned its way there, not being drawn there via backdraft. Your best bet is to probe the low attics through the eaves from the outside! See this month’s Hands-On for a detailed description what was going on in this incident Training Materials Fireline Incident: Davenport House Fire

12 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume LESSONS LEARNED/BEST PRACTICES Protective nozzle head under the aerial bucket was not used to mitigate flames under bucket and should have been. –Reviewed aerial apparatus operation and better ways to protect the aerial bucket with under-bucket nozzle. Hot-wash/post-analysis following fire is a good idea for questioning tactics and investigating alternatives. Horizontal ventilation through windows is often not enough. –Ventilation of the roof is often essential – especially with half-attic/high attic fire Training Materials Fireline Incident: Davenport House Fire

13 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume LESSONS LEARNED/BEST PRACTICES Preplanning of such residences would be a good idea to help firefighters be aware of exit paths. Chief Gainey encourages crews to take a mental picture on size-up to compare that picture with later actions and occurrences. –Make sure all PPE is in place and functioning –Don’t let adrenaline take over; stop and take a deep breath. Freelancing is NEVER allowed – even by supervisory personnel such as fire marshals Training Materials Fireline Incident: Davenport House Fire

14 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume DISPATCH/SIZE-UP 100 year-old vacant factory (200,000 square feet) which had produced fasteners for the automotive industry. –Walls were coated with lubricant-based products, oils, solvents, etc. –By EPA order some months earlier, a contractor removed gallon drums of oils, greases, powders, etc. A snow earlier that day meant roofs were wet Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

15 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume DISPATCH/SIZE-UP As part of the size-up, Chief Cook moved a block away to get a better perspective of the magnitude of the fire before setting up the command post Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

16 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume INCIDENT COMMAND /INCIDENT ACTION PLAN The preplan of this building: –Let it go if a fire got any kind of a head start and then hope to contain it. –Therefore, setting up aerials was part of the plan. If the wind were coming from the wrong direction, however, the downtown area would be threatened. Chief Cook could see something deep-seated was pushing this fire which reinforced his decision to go defensive Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

17 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume INCIDENT COMMAND /INCIDENT ACTION PLAN A fourth alarm was called, utilizing the Illinois Mutual Aid Box Alarm System (MABAS) – mutual aid. Provisions for additional water supply were made. Precautions against flying embers were taken Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

18 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume STRATEGY/TACTICS Set up for heavy defensive master streams to prevent spreading of the fire. –A telesquirt from Rock Falls, an aerial ladder from Sterling and a snorkel from Dixon City. Four 2.5 handlines and 3 portable deck guns. No firefighters were to be committed to any kind of offensive attack Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

19 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume STRATEGY/TACTICS To increase the water supply, 1850 feet of hose was laid across the bridge to Sterling, IL where three engines relayed that line to the telesquirt, two master streams and some handlines. An engine patrolled the neighborhoods east of the factory looking for any flying embers that might have started roof fires. –A snow earlier that day helped wet down roofs Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

20 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SAFETY CONCERNS The electrical utility, Commonwealth Edison, was called to de-energize power lines that crossed over the building. Aside from that, potential collapses were the only other safety concerns Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

21 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume PERSONNEL It was a chilly night and everyone wanted to participate. Although 100 firefighters were on scene, there wasn’t enough for everyone to do. Everyone suppressed their adrenaline and maintained order and accountability. Staging was also used and no one was put in jeopardy Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

22 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume EMS Ambulances were looking throughout the neighborhood for health concerns Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

23 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume EVENTS Preplans indicated that this building fire would probably have to be fought defensively and it was. Using mutual aid, over 100 firefighters were available to fight this fire. Electrical service in the area was cut off by the electrical utility. Because of the size of the factory complex, additional aerials from mutual aid departments were used. Water supply from another city was generated through a long hose lay and relay pumping. Precautions against flying embers were taken to prevent spreading Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

24 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume REMARKS 450,000 gallons of water were consumed in the first three hours and the fire was fought for eleven hours Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

25 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume LESSONS LEARNED/BEST PRACTICES Chief Cook felt that backing up and assessing the whole fire scene from a distance was the best thing that he did. Company officers were deliberate and took their time in getting set up before deployment Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

26 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume LESSONS LEARNED/BEST PRACTICES Ingredients for successful firefighting: –Always preplan and stick to the plan. –You control the fire; don’t let it control you. –Getting good mutual aid was a key to this fire. –Size up first, then attack. –Go defensive when the situation calls for it. Don’t chase lost causes. –Maintain tight accountability Training Materials Fireline Incident: Rock Falls Factory Fire

27 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Fireline Incident Discussion The departments involved in this month’s training and Working Fire Training pose some discussion questions that you can use as discussion-starters in your own department’s training sessions. How will your department handle these scenarios? Training Materials

28 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Davenport House Fire / Davenport, IA District Chief Neil Gainey, Davenport (IA) Fire Department We really had two fires going on here; the visible fire that was quickly handled and the one in the attic that was concealed. Make sure you have adequate personnel to handle both. It was difficult for our aerial operator to see well what was going on up on the roof; specifically, to see if the roof crew had remounted the aerial. Consider deploying a spotter in the bucket to communicate to the operator. If you deliver crew to the roof with the aerial because it’s too high to throw ladders, the aerial will be the only way to remove them. If there’s fire near the pick-up point, consider moving it if the aerial can still reach there. –A back-up plan might be a firefighter rappel. Are your personnel equipped to do that? Fireline Incident Discussion Training Materials

29 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Rock Falls Factory Fire / Rock Falls, IL Deputy Chief Gary Cook, Rock Falls (IL) Fire Department When you see 200,000 square feet on fire, be prepared for a long one. Begin logistical support immediately: mutual aid, staging, rehab, food, fluids, shelter, etc. If you have more-than-adequate personnel on hand but not enough for everyone to do, consider more frequent crew rotation. Even though many of the hazardous materials had been removed from the factory, the oil- and solvent-soaked structure still gave off toxic smoke. Be sure all personnel wear SCBA or some kind of breathing protection even if smoke drifts into the warm and cold zones. Structures of this magnitude will burn for a long time; therefore, collapse is inevitable. Warn all personnel and position apparatus far outside the collapse zone. Remember, allow larger collapse zones for fires burning with great pressure. Fireline Incident Discussion Training Materials

30 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES After watching this segment, the student shall understand: that fire in concealed spaces may be a great distance from where smoke and/or fire is showing. that fire may be drawn quickly from the low attic through the high attic if the ceiling in the living space is pulled. CODES, STANDARDS & REGULATIONS NFPA 1410, Standard on Training for Initial Emergency Scene Operations. NFPA 1710/1720, Standard for the Organization and Deployment of Fire Suppression Operations, Emergency Medical Operations, and Special Operations to the Public by Career/Volunteer Fire Depts. NFPA 5000, Building Construction and Safety Code. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

31 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume HALF-ATTIC FIRE EVENT Once it happens, the half-attic event overwhelms you for several reasons: –Positive pressure exists in the concealed spaces because of the way the fire is burning. –It’s pushing into other concealed spaces; for example moving from low attic to high attic –You can’t see the fire ninety percent of the time. –You’ll have to go hunt for it -- that’s the issue. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

32 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO Webster Groves, MO Fire Started by painters burning paint with a torch, but bottle rockets could have started it just as easily. Smoke is brown-colored, indicative of insufficient, oxygen-starved burning in a concealed space. But where? –The smoke will follow the path of least resistance which means it could be showing quite a ways from the actual fire. –Wind conditions can also move smoke around, masking the fire’s origin. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

33 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO Webster Groves, MO Fire (cont.) Oxygen-starved burning in a concealed space. But where? –In this incident, the fire is in a low attic (see circle). Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

34 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO Webster Groves, MO Fire (cont.) Chopping marks on the edge of the dormer indicate that a truck crew was searching for fire there. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

35 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO Webster Groves, MO Fire But think about it – a dormer is usually part of the living space in a half-attic. Everything indicates that the fire is in a concealed space, so chopping into a dormer is often a waste of time. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

36 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO Webster Groves, MO Fire (cont.) The crew needs to be checking into the concealed spaces. But finding the right spot is why ventilating a fire like this is so difficult. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

37 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO Webster Groves, MO Fire (cont.) What do these windows tell us? Notice how they are offset (see red lines). Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

38 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO Webster Groves, MO Fire (cont.) That might indicate a stairwell or a bathroom (especially a bathroom if the windows are smaller). –A tip-off for a bathroom would be a vent pipe pretty much directly above the window. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

39 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO Webster Groves, MO Fire (cont.) In this case, the offset window was a landing. –The dormer directly above that window indicates that it is wide open on the inside, from the landing to the dormer. –In these kinds of half-attics, you get wide expanses of living spaces. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

40 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO Webster Groves, MO Fire (cont.) This fire was burning a considerable period of time (response was delayed somewhat by the painters attempting extinguishment). Now the firefighter on the ladder is manually venting the dormer (slide 37). –But there is no PPV-driven smoke coming out of there, just residual smoke which has found its way into the living area. –This means the pressure in one of the concealed spaces has yet to be found and released. –That firefighter needs to be ventilating into concealed space! Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

41 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO Webster Groves, MO Fire (cont.) There were dormers on three sides of this house. Dormers on sides 3/C and 4/D open into attic living space. –The dormer on side 2/B opened into a concealed space area that did not have access to the living area. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

42 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO Webster Groves, MO Fire (cont.) All of a sudden, the fire auto-ventilates from the high attic (breaks through the roof) above side 2/B. –Actually, this event is desirable because it ventilates the fire even though the roof crew didn’t do it! Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

43 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO Webster Groves, MO Fire (cont.) However, unchecked fire like this or fire burning for a long period of time can also cause another problem: floor joist failure and a collapse into the floor beneath. –Be prepared for a collapse into that area! This is another high-hazard circumstance. Attacking these kinds of fires is best done through the eaves line. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

44 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO St. Louis, MO Fire Another fire started by burning paint. Firefighters arrived in the attic but only saw some brown smoke emerging from around a ceiling light fixture. They pulled the ceiling – and all kinds of smoke and fire came out of the hole they created, driving them to the floor. They aimed a hoseline at the hole but it did no good, regardless of nozzle pattern. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

45 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SCENARIO St. Louis, MO Fire So where was the fire? –As it turned out, the paint burning on the back porch worked its way into a lower attic but was pushed by positive pressure to the high attic where it came down on them when the ceiling was pulled. –The firefighters bailed out the attic window, one of them picked off by an aerial. All were burned but not seriously. Often, firefighters aren’t that lucky. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

46 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume COMPLICATING FACTORS Non-parallel walls that indicate concealed space created during the creation of living space. Multiple roofs that create high concealed spaces. False dormers that don’t access with living space. Hands-On: Half-Attic Fires, Pt Training Materials

47 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ 1. True or False: Smoke follows the path of least resistance. 2. True or False: Pulling the ceiling in a half-attic living space is a great way to probe for fire. 3. True or False: Offset windows is a pretty good indicator of concealed space Training Materials Quiz: Half-Attic Fires, Pt. 4

48 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 4. Why is ventilating a half-attic fire so difficult? a. It isn’t. Just follow the smoke. b. It’s easy with an ax or K-12 saw. c. Finding the exact source of the fire because it’s unseen. d. a & b above e. All of the above Training Materials Quiz: Half-Attic Fires, Pt. 4

49 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 5. Which of the following is NOT a complicating factor in half-attic fires? a. Non-parallel walls b. Multiple roofs c. A living space fire d. False dormers in concealed space e. None of the above (Answers on Slide 103) Training Materials Quiz: Half-Attic Fires, Pt. 4 Printable quizzes follow the answers on slide 103 in the.PDF version of these training materials.

50 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES After watching this segment, the student shall understand: procedures and tactics for fighting aircraft fires by viewing live practicals using the Mobile Aircraft Firefighting Trainer (MAFT). CODES, STANDARDS & REGULATIONS NFPA 402, 403, 422, Various ARFF codes & standards; AC 150/5210 – 13A, 14A, 17, 18, ARFF regulations Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt Training Materials

51 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials PREPARATION FOR LIVE ARFF TRAINING SIMULATIONS -- INTERIOR TOUR Front L1 Door Fire Area –It’s the primary means of entry for firefighters. –It’s also the rescue path area that needs to be established to allow self-evacuators a fire- and smoke-free point of egress. Galley & Flight Deck Fire Area –Simulated flight deck controls including throttles, fuel switches, and battery switches. –Their operation can be observed from the prop control stand. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

52 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials PREPARATION FOR LIVE ARFF TRAINING SIMULATIONS -- INTERIOR TOUR Cabin Fire Area –Cabin fires can be simulated from three locations. –Propane vapor can come out of grates in the floor which can fill the entire cabin. –There is a flashover simulator over the door to train firefighters to stay low while fighting these fires. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

53 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials PREPARATION FOR LIVE ARFF TRAINING SIMULATIONS -- INTERIOR TOUR Over-wing Exit –A secondary means of entry for fire suppression crews –This allows them to come in and split the airplane in half, as they will be half the distance from both the nose and the tail. –In this manner, crews can get to the seat of the fire more rapidly and move through the aircraft more freely as most of the occupants should be out of the aircraft by then. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

54 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials PREPARATION FOR LIVE ARFF TRAINING SIMULATIONS -- INTERIOR TOUR Cargo Fire Area –The large box simulates a military or commercial cargo operation (FedEx, UPS, DHL, etc.). – It allows the building of a large amount of fire in a particular area, allowing the training crews to use a large volume of water, thereby practicing to find the effectiveness of their streams. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

55 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials PREPARATION FOR LIVE ARFF TRAINING SIMULATIONS -- INTERIOR TOUR Flowing Fuel Fire Simulator –This involves the extinguishing of the engine fire (see Simulated Engine Fire below) and fuel on fire falling to the ground (suspended fire) in the training pool. –Realistically, this would be a dual-agent application: foam and dry chemicals simultaneously. This would allow extinguishment of the pool and the falling fuel from the engine at the same time. Both have different extinguishment properties. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

56 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials PREPARATION FOR LIVE ARFF TRAINING SIMULATIONS -- INTERIOR TOUR Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) –Basically, the same PPE is used in structural and ARFF training. –The external attack here doesn’t require SCBA (though the internal training would), but part of the training is wearing complete PPE correctly. –Of course, it is always advisable to wear SCBA on the fireground. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

57 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials FIREFIGHTING SCENARIOS Simulated Fuel Spill –AFFF is our best suppressant against this kind of fire, but you can cool the flames and control them with water. –Even though water might not extinguish the fire, firefighters can work toward the aircraft and use water to cut a path of egress for any occupants exiting the aircraft. –Using a wide-nozzle fog pattern, firefighters can operate in a protective mode and push the simulated spill fire further away from the aircraft. –Once that’s done, firefighters can then re-address any concerns back to the fuselage and protect any additional occupants who may be exiting. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

58 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials FIREFIGHTING SCENARIOS Simulated Spill/Liquid Fire –Again, create a path of egress for occupants, especially around exit doors. People tend to leave by the same door they entered, just as in movie theaters, and tend not to look for emergency exits. –In addition, you may be clearing a path of entry for ARFF search and rescue personnel who might be entering the aircraft to search for occupants. If you have to get closer to the aircraft, narrow your nozzle pattern. –Don’t forget – think agent conservation! You may be working off tank water or foam tanks and when that’s gone, you’re done. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

59 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials FIREFIGHTING SCENARIOS Simulated Engine Fire (high wing engine on MAFT simulator) –Again, for this simulation prop, fire crews are working from the rear of the engine to achieve extinguishment. In a real incident, crews would work from the front of the engine and let the water be drawn through the air intake into the engine itself. –Also, there are maintenance access areas on the engines which you can feed water into in order to get more agent directly into the engine. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

60 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials FIREFIGHTING SCENARIOS Simulated Engine Fire (low wing engine on MAFT simulator) –Using the low engine, a three-dimensional fire is also being simulated simultaneously: an engine fire, a spill fire on the ground, and a suspended fire (a fire between the engine and the spill itself probably due to fuel runoff). Ideally, different agents are used to extinguish suspended fires (dry chemical) and spill fires (AFFF). –All three must be dealt with to put out the fire completely. AFFF can eventually work against all three. –Normally, as said previously, you feed the agent through the air intake of the engine. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

61 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials FIREFIGHTING SCENARIOS Simulated Rear (Top) Engine Fire –This is an elevated fire so the nozzle must be changed to a straight stream to get the reach and enough agent into the engine to suppress the fire. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

62 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials FIREFIGHTING SCENARIOS Spill Fire Re-ignition –Any flammable or combustible liquid fire can re-ignite, especially in the spill area. –This could happen after the main fuselage fire has been put out, meaning a readjustment of the nozzle pattern and approach by the crew. –Again, it becomes a prime concern to keep open that path of egress from the aircraft for occupants or firefighting personnel involved in suppression or search operations. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

63 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials FIREFIGHTING SCENARIOS Interior Fire Attack –As a reminder, fire crews are using water rather than some other suppression agent for safety purposes as this is a propane-fired prop. –As they approach, the fire suppression crew going inside must first secure the rescue path to the L1 door to create a fire-free area for exiting occupants or firefighters. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

64 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials FIREFIGHTING SCENARIOS Interior Fire Attack (cont.) –They may have to coordinate with other exterior crews to make sure the exterior fire is being held at bay, if not extinguished. –Exterior crews should also cool down and reduce heat inside the fuselage while interior crews are at work inside. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

65 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials FIREFIGHTING SCENARIOS Interior Fire Attack (cont.) –If the aircraft engines or other systems are still in operation, the entry crew must first enter the flight deck and: retard the throttles operate the emergency fuel cutoff switches after 3”-5”, operate the battery switch and disconnect the battery systems. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

66 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials FIREFIGHTING SCENARIOS Interior Fire Attack (cont.) –Inside the aircraft, interior crews move the nozzle around to achieve knockdown and good steam conversion. –Fire suppression and search and rescue are conducted at the same time as the crew works its way toward the tail. –The crew continues to check for any hotspots and mop up any areas that might need it as they work their way toward the simulated cargo fire in the rear. –Firefighters should perform manual internal ventilation by opening doors to clear out smoke if possible. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

67 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials FIREFIGHTING SCENARIOS Interior Crew Challenges –Tight quarters and close confines –Seats, chairs or any luggage or cargo that may have fallen or become dislodged in the crash present a trip hazard. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

68 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials DEBRIEFING When establishing priorities, always establish the rescue path first. If you have an engine fire and a fire on the fuselage at the same time, the fuselage is your primary consideration as you are trying to maintain a hospitable environment for occupants who may still be trapped inside. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

69 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials DEBRIEFING Your firefighting agent is a scarce resource. When trying to decide where and how to use it, turn the hose off between attacks and conserve that agent! In ARFF, you’re on tank water only, so when it’s gone, you’re done, unless and until you can find a secondary water supply and connect to it. Hands-On: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

70 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 1. True or False: Use firefighting agent freely with ARFF because if you skimp, the fire won’t go out. 2. True or False: Sometimes you have to change your nozzle pattern with ARFF, depending upon what you’re trying to put out. 3. True or False: A fire suspended and a spill fire are best attacked with different agents Training Materials Quiz: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

71 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 4. If engines are still in operation upon arrival, crews should go to the flight deck. Which of the following should they NOT perform? a. Retard the throttles. b. Disconnect landing gear to protect firefighters. c. After 3”-5”, operate the battery switch and disconnect the battery systems. d. Operate the emergency fuel cutoff switches Training Materials Quiz: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

72 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 5. Setting extinguishment priorities is very important in ARFF. Which of the following is the best order? a. L1 door – spill fire – engine fire – fuselage fire b. L1 door – 3-dimensional fire – re-ignited spill fire c. L1 door – fuselage fire – engine fire – re-ignited spill fire d. 3-dimensional fire – L1 door – spill fire – engine fire e. None of the above. (Answers on Slide 103) Printable quizzes follow the answers on slide 103 in the.PDF version of these training materials Training Materials Quiz: Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2

73 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES After watching this segment, the student shall understand: neurogenic, septic, cardiogenic, and decompensated shock external and internal hemorrhage control, volume resuscitation, and other confounding factors related to shock. CODES, STANDARDS & REGULATIONS USDOT/NHTSA Paramedic National Standard Curriculum and local standards and protocols. American Heart Association guidelines for shock treatment. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt Training Materials

74 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials NEUROGENIC SHOCK Neurogenic shock can happen when the sympathetic nervous system is disrupted along side the spine. –The sympathetic nerves to your heart originate from the thoracic spine in your upper back. –The parasympathetic nerves to your heart originate from the brain itself, and pass very close to the upper cervical vertebrae as they pass through your neck on their way to your heart. Sympathetic and parasympathetic seek to be in balance. –If the sympathetic tract gets injured, parasympathetic stimulation dominates and that's why you see the parasympathetic signs and symptoms. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

75 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials NEUROGENIC SHOCK Parasympathetic Signs & Symptoms –The heart rate slows, blood vessels dilate, and the blood supply grows. –Even though the patient may not have lost any blood, the container is so much bigger that there's not enough blood coming back to the heart to pump with each beat, so the stroke volume goes down. –The heart rate is down, cardiac output is down, and the blood pressure will drop also. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

76 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials NEUROGENIC SHOCK Parasympathetic Signs & Symptoms (cont.) –The patient would develop hypotension related to the bradycardia and relative hypovolemia. What that means is that he/she hasn't lost blood but there's just not enough blood to fill the tank anymore. The patient then encounters decreased systemic vascular resistance due to vasodilation. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

77 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials SEPTIC SHOCK RELATED TO TRAUMA As an EMS provider, unless you're doing an inter- facility transfer, you're probably are not going to see much septic shock because that's something that will happen at a much later time, not at the time of the initial insult. But septic shock also causes extreme vasodilation as it causes fluid to leak out of the capillaries. –Since the tank is bigger and the fluids have leaked out of the blood vessels, they’re in the tissues as swelling, and not available to the heart to pump. –You’d see these patients in shock if you were around long enough. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

78 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials SEPTIC SHOCK RELATED TO TRAUMA In septic shock you see fever or hypothermia, warm flush skin, tachycardia, and hypotension. –Hypothermia is something you see in elderly patients when they are in septic shock and you have to look for that. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

79 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials CARDIOGENIC SHOCK With cardiogenic shock, we have actual damage to the muscle of the heart itself, where you have a dysrhythmia related to a cardiac contusion or a disruption of the valves. –For example, if there is a sudden dramatic increase in abdominal pressure, it can cause back flow and damage to the valves of the heart at which point you’ll see cardiogenic shock. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

80 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials CARDIOGENIC SHOCK Additionally, pericardial tamponade and tension pneumothorax are going to cause cardiogenic shock. –In the case of pericardial tamponade, there basically is a constrictive band around the heart and it can’t fill. –Diastoli is the really important part of the cardiac cycle that allows the heart to fill with fluid so the heart will be able to pump it out. –In pericardial tamponade, the heart just can't fill. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

81 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials CARDIOGENIC SHOCK With a tension pneumothorax the large vessels that supply the blood back to the heart are being crimped and these are big blood vessels. –If these are blocked and if there is no water in the tank, it doesn't matter how well the pump is working. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

82 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials SCENARIO #1 A 27-year-old male was working in a grain silo. His left leg was trapped in an augur. –After a 45-minute extrication process the fire department manages to release him. –The airway is patent, he's breathing quickly, he's got obvious hemorrhage from soft tissue to the lower leg. –There’s no radial pulse, a fast, weak carotid pulse, pale, cool diaphoretic skin, and his GCS is down. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

83 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials SCENARIO #1 What kind of shock is this patient in? –He’s in decompensated shock. Why is this auger injury so much more difficult than if the patient just had his leg chopped off? –Because the auger injury mangles everything and it's really hard to control the bleeding in that leg. –The body’s normal mechanism doesn’t work. When you have a clean amputation, the body compensates by retracting and constricting those vessels. That doesn’t happen in this kind of injury. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

84 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials DECOMPENSATED SHOCK This is a late stage of shock were the normal body compensatory mechanisms just aren't cutting it anymore and the blood pressure finally drops. –It occurs when the injury is overwhelming, we can't get to the patient quickly enough to treat them, or the compensatory mechanisms aren't working. With some elderly people, their compensatory mechanisms just don't work, so you might see this kind of shock with them. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

85 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials CONFOUNDING FACTORS Compensated Shock –With compensated shock, we expect a rapid heartbeat initially but with athletes, why might you be fooled into thinking they're not in early, compensated shock? –Because their heart rates are naturally low through cardiac conditioning. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

86 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials CONFOUNDING FACTORS Compensated Shock (cont.) –A heart rate of 80 could be really high for a well- conditioned athlete with a resting heart rate of 60 or lower. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

87 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials CONFOUNDING FACTORS Pregnancy, pre-existing medical conditions, and the use of medications like beta blockers and digoxin, can really impact a person's response. –These patients won't have the rapid heart rate that you would anticipate initially. Many people are now on blood thinners. –Many take an aspirin a day or take Persantin or Coumadin for other conditions. –They are going to go into shock much more quickly. –Also the time from injury to treatment is also a factor. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

88 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials SCENARIO #2 A dock worker was pinned between a forklift and a loading dock. –The patient is supine on the ground, complaining of severe lower abdominal pain. –The ambient temperature is 35 F. and you’re 25 minutes from the trauma center. –His airway is patent and he’s breathing fast. –You can't see any hemorrhage on the outside, but he has a really tender abdomen and his pelvis area is very, very painful. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

89 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials SCENARIO #2 A dock worker was pinned between a forklift and a loading dock (cont.) –So what are your priorities for this patient? Fluid resuscitation, keep him warm, airway. –The other tool that you could use if you had it is a mass garment or pneumatic anti-shock garment (PASG).. If you think there's a pelvic fracture that would be the tool that could be used. –Let’s say they hadn't released the patient and he’s still crushed between the wall. What should you try and do before they free him if you possibly can? Get IV fluids started and be prepared to give him rapid fluids when he's released. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

90 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials EXTERNAL HEMORRHAGE CONTROL For external hemorrhage control you use the DEATH acronym: Direct pressure Elevation Arterial pressure points Tourniquet Help. –A tourniquet is used as a last resort. –It's still used quite a bit in the military for rapid evacuation and treating severe wounds. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

91 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials INTERNAL HEMORRHAGE CONTROL For internal hemorrhage control, you can splint fractures and/or use a mass garment or pneumatic anti-shock garment (PASG). –A mass garment is something that you could use when blood pressure is less than 90, you have a suspected retroperitoneal hemorrhage, pelvic fractures, etc. When you apply the mass garment to somebody with a pelvis fracture, how should you inflate the compartments? –Until they crackle and all at once. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

92 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials VOLUME RESUSCITATION Volume resuscitation should be started if you can, without delaying transport. –Sometimes you can't start it because responders are still extricating or someone's doing something else. –Preferably two large-bore peripheral IVs –Lactated Ringer’s Warmed fluid, if possible (102 degrees F. / 39 degrees C.) –Initial Bolus Adults: 1 to 2 L Pediatric: 20 ml/kg Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

93 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials VOLUME RESUSCITATION Suppose you have a patient who has a hole in a blood vessel? –If you increase the pressure in that blood vessel it's going to increase the blood loss. –So we just have to be careful about not just randomly over-hydrating everyone in the field. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

94 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials VOLUME RESUSCITATION Suppose you have a patient who has a hole in a blood vessel? (cont.) –Check with your medical director for guidelines in this area. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

95 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials COMPLICATIONS Prolonged shock can cause Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), acute renal failure, problems with coagulation, liver failure, and multiple organ failure. –They are the late deaths that we can really impact if we treat the patient properly at the scene. Shock should be recognized in its early stage AND trauma patients can have more than one can kind of shock. –Most of the time you're going to see hypovolemic shock but patients can also have vasogenic shock, though it happens infrequently. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

96 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials COMPLICATIONS For example, with a spinal cord injury, it’s not long- lasting but it is position-dependent. –If a patient has spinal cord or neurogenic shock, keeping him/her level can lessen its effect. Early, aggressive interventions can really make a difference for the patient and, again, the focus really needs to be on us getting the patient to definitive care because we can only do temporizing things in the field. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

97 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials COMPLICATIONS These patients need packed red blood cells and they may need to go to the operating room -- two things that we can't do yet in the field. Probably within all of your careers will be able to do a blood substitute, but they haven't found just the right one yet that isn't more harmful. Fire Medics: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

98 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 1. True or False: Sympathetic or parasympathetic nerves can sometimes affect each other. 2. True or False: Vasodilation is seen with septic shock and you are likely to see it early in the incident. 3. True or False: Pericardial tamponade and tension pneumothorax can be big causers of cardiogenic shock Training Materials Quiz: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

99 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 4. For external hemorrhage control, which of the following in the DEATH acronym is NOT correct? a. Direct pressure b. Elevation c. Arterial pressure points d. Tamponade e. Help Training Materials Quiz: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

100 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 5. Other shock complications can include the following except: a. ARDS b. Acute renal failure c. Problems with coagulation d. Bladder failure and multiple organ failure e. None of the above. Printable quizzes follow the answers on slide 103 in the.PDF version of these training materials. (Answers on Slide 103) Training Materials Quiz: Shock Treatment, Pt. 2

101 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Kramer vs. Kramer Essay Questions Firefighter Safety vs. Structure Preservation 1. Is internal firefighting ever justified in unoccupied buildings? When and/or when not? 2. Is internal firefighting ever justified in vacant condemned buildings? When and/or when not? 3. How does life safety play a role in your answers, both for civilians and for firefighters? If you’re enrolled in the Open Learning Fire Science Program at the University of Cincinnati, complete written responses to the following three essay questions to earn one college credit hour for watching Working Fire Training Training Materials Evolutions 2000 – Continuing Education

102 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume ENROLLMENT INFORMATION: For more information on enrolling in the Open Learning program to gain college credit, call Working Fire Training at for a brochure or, to register directly, call the University of Cincinnati at Associates and Bachelors programs are available. Call to have your transcripts evaluated. Send your responses to: Professor Bill Kramer University of Cincinnati College of Applied Science 2220 Victory Parkway, ML #103 Cincinnati, Ohio Training Materials Evolutions 2000 – Continuing Education

103 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Thanks so much for viewing Working Fire Training! See you next month – stay safe! Answers: Hands-On – Half-Attic Fires, Pt. 4: Quiz on Slides 47-49: 1. True 2. False 3. False 4. c 5. c Aircraft Fire Simulator, Pt. 2: Quiz on Slides 70-72: 1. False 2. True 3. True 4. b 5. c Fire Medics – Shock Treatment, Pt. 1: Quiz on Slides : 1. True 2. False 3. True 4. d 5. d TRAINING Working Fire Training Training Materials Printable quizzes follow these answers in the.PDF version of these training materials.


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